|Subdivisions||Districts: 3, Municipalities: 18|
|o Governor||Katsusada Hirose|
|o Total||6,340.73 km2 (2,448.17 sq mi)|
(June 1, 2019)
|o Density||180/km2 (460/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||JP-44|
|Bird||Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonica)|
|Flower||Bungo-ume blossom (Prunus mume var. bungo)|
|Tree||Bungo-ume tree (Prunus mume var. bungo)|
After the Meiji Restoration, districts from Bungo and Buzen provinces were combined to form ?ita Prefecture. These provinces were divided among many local daimy?s and thus a large castle town never formed in ?ita. From this time that whole area became known as "Toyo-no-kuni", which means "Land of Abundance".
The origins of the name ?ita are documented in a report from the early 8th century called the Chronicles of Bungo (, bungonokuni-fudoki) . According to the document, when Emperor Keik? visited the Kyushu region, stopping first in Toyo-no-kuni, he exclaimed that 'This is a vast land, indeed. It shall be known as Okita-Kuni!' Okita-Kuni, meaning "Land of the Great Fields", later came to be written as "?ita". Present day interpretations based on ?ita's topography state that Oita's name comes from "Okita", meaning "many fields", rather than "vast" or "great" field, because of ?ita's complex terrain.
In the Edo period (1603-1867) the town of Hita was the government seat for the entire domain of Kyushu, which was directly controlled by the national government or sh?gun at that time. The region became well known for the money-lending industry based out of Hita. Merchants in Hita's Mameda and Kuma districts worked with the national government to create this money-lending industry known as Hita-kin.
?ita Prefecture is on the north-eastern section of the island of Ky?sh?. It is 119 kilometers from east to west, and 106 kilometers from north to south, with a total area of 6,340.71 square kilometers.
Surrounded by the Suo Channel and Honsh? Island to the north, the Iyo Channel and Shikoku Island to the east, it is bordered by Miyazaki Prefecture to the south, and Fukuoka Prefecture and Kumamoto Prefecture to the west. It is divided between north and south by a major tectonic line running from Usuki City in ?ita Prefecture to Yatsushiro City in Kumamoto Prefecture, which is to the west of ?ita. There are several other tectonic lines running from east to west through the prefecture. The northern part of the prefecture features granite and metamorphic rocks, while the southern area features limestone, which is the foundation for the Tsukumi cement industry, and several limestone caves. The Kirishima Range is a volcanic belt that runs vertically through the prefecture and contributes to the many hot spring sources that make the region a popular tourist attraction, and makes ?ita the prefecture with the largest number of hot springs in the whole country.
Mountain ranges include Mount Yufu, Mount Tsurumi, Mount Sobo, Mount Katamuki, and Mount Kuj? (which is called the "roof of Kyushu"). These mountain ranges contribute to the fact that 70% of Oita is covered by forests, and the rivers and streams that flow from these ranges give the prefecture rich water sources. The prefecture's major water sources are Yamakuni River, Yakkan River, ?ita River, ?no and Banj? River, and Beppu Bay and the Bungo Channel.
Mount Kuj? () is surrounded by highlands called the Kuj? Highlands and the Handa Highlands. There are open plains throughout the prefecture with Nakatsu Plain in the north, Oita Plain in the center, and Saiki Plain in the south. The inland areas consist of basin valleys in Hita, Kusu, Yufuin and Taketa, which were formed by lava buildup in combination with river erosion.
?ita has a 759 kilometer coastline that has shoals in the north, Beppu Bay in the center, and a jagged or sawtooth "rias coastline" in the south. Sea cliffs, caves, and sedimentary rock formations that can be found in Saiki City's Yakata Island are considered very rare outside of coral reef areas. ?ita's coastal waters contribute to a prosperous fishing industry.
As of April 1, 2014, 28% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Aso Kuj? and Setonaikai National Parks; the Nipp? Kaigan, Sobo-Katamuki, and Yaba-Hita-Hikosan Quasi-National Parks; and the Bungo Suid?, Jinkakuji Serikawa, Kunisaki Hant?, Sobo Katamuki, and Tsue Sankei Prefectural Natural Parks.
