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?abac

City of ?abac
Zgrada Trijumf, ?abac 001.jpg
Kulturni centar2 ?abac.jpg
  ?.jpg
Hotel Sloboda ?abac 002.jpg
?abac, Saborna crkva Sv. Petra i Pavla 006.jpg
? ? 2.jpg
?abac, Zgrada vladi?inog konaka (zgrada biblioteke) 014.jpg
From top: The central city square, Cultural center, Courthouse in ?abac, Hotel ,,Freedom", Serbian Orthodox church, ?abac Fortress, ?abac library
Flag of ?abac
Flag
Coat of arms of ?abac
Coat of arms
Location of the city of ?abac within Serbia
Location of the city of ?abac within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°45?N 19°42?E / 44.750°N 19.700°E / 44.750; 19.700Coordinates: 44°45?N 19°42?E / 44.750°N 19.700°E / 44.750; 19.700
Country Serbia
Statistical Region?umadija and Western Serbia
RegionMa?va
DistrictMa?va District
Municipality?abac
Settlements52
Government
 o MayorAleksandar Paji? (SNS)
 o Ruling parties SNS/ZS/ZS
Area
Area rank25th in Serbia
 o Urban30.89 km2 (11.93 sq mi)
 o Administrative795 km2 (307 sq mi)
Elevation
83 m (272 ft)
Population
(2011 census)[2]
 o Rank11th in Serbia
 o Urban
53,919
 o Urban density1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
 o Administrative
118,347
 o Administrative density150/km2 (390/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
15000
Area code+381(0)15
Car plates?A
ClimateCfb
Websitewww.sabac.org
Serbian Orthodox church, Central ?abac
?abac, Kingdom of Serbia, 1904
?abac library
Hotel in ?abac

?abac (Serbian Cyrillic?, pronounced [?âbat?s]) is a city and the administrative centre of the Ma?va District in western Serbia. The traditional centre of the fertile Ma?va region, ?abac is located on the right banks of the river Sava. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has population of 53,919, while its administrative area comprises 118,347 inhabitants.

Name

The name ?abac was first mentioned in Ragusan documents dating to 1454. The origin of the city's name is uncertain; it is possible its name comes from the name of the city's main river, the Sava. The city is known by a variety of different names: Zaslon in medieval Serbian, Szabács in Hungarian, Bö?ürdelen in Turkish, and Schabatz in German.

History

Archaeological evidence attests to more permanent settlement in the area from the Neolithic.[3] In the Middle Ages, a Slavic settlement named Zaslon existed at the current location of ?abac.[3] The settlement was part of the Serbian Despotate until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1459.

In 1470, the Ottomans built the first fortress in the town and named it Beyerdelen (Bö?ürdelen, meaning "side-striker"). In 1476 the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus captured the fort; it remained under administration of the Kingdom of Hungary until 1521, when it was again captured by the Ottomans. Under Hungarian administration, the town was part of the Banate of Macsó, whereas under Ottoman administration it was firstly part of the Sanjak of Zvornik within the Province of Bosnia, and later part of the Sanjak of Smederevo. ?abac was the administrative centre of the nahiye of ?abac, a local Ottoman administrative unit. During the Ottoman period, ?abac was a typical oriental town with tiny streets, small shops and several mosques. The population was composed of both Muslims and Serbs, along with smaller numbers of Hungarians and Croats.[3]

Until the 19th century, ?abac was mostly under Ottoman administration, but control of the town changed hands several times between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy during the Ottoman-Habsburg wars. The first period of Habsburg rule began in 1718, when ?abac was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia. After the Treaty of Belgrade (1739), ?abac reverted to Ottoman control and, straddling the boundary between the two empires, it gained importance as a market town. A second period of Habsburg control of the area followed starting in 1789. The storming of the city was one of the early experiences of the renowned military leader Józef Poniatowski. Ottoman control over the area was restored a few years later.

