%C3%87andarl%C4%B1 Halil Pasha the Younger
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%C3%87andarl%C4%B1 Halil Pasha the Younger

Çandarl? Halil

11th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire

1439 - 1 June 1453
MonarchMurad II
Mehmed II
Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha
Zaganos Pasha
Personal details
Died10 July 1453
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
NationalityFlag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Turkish
Executed by Mehmed II

Çandarl? Halil Pasha (died 10. July 1453), known as the Younger, was a highly influential Ottoman grand vizier under the sultans Murad II and, for the first few years of his reign, Mehmed II (from 1439 to 1 June 1453 precisely).[1] He was a member of the Çandarl? family, a highly influential political family in the Ottoman Empire. His grandfather and namesake, Çandarl? Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (Çandarl? Halil Pasha the Elder), also earlier served as grand vizier, under Murad I.

Biography

Halil Pasha was the fourth and penultimate member of the Çandarl? family to hold the position of grand vizier in the Ottoman Empire. His father, Çandarl? Ibrahim Pasha the Elder, his uncle, Çandarl? Ali Pasha, and his grandfather Çandarl? Halil Pasha the Elder had also held the position in the past. His own son, Çandarl? Ibrahim Pasha the Younger, would also become grand vizier in the future.

Twice during his reign, sultan Murad II, a man more interested in religion and the arts than politics, retired to the city of Manisa. For the sultan's protection, Halil Pasha had a castle built in a nearby town, renaming it Çandarl? after his own family (the castle is still the most famous landmark in Çandarl? today). During these times of Murad II's retirement, Halil Pasha held effective control of the empire in the capital Edirne with Mehmed II, then still a child, as the nominal sultan. On both occasions, with the dangers presented by allied European armies attacking Ottoman territories, Çandarl? called back Murad II and deposed the teenaged Mehmed II to replace him with his more capable father. These two incidents led to lasting resentment by Mehmed II towards Çandarl?. The fact that the Çandarl? family, which had become extremely wealthy from their influence in the empire for over a century, possibly more so than even the ruling Ottoman family itself, further strained tensions between Mehmed II and Halil Pasha, the scion of the Çandarl? family.

When Mehmed II became sultan, the Byzantine emperor Constantine XI sent a messenger to the Ottomans, asking for an increase of the annuity of Orhan or otherwise to release him.[2] Orhan was a distant Ottoman family member and could claim himself as pretender for the throne and potentially start a civil war.[2] This strategy of disruption was used by the Byzantines several times before.[2] Halil Pasha became infuriated at the message and replied to the messengers:[2]

You stupid Greeks, I have known your cunning ways for long enough. The late sultan was a lenient and conscientious friend to you. The present sultan Mehmed is not of the same mind. If Constantinople eludes his bold and impetuous grip, it will only be because God continues to overlook your devious and wicked schemes.

You are fools to think that you can frighten us with your fantasies when the ink on our recent treaty of peace is barely dry. We are not children without strength or sense. If you think that you can start something, do so. If you want to proclaim Orhan as sultan in Thrace, go ahead. If you want to bring the Hungarians across the Danube, let them come. If you want to recover places that you lost long since, try it.

But know this: you will make no headway in any of these things. All that you will do is lose what little you have.[2]

In 1453, one of the first acts committed by the (then fully reigning) Emperor Mehmed II immediately after the conquest of Constantinople was to execute Çandarl? Halil Pasha. The city had been taken on 29 May 1453 and Halil Pasha's execution took place on 1 June 1453, suggesting that this design had been premeditated by the sultan far in advance.

Mehmed II thus ended the Çandarl? era in the Ottoman Empire, and the later members of the family, whose descendants survive to the present day, became no more than provincial notables based in ?znik, although they were to give yet another, short-term, grand vizier to the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 15th century (Halil's son Çandarl? Ibrahim Pasha the Younger).

Çandarl? Halil Pasha was, as such, the first Ottoman grand vizier to be executed by the sultan.

Popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ ?smail Hâmi Dani?mend, Osmanl? Devlet Erkân?, Türkiye Yay?nevi, ?stanbul, 1971, p. 10. (Turkish)
  2. ^ a b c d e The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453, Donald M. Nicol, page 375, 1993
Political offices
Preceded by
Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
1439-1453
Succeeded by
Zagan Pasha

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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