Currently, the prefecture has 14 cities, 3 districts, 3 towns, and one village. From 2005 to 2006, all municipalities but Beppu, Tsukumi, Himeshima, Hiji, and all towns in Kusu District, were merged, and the total municipalities went down from 58 on December 31, 2004, to 18 after the creation of the city of Kunisaki by merging with 4 towns from Higashikunisaki District on March 31, 2006. As a result, the prefecture became the one with the least municipalities within Ky?sh?, and the fourth least in Japan. However, ?ita Prefecture now has the fewest towns (3) and fewest towns and villages combined (4) in all of Japan.
Fourteen cities are located in ?ita Prefecture:
These are the towns and villages in each district:
If the district dissolved, then the link will be in place.
?ita Prefecture's industrial activity is centered on agricultural products. Fishery products and manufactured goods rank second and third respectively in terms of ?ita's industrial activity.
?ita is Japan's number one producer of the following products:
Kabosu limes: ?ita Prefecture is Japan's number one producer of kabosu, a citrus fruit that is similar to a lime. Kabosu are available year-round but peak season for taste and quality is from August to October. Kabosu are rich in vitamin C and contain beneficial acids, such as citric acid. Kabosu have been produced in the Taketa and Usuki areas for many years.
Dried shiitake mushrooms: ?ita is the largest producer of dried shiitake mushrooms in Japan, and the cultivation of shiitake mushrooms is said to have originated in ?ita. ?ita's dried shiitake rank number one in Japan in production quantity and quality. Shiitake are said to be beneficial in the prevention of high blood pressure and arterial sclerosis.
Saffron: Saffron has been cultivated in ?ita since the late 19th century, and ?ita's Taketa area produces 80% of Japan's total amount of saffron, making ?ita the top producer of saffron. The quality of ?ita saffron has gained international acclaim as active component levels are several times higher than foreign saffron. Saffron is said to have many benefits including circulation enhancement and is used as a food coloring and natural medicine.
Galingale: ?ita is Japan's top producer of galingale (?|shichit?), a kind of rush plant, a grass with a distinctive triangular profile, belonging to the family Cyperaceae. It is grown in Kunisaki Peninsula of ?ita Prefecture and is used in the production of Ryukyu-style tatami mats, as it is dust and moisture absorbent and has a pleasant scent.
Madake bamboo: The madake variety of bamboo makes up 60% of Japan's cultivated bamboo, and ?ita is Japan's top producer. It is the most popular variety of bamboo used in handiwork and traditional crafts since it is very flexible and pressure resistant.
?ita ranks number one in Japan (and second in the world next to America's Yellowstone National Park) for the amount of hot-spring output and geothermal power. ?ita also ranks number one in Japan for the amount of limestone production.
Seki-aji and seki-saba are mackerels that are well-known seafood products of ?ita. ?ita has gained nationwide recognition for their promotion of "The Oita Brand", labeling local products with the prefectural name.
Key ?ita Brand products are as follows:
Agricultural products: tomatoes, leeks, strawberries, scallions, kabosu limes, greenhouse tangerines, prairie gentians (?, torukogiky?), roses, chrysanthemums, pears (Hita City, Shonai Town in Yufu City and Kokonoe town in Kusu are all production regions for Japanese pears. Oita pears are shipped nationwide, with large distribution quantities throughout Kyushu), and Bungo beef (the Kuj? highlands are a perfect feeding ground for cattle and cattle farmers in Oita are involved in breeding and shipping cattle. Bungo beef is a well known local product.).
Forest products: Dried shiitake mushrooms and Oita-style seasoned timber (Oita is one of the leading production centers for Japanese cedar, ranking second in Japan for amount of lumber reserves and number of cedars produced. Oita cedar producers use a special method for drying the wood which combines benefits of natural and artificial drying to produce cedar that has cracks and retains its natural scent and color.)
Marine products: cultured flatfish, cultured yellow jack, cultured yellowtail, cultured loach, pearl, cultured kuruma prawn, natural kuruma prawn (kuruma ebi), cuttlefish, hairtail, butterfish, blue crab, conger eel, clam, and Japanese mitten crab.
Economic development of ?ita was greatly aided by the One Village One Product movement of long-time governor Morihiko Hiramatsu. This movement has gained international attention and increased international exchange activities between Oita and overseas cities and countries.
The following companies operate factories in Oita: Toshiba Corporation, Nippon Steel Corporation, Canon Inc., Texas Instruments Inc., Sony, Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Showa Denko K.K., Kawasumi Laboratories Inc. (?), CKK, Asahi Kasei Medical Co. Ltd.(), NEC Corporation, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.