?abac became a site of importance in Serbian history in the First Serbian Uprising when, in 1806, Kara?or?e led the Serbian insurgents into one of the first victories over the Ottoman army near the nearby village of Mi?ar. Until 1813, the town was part of Revolutionary Serbia. A brief period of restored Ottoman control followed, but after the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, ?abac was included into the now-autonomous Principality of Serbia under the Obrenovi? dynasty. This first ruling family of modern Serbia left its mark on the town; knez Milo? Obrenovi?'s brother, the enlightened Jevrem Obrenovi?, built a personal residence and helped modernise the town: the period from 1820 to 1850 saw the establishment of a hospital, a pharmacy, a Serbian grammar school, a gymnasium, a theatre, and a musical society.

Monument dedicated to the victims of the Balkan Wars and World War I

The Ottoman army evacuated the fort of ?abac in 1867, marking the end of the Ottoman presence in the area. The first newspaper in the Kingdom of Serbia was printed in ?abac in 1883, and the town was also the first in Serbia where women started visiting kafanas (pubs) on Sunday afternoons, as was customary for men.

The town prospered until the First World War, when it was occupied and devastated by the Austro-Hungarian army and had its population halved (from cca. 14,000 to 7,000). World War I is also remembered for the battle on nearby Cer mountain where the Serbian army under general Stepa Stepanovi? won an early victory against Austria-Hungary in August 1914, the first Allied victory in the war.[] After the war, ?abac was decorated with the French War Cross with Palm (1920), the Czechoslovak War Cross (1925), and the Order of the Kara?or?e's Star with Swords (1934).

In 1918, the town became a part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed to Yugoslavia). From 1918 to 1922, it was the administrative seat of Podrinje District, from 1922 to 1929 the administrative seat of Podrinje Oblast, and from 1929 to 1941 it was a part of the Drina Banovina. An early milestone in the Yugoslav era of the town's history was the opening of the Zorka chemical plant in 1938. The city's renewal was interrupted by World War II and occupation by German troops (from 1941-44). During the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, ?abac was part of the area governed by the Military Administration in Serbia. Its population of 1,200 Jews were arrested and ended in the ill-fated Kladovo transport.[4] During the Uprising in Serbia the united rebel forces of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland, forces of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and Pe?anac Chetniks attacked German garrison in ?abac in an event known as Attack on ?abac, but failed to capture the town. In the German and Croatian Usta?e retributions 1,130 civilians were executed, 21,500 imprisoned and most of the populated places in Ma?va were completely burned down. Eventually, 7,000 inmates were killed.[clarification needed] The city was liberated from occupation by the Yugoslav Partisans in 1944. After the war, it was included into People's Republic of Serbia within the new socialist Yugoslavia. Since then, it grew into a modern industrial city with the aforementioned Zorka chemical plant and an expanded population. The 1970s saw the construction of the first modern sports hall. The swamp at the city's outskirts, Benska Bara, was drained and turned into a residential neighborhood, and a new bridge was built over the Sava river. By 2010, the population of the city and its suburbs had risen to 75,000.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census results, the city of ?abac has a population of 115,884 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups

The ethnic composition of the city of ?abac:

Ethnic group Population %
Serbs 110,642 95.48%
Roma 1,902 1.64%
Muslims 393 0.34%
Croats 165 0.14%
Yugoslavs 123 0.11%
Others 2,659 2.29%
Total 115,884

Local communities

Urban local communities

Rural local communities

Map of the city of ?abac

Economy

Prior to 1990, ?abac had one of the best developed economies among cities in Yugoslavia. However, international sanctions against Yugoslavia during the Bosnian War provoked the shutdown of the Zorka plant, which was the main enterprise in ?abac. Many other major local firms like "?ap?anka", "Izgradnja", and "Nama" also shut down during this period.

