%C5%8Ckuma Shigenobu
Get %C5%8Ckuma Shigenobu essential facts below. View Videos or join the %C5%8Ckuma Shigenobu discussion. Add %C5%8Ckuma Shigenobu to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
%C5%8Ckuma Shigenobu


?kuma Shigenobu
Shigenobu Okuma 5.jpg
Prime Minister of Japan

16 April 1914 - 9 October 1916
MonarchTaish?
Yamamoto Gonnohy?e
Terauchi Masatake

30 June 1898 - 8 November 1898
MonarchMeiji
It? Hirobumi
Yamagata Aritomo
Personal details
Born(1838-03-11)11 March 1838
Saga, Japan
Died10 January 1922(1922-01-10) (aged 83)
Tokyo, Japan
Political partyRikken Kaishint? (1882-1896)
Shimpot? (1896-1898)
Kensei Hont? (1898-1908)
Independent (1908-1914)
Rikken D?shikai (1914-1922)
Spouse(s)?kuma Ayako
Signature
Japanese name
Kanji
Hiragana? ?
Katakana? ?

Marquess ?kuma Shigenobu ( , 11 March 1838 - 10 January 1922) was a Japanese politician during the Empire of Japan and the Prime Minister of Japan in 1898 and from 1914 to 1916. ?kuma was also an early advocate of Western science and culture in Japan, and founder of Waseda University. He is considered a centrist.

Early life

?kuma Shigenobu as a young man.

?kuma was born Hachitar?, the first son of an artillery officer, in Saga, Hizen Province (modern day Saga Prefecture) in 1838. During his early years, his education consisted mainly of the study of Confucian literature and derivative works such as Hagakure[]. However, he left school in 1853 to move to a Dutch studies institution.[1]

The Dutch school was merged with the provincial school in 1861, and ?kuma took up a lecturing position there shortly afterward. ?kuma sympathized with the sonn? j?i movement, which aimed at expelling the Europeans who had started to arrive in Japan. However, he also advocated mediation between the rebels in Ch?sh? and the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo.[]

During a trip to Nagasaki, ?kuma met a Dutch missionary named Guido Verbeck, who taught him the English language and provided him with copies of the New Testament and the American Declaration of Independence.[2] These works are often said[who?] to have affected his political thinking profoundly,[] and encouraged him to support efforts to abolish the existing feudal system and work toward the establishment of a constitutional government.

?kuma frequently traveled between Nagasaki and Kyoto in the following years and became active in the Meiji Restoration. In 1867, together with Soejima Taneomi, he planned to recommend resignation to the sh?gun Tokugawa Yoshinobu.[1] Leaving Saga Domain without permission, they went to Kyoto, where the sh?gun then resided.[3] However, ?kuma and his companions were arrested and sent back to Saga. They were subsequently sentenced to one month imprisonment.

Meiji period political life

Following the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Okuma was placed in charge of foreign affairs for the new Meiji government. At this time, he negotiated with British diplomat, Sir Harry Smith Parkes on the ban of Christianity and insisted on maintaining the government's persecution on Catholics in Nagasaki.[]

In 1873, the Japanese government removed the ban on Christianity.

He was soon given an additional post as head of Japan's monetary reform program. He made use of his close contacts with Inoue Kaoru to secure a position in the central government in Tokyo. He was elected to the first Diet of Japan in 1870 and soon became Minister of Finance, in which capacity he instituted property and taxation reforms that aided Japan's early industrial development.[4]

He also unified the nation's currency, created the national mint, and a separate Minister of Industry; however, he was dismissed in 1881 after a long series of disagreements with members of the Satsuma and Ch?sh? clique in the Meiji oligarchy, most notably It? Hirobumi, over his efforts to secure foreign loans, to establish a constitution, and especially over his exposure of illicit property dealings involving Prime Minister Kuroda Kiyotaka and others from Satsuma.

In 1882, ?kuma co-founded the Constitutional Progressive Party (Rikken Kaishint?) which soon attracted a number of other leaders, including Ozaki Yukio and Inukai Tsuyoshi. That same year, ?kuma founded the Tokyo Senmon Gakk? () in the Waseda district of Tokyo. The school later became Waseda University, one of the country's most prominent institutions of higher education.[5]

Despite their continuing animosity, It? again appointed ?kuma to the post of Foreign Minister in February 1888 to deal with the difficult issue of negotiation revisions to the "unequal treaties" with the Western powers. The treaty he negotiated was perceived by the public as too conciliatory to the Western powers, and created considerable controversy. ?kuma was attacked by a member of the Gen'y?sha in 1889, and his right leg was blown off by a bomb.[6] He retired from politics at that time.

However, he returned to politics in 1896 by reorganizing the Rikken Kaishint? into the Shimpot? (Progressive Party). In 1897, Matsukata Masayoshi convinced ?kuma to participate in his second administration as Foreign Minister and Agriculture and Commerce Minister, but again, he remained in office for only one year before resigning.

In June 1898, ?kuma co-founded the Kenseit? (Constitutional Government Party), by merging his Shimpot? with Itagaki Taisuke's Jiy?t?, and was appointed by the Emperor to form the first partisan cabinet in Japanese history. The new cabinet survived for only four months before it fell apart due to internal dissension. ?kuma remained in charge of the party until 1908, when he retired from politics.