As of October 1, 2008, ?ita's total population was 1,201,715. Broken down into age groups, it was determined that 13.3% of the population was between the age of newborn and 14 years old, while 60.6% of the population was between the ages of 15 years and 64 years old, and 25.8% of the population was 65 years old or older.
In 2008, there were 11,034 non-Japanese residents registered in ?ita, that was up 1,684 people from the previous year.
As of December 2009, ?ita was ranked as having the highest number of foreign students relative to population in Japan. Oita has 339.8 foreign students per 100,000 people in the prefecture, where Tokyo, now ranking second has 329.4 foreign students per 100,000 people in the city. This is contributed to the fact that Ritsumeikan Asia-Pacific University (APU) in Beppu accepts many foreign students. As of November 1, 2009, there were 4,160 foreign students in ?ita total, from 101 different countries and territories, with the majority being from Asia (e.g. China and South Korea).
Oita is in the northeast corner of the island of Kyushu. Its coastal areas, farmland, highland, and mountains lend to a mix of different farming and fishing culture. There are many festivals throughout the year to pray for healthy harvests and abundant crops.
As of May 2006, 146 cultural assets in ?ita were designated by the national government (Agency for Cultural Affairs), four of which are designated as National Treasures. Additionally, the prefecture itself has designated almost 700 traditions, properties, landmarks etc. as cultural assets.
Below are some of Oita's cultural traditions that are designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs as Important Intangible Cultural Properties:
Kagura is a sacred dance performed at festivals and celebrations throughout the prefecture.
Shonai kagura is a festive dance that has been practiced for over 200 years and is representative of Oita Prefecture. Another kagura, the Ondake-style Kagura, was nationally designated as an "Important Intangible Folk Cultural Property" in 2007. There is also traditional song and music known as "gaku" that is performed in the Kunisaki Peninsula Area and is accompanied by characteristic dances such as the Yoshihirogaku in Musashi Town. Dancers wear grass skirts and dance with a drum tied to their front and a flag tied to their backs to pray to the Buddhist God Amida Buddha. In the Ono district there are 80 groups of Shishimai or dancers who perform a lion dance with roots based on the Ondake-style dance.
Onta Pottery is the name of a type of stoneware pottery made for everyday usage - typically called 'mingei' (folk art or craft) in Japanese. The community is situated in the Hiko mountain range, about 17 kilometres from the centre of Hita City, and is said to have been established in 1705 to make large wares - lidded jars for pickled vegetables and fruit, water crocks, ash burners, and pouring vessels with small spouts - for local farmhouses. At the time potters were themselves farmers, who produced pots during the 'off season' in agriculture. These they fired in a cooperative kiln (ky?d? noborigama).
Onta pottery is now produced full-time by ten families in Sarayama, five of whom continue to share and fire an eight chambered climbing kiln. The other five households fire independent climbing kilns of four or five chambers, which they fire approximately six times a year. The potters use clays that they dig locally and obtain natural materials (notably, wood ash, rice straw ash, feldspar, iron oxide and, occasionally, copper) with which to mix their glazes. Sarayama is famous for the 'karausu' clay pounders lining its two streams and powered by the water therein. The fact that the clay pounders prepare only enough clay for two people to work with full-time at the wheel has determined both household structure and the number of houses able to take up pottery in Sarayama.
For anything other than small pots, potters use a kick wheel on which to throw their wares, which they decorate typically with hakeme and tobiganna slipware decoration techniques. In April 1995, the Agency for Cultural Affairs announced the designation of Onta Pottery as an "Important Intangible Cultural Property" in 1995. This designation is for the actual techniques used in making the pottery and not the actual pots themselves. Precisely because the designation is for the process rather than the product, it is regarded as an "intangible" property and is the only stoneware pottery-making process so designated in Japan.
Bamboo Crafts were started in the late 14th century to create baskets for travelling goods salesmen. During the Edo period (1600-1868) Beppu thrived as a tourist town and bamboo baskets and goods were used in the daily lives of the local people for everything from cooking to washing in order to meet the demands of the thriving tourist population. The bamboo items soon became a souvenir that tourists purchased to take home and this solidified making Beppu a center for Bamboo crafts production. In 1903 a training center for bamboo workers was established and present-day visitors to Beppu can enjoy learning about the history of bamboo, and hands-on classes at the Beppu City Traditional Bamboo Crafts Center. Festivals using bamboo shoots as candle holders are carried out yearly in the autumn in Usuki, Taketa, and Hita Cities.