The main industries of ?abac today are agriculture, transportation and food production. Since 2000, some of the more important companies are diary plant Mlekara ?abac, Elixir Group, Zorka Pharma, and Hesteel Serbia Iron & Steel - Tin mill. Production of raspberry is also highly developed in ?abac area. As of September 2017, ?abac has one of 14 free economic zones established in Serbia.[6]

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2019):[7]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 195
Mining and quarrying 46
Manufacturing 10,085
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 230
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 579
Construction 1,661
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 6,092
Transportation and storage 2,066
Accommodation and food services 858
Information and communication 373
Financial and insurance activities 540
Real estate activities 64
Professional, scientific and technical activities 1,049
Administrative and support service activities 656
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 1,427
Education 2,173
Human health and social work activities 2,176
Arts, entertainment and recreation 412
Other service activities 631
Individual agricultural workers 3,021
Total 34,334

Sports

There are several sports societies in ?abac:

Local media

Radio stations

  • Radio Kruna (98.0 MHz)
  • Radio AS
  • Radio Roda
  • Skala Radio (106.8)
  • Radio ?ivija
  • Radio Vikom

TV stations

Newspapers

Education

?abac Grammar School
Gospodar Jevremova Street in ?abac

Elementary schools

High schools

Private centres of education

  • King's College[8]
  • Premier
  • Pygmalion[9]
  • Interlink

Transportation

Roads

The length and status of roads in the city are:

  • Main roads 59.9 km (37.2 mi) (all asphalt)
  • Regional roads 111.4 km (69.2 mi) (all asphalt)
  • Local roads 304.2 km (189.0 mi) (187.8 km (116.7 mi) asphalt)
  • Unconventional roads 2,700 km (1,678 mi) (only 20 km (12 mi) asphalt)
  • City streets 10 km (6 mi)
Serbian Railways class 711 diesel multiple unit on ?abac-Ruma local passenger train leaving ?abac.

Railway

The railroad through ?abac connects Ruma (corridor X) and across ?abac, Loznica and Zvornik proceed Drina and connect Serbia with Bosnia and Herzegovina. A branch which connected this line with Bogati? (Petlova?a - Bogati?) is locked out. The railway is used for the transport of goods and raw materials for the Zorka factory and passenger transport to Ruma.

Politics

Seats in the city council won in the 2004 local elections: [1]

Non-government organizations in ?abac

According to unofficial data, in the city of ?abac, there are over 300 registered non-government organizations, with wide variety of activities and different primary goals. Traditionally, the most active are those organizations whose primary goals are humanitarian, protection of the rights of persons with disabilities, protection of the rights of ethnic minorities, protection of the vulnerable social categories, ecology, etc.

Beside traditionally active organizations in ?abac, there are non-government organizations which unites young people in purpose of protecting their own rights. Under the social category of youth (young people) are those who are not older than 30, and not younger than 15 years, according to Ministry (Department) of youth and sports, of the Republic of Serbia.

Some of the most active organizations in ?abac are: Youth Umbrella (Omladinski Ki?obran), Caritas - ?abac, Roma for Roma, Human heart of ?abac (Humano srce ?apca), NGO Light, NGO Ecos.

Notable people

Vladimir Jovanovi?
Mileva Mari? - Einstein
Józef Poniatowski

Sportspeople:

Coat of arms of ?abac and armorial flag

There are three versions of the coat of arms of ?abac: the Primary, Middle, and Large.

Twin towns - sister cities

?abac is twinned with:[10]

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b c "Zvani?na prezentacija grada ?apca - Istorija".
  4. ^ Anderl and Manoschek. 2001 Gescheitert Flucht. Vienna: Mandelbaum.
  5. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ Mikavica, A. (3 September 2017). "Slobodne zone mamac za investitore". politika.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ " ? , 2019. - ? -" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of Republic of Serbia. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ http://www.kingscollege.rs/ Archived July 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Pygmalion School of English".
  10. ^ "? ". sabac.rs (in Serbian). ?abac. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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