After his political retirement, ?kuma became president of Waseda University and chairman of the Japan Civilization Society, from which scholars' many translations of European and American texts were published. He also gathered support for Japan's first expedition to Antarctica.

Taish? period political life

?kuma Shigenobu, 1910s

At the request of the Emperor,[7] ?kuma returned to politics during the constitutional crisis of 1914, when the government of Yamamoto Gonnohy?e was forced to resign in the wake of the Siemens scandal. ?kuma organized his supporters, together with the Rikken D?shikai and Ch?seikai organizations, into a coalition cabinet. The 2nd ?kuma administration was noted for its active foreign policy. Later that year, Japan declared war on the Empire of Germany, thus entering World War I on the Allied side. In 1915, ?kuma and Kat? Takaaki drafted the Twenty-One Demands on China.

However, ?kuma's second administration was also short-lived. Following the ?ura scandal, ?kuma's cabinet lost popular support, and its members held mass resignation in October 1915. In 1916, after a long argument with the Genr?, ?kuma resigned as well, and retired from politics permanently, although he remained a member of the Upper House of the Diet of Japan until 1922. He was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum in 1916, and was elevated to the title of k?shaku () (marquis) in the kazoku peerage system the same year.

?kuma returned to Waseda, and died there in 1922.[8] An estimated 300,000 people attended his funeral in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. He was posthumously elevated to the rank of prince in the peerage and was also posthumously conferred with the Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, the nation's highest honour. He was buried at the temple of Gokoku-ji in Tokyo.

Honours

?kuma Shigenobu, 1910s

From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

Peerages

  • Count (May 9, 1887)
  • Marquess (July 14, 1916)

Decorations

Court order of precedence

  • Fifth rank, junior grade (1867)
  • Fourth rank, junior grade (1868)
  • Senior fourth rank (1870)
  • Third rank (July 22, 1871)
  • Senior third rank (December 26, 1887)
  • Second rank (February 17, 1888)
  • Senior second rank (June 20, 1898)
  • First rank (January 10, 1922 - posthumous)

Notes

  1. ^ a b Borton, p. 91.
  2. ^ Brownas, heading "A Wider Window on the West"
  3. ^ Tokugawa, p. 161. Unlike all 14 previous Tokugawa sh?guns, Yoshinobu never set foot in Edo during his tenure.
  4. ^ Borton, p. 78.
  5. ^ Beasley, p. 105.
  6. ^ Beasley, p. 159.
  7. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Okuma (Shigenobu), Marquess" . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
  8. ^ Beasley, p. 220.
Marquess ?kuma Shigenobu in the year before his death

References

  • Beasley, W.G. (1963). The Making of Modern Japan. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Borton, Hugh (1955). Japan's Modern Century. New York: The Ronald Press Company.
  • Idditti, Smimasa. Life of Marquis Shigenobu Okuma: A Maker of New Japan. Kegan Paul International Ltd. (2006). ISBN 0-7103-1186-9
  • Idditti, Junesay. Marquis Shigenobu Okuma - A Biographical Study in the Rise of Democratic Japan. Hokuseido Press (1956). ASIN: B000IPQ4VQ
  • Lebra-Chapman, Joyce. Okuma Shigenobu: statesman of Meiji Japan. Australian National University Press (1973). ISBN 0-7081-0400-2
  • Oka Yoshitake, et al. Five Political Leaders of Modern Japan: Ito Hirobumi, Okuma Shigenobu, Hara Takashi, Inukai Tsuyoshi, and Saionji Kimmochi. University of Tokyo Press (1984). ISBN 0-86008-379-9
  • Tokugawa Munefusa (2005). Tokugawa yonhyakunen no naisho-banashi: raibaru bush?-hen Tokyo: Bungei-shunju
  • Brownas, Sidney DeVere. Nagasaki in the Meiji Restoration: Choshu Loyalists and British Arms Merchants. http://www.uwosh.edu/home_pages/faculty_staff/earns/meiji.html Retrieved on August 7, 2008.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
It? Hirobumi
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1888-1889
Succeeded by
Aoki Sh?z?
Preceded by
Saionji Kinmochi
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1896-1897
Succeeded by
Nishi Tokujir?
Preceded by
Nishi Tokujir?
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1898
Succeeded by
Aoki Sh?z?
Preceded by
Kat? Takaaki
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1915
Succeeded by
Ishii Kikujir?
Preceded by
Hara Takashi
Minister of Home Affairs
1914-1915
Succeeded by
?ura Kanetake
Preceded by
?ura Kanetake
Minister of Home Affairs
1915
Succeeded by
Ichiki Kitokur?
Preceded by
Enomoto Takeaki
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce
1897
Succeeded by
Yamada Nobumichi
Preceded by
It? Hirobumi
Prime Minister of Japan
1898
Succeeded by
Yamagata Aritomo
Preceded by
Yamamoto Gonnohy?e
Prime Minister of Japan
1914-1916
Succeeded by
Terauchi Masatake
Academic offices
New office President of Waseda University
1907-1922
Succeeded by
Masasada Shiozawa

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

%C5%8Ckuma_Shigenobu
 



 



 
Music Scenes