Kunisaki peninsula has been called "Buddha's Village" and many buddhist statues and temples remain. Mankoji Temple which was founded in 1352 is a place for practicing zen meditation.
The Agency for Cultural Affairs also designates certain areas for preservation as Groups of Traditional Buildings. The merchant quarter of Hita, Mameda Town, is one of 83 districts (as of April 1, 2009) throughout the country designated as "Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings". Old samurai residences throughout the prefecture are points of architectural interest. Nioza Historical Road in Usuki is also lined with buildings dating back to the 16th century and also in Usuki the Inaba-Family Villa is a former samurai residence open to the public.
Arata Isozaki is a world-renowned architect who is from Oita. The former Oita Prefectural Library (now Oita Art Plaza) won an award for architectural design in 1967. Other works of his can be found throughout the prefecture including B-con Plaza in Beppu, Bungo-No-Kuni Information Library, the Audio-Visual Center in Oita City, and Yufu Train Station.
The Martha Argerich music festival "Argerich's Meeting Point in Beppu" is an annual event held in Beppu City. Martha Argerich is the General Director of the festival and the event is supported by a large number of volunteers. It takes place over 10 days and includes recitals and also lessons. This international event welcomes music lovers from all over the world to Beppu.
The Oita-Asian Sculpture Exhibition (see external link below) is a biennial event that takes place in Asaji Town in Bungo-Ono City. This exhibition is carried out to commemorate Oita sculptor Asakura Fumio, and to encourage rising artists throughout Asia. Applicants are accepted from within Japan and from several Asian countries. Exhibition winners are given generous prizes and their works are kept on display at the Asakura Fumio Memorial Museum in Bungo-Ono City.
The sports teams listed below are based in Oita.
The Oita International Wheelchair Marathon (see external link below) is a yearly event held in October. This international race gathers wheelchair athletes from all over the world to participate in full and half-marathon racing. It was started in 1981 to commemorate the International Year of Disabled Persons.
?ita Prefecture is famous for its hot springs, particularly those in and around the city of Beppu, known as the 'hells', or jigoku. Many of the 'hells' are of tourist interest only and cannot be used as onsen (notably the Blood Pond Hell (reddish water) and the Oniyama Hell). The city's ryokans and public onsen are amply supplied by the same volcanic source. When Chiba University and Tokyo's Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies compiled a list of prefectures meeting demands for reusable energy, Oita ranked number one with a 25.2% rate of self-sufficiency through the use of geothermal energy and hot spring heat. Visitors particularly relish the effects of burial in steaming hot volcanic sands.
Beppu offers a wide range of cultural experiences, from an annual international music festival, to the unabashed Hihokan Sex Museum, which nevertheless must follow the law and suspend a glass plate above ancient art with frosted areas censoring the overlarge genital depictions.
The elaborate public aquarium "Umi-tamago" on the shoreline outside Beppu features basketballing sea otters, performing archer fish, and puzzle-solving octopuses, along with more naturalistic displays of freshwater and marine fish from around the world.
Near the marine park, Mount Takasaki Monkey Park rises steeply from the shoreline. Two distinct troupes of wild macaque monkeys make regular visits to the feeding grounds here, which were initially established to entice the monkeys away from raiding the region's fruit crops, a behaviour that brought them into conflict with farmers. The wild macaques ignore the small crowds that gather at these feeding sessions, and may be observed at close quarters.
?ita's Mt. Hachimen was home to the popular music festival, Concert on the Rock. This annual charity event saw over 30 international acts performing over a June weekend for the pleasure of Japan's music lovers. The natural surroundings make it one of the most picturesque rock festivals in the world. The event has since been discontinued.
To help support the local economy and for players to visit quake hit areas and find out how things are going, The creators of Pokémon Go held an event that spawned the Pokémon Snorlax or known in Japan as Kabigon. The event went from March 4 to 13. A US spokeswoman said that the game event would provide many opportunities for players to come and see the sights. The event follows a similar event that spawned Lapras in the Miyagi Prefecture last November in areas that were severely damaged by the 2011 earthquake. The event also took place in the Kyushu Prefecture.
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