City of ?ibenik
|o Mayor||?eljko Buri? (HDZ)|
|o City Council|
|Elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||+385 22|
?ibenik (Croatian pronunciation: [?îbeni:k] ; Italian: Sebenico) is a historic city in Croatia, located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea. ?ibenik is a political, educational, transport, industrial and tourist center of ?ibenik-Knin County and is also the third-largest city in the historic region of Dalmatia. It is the oldest native Croatian town on the shores of the sea.
There are multiple interpretations of how ?ibenik was named. In his fifteenth century book De situ Illiriae et civitate Sibenici, Juraj ?i?gori? describes the name and location of ?ibenik. He attributes the name of the city to it being surrounded by a palisade made of ?ibe (sticks, singular being ?iba). Another interpretation is associated with the forest through the Latin toponym "Sibinicum," which covered a narrower microregion within ?ibenik on and around the area of St. Michael's Fortress.
Unlike other cities along the Adriatic coast, which were established by Greeks, Illyrians and Romans, ?ibenik was founded by Croats. Excavations of the castle of St. Michael, have since proven that the place was inhabited long before the actual arrival of the Croats. It was mentioned for the first time under its present name in 1066 in a Charter of the Croatian King Petar Kre?imir IV and, for a period of time, it was a seat of this Croatian King. For that reason, ?ibenik is also called "Kre?imirov grad" (Kre?imir's city).
Between the 11th and 12th centuries, ?ibenik was tossed back and forth among Venice, Byzantium, and Hungary. It was conquered by the Republic of Venice in 1116, who held it until 1124, when they briefly lost it to the Byzantine Empire, and then held it again until 1133 when it was retaken by the Kingdom of Hungary. It would change hands among the aforementioned states several more times until 1180.
In the 14th century, Serbs were present in the hinterland of ?ibenik.
The city, like the rest of Dalmatia, initially resisted the Venetian Republic, but it was taken over after a three-year war in 1412. Under Venetian rule, ?ibenik became in 1412 the seat of the main customs office and the seat of the salt consumers office with a monopoly on the salt trade in Chioggia and on the whole Adriatic Sea.
In August 1417, Venetian authorities were concerned with the "Morlachs and other Slavs" from the hinterland, that were a threat to security in ?ibenik. The Ottoman Empire started to threaten ?ibenik (known as Sebenico), as part of their struggle against Venice, at the end of the 15th century, but they never succeeded in conquering it. In the 16th century, St. Nicholas Fortress was built and, by the 17th century, its fortifications were improved again by the fortresses of St. John (Tanaja) and ?ubi?evac (Barone).
After the Congress of Vienna until 1918, the town was (again) part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Kingdom of Dalmatia. The Italian name only was used until around 1871.
In 1872, at the time in the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Ante ?upuk became the town's first Croat mayor elected under universal suffrage. He was instrumental in the process of the modernization of the city, and is particularly remembered for the 1895 project to provide street lights powered by the early AC Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant. On 28 August 1895, ?ibenik became the world's first city with alternating current-powered street lights.
During World War I, the Austro-Hungarian navy used the port facilities here, and the light cruisers and destroyers which escaped the Allied force after the battle of Cape Rodoni (or Gargano) returned to safety here, where some battleships were based. After the war ?ibenik was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy until 12 June 1921. As a result of the Treaty of Rapallo, the Italians gave up their claim to the city and it became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II it was occupied by Italy and Germany. Communist partisans liberated ?ibenik on 3 November 1944.
After World War II it became a part of the SFR Yugoslavia until Croatia declared independence in 1991.
During the Croatian War of Independence (1991-95), ?ibenik was heavily attacked by the Yugoslav National Army and Serbian paramilitary troops.[better source needed] Although under-armed, the nascent Croatian army and the people of ?ibenik managed to defend the city. The battle lasted for six days (16-22 September), often referred to as the "September battle". The bombings damaged numerous buildings and monuments, including the dome of the Cathedral of St. James and the 1870-built theatre building.
In an August 1995 military operation, the Croatian Army defeated the Serb forces and reconquered the occupied areas, which allowed the region to recover from the war and continue to develop as the centre of ?ibenik-Knin county. Since then, the damaged areas of the city have been fully restored.
?ibenik has a mediterranean climate (Csa), with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers. January and February are the coldest months, July and August are the hottest months. In July the average maximum temperature is around 30 °C (86 °F). The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Csa" (Mediterranean Climate).
|Climate data for ?ibenik|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.8
|Record low °C (°F)||-10.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||74.1
|Average rainy days||10||9||9||10||9||8||5||5||7||9||12||12||105|
|Average snowy days||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||128.6||150.6||196.1||222.4||286.3||312.1||358.0||326.0||254.3||199.7||131.0||113.8||2,678.9|
|Source: National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (Croatia) |
Several successive architects built it completely in stone between 1431 and 1536, both in Gothic and in Renaissance style. The interlocking stone slabs of the cathedral's roof were damaged when the city was shelled by Yugoslav forces in 1991. The damage has since been repaired.
|Cathedral of St. James|
|Criteria||i, ii, iv|
|Designated||2000 (24th Session)|
|Region||Europe and North America|
|St. Nicholas Fortress|
|Designated||2017 (41 Session)|
|Part of||Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra - western Stato da Mar|
|Region||Europe and North America|
In the city of ?ibenik there are four fortresses, each of which has views of the city, sea and nearby islands. The fortresses are now tourist sightseeing destinations.
The annual ?ibenik International Children's Festival (Me?unarodni Dje?ji Festival) takes place every summer and hosts children's workshops, plays and other activities. From 2011 to 2013 the Terraneo festival (music festival) was held in August on a yearly basis on a former military area in ?ibenik, and since 2014 ?ibenik (and other nearby towns) are the home of its spiritual successor Super Uho festival. The composer Jakov Gotovac founded the city's "Philharmonia Society" in 1922. The composer Franz von Suppé was part of the city's cultural fabric, as he was a native of nearby Split. Each summer, a lot of concerts and events take place in the city (especially on the St. Michael Fortress). Also, starting in 2016 on a nearby island of Obonjan (6 kilometres (3.7 miles) southwest of the city) is held music, art, health and workshop festival.
?ibenik chanson festival is a musical event of a long tradition that takes place in ?ibenik in the second half of month August.
A famous sports town, ?ibenik is the hometown of many successful athletes such as: Aleksandar and Dra?en Petrovi?, Perica Buki?, Ivica ?uri?, Predrag, Veselinka and Dario ?ari?, Vanda Baranovi?-Urukalo, Danira Naki?, Nik Slavica, Miro Bilan, Dra?an Jerkovi?, Petar Nadoveza, Krasnodar Rora, Dean Ra?unica, Mladen Pralija, Ante Rukavina, Duje ?aleta-Car, Mile Naki?, Franko Naki?, Sini?a Belamari?, Renato Vrbi?i?, Ivica Tucak, Andrija Komadina, Miro Juri?, Antonio Petkovi?, Neven Spahija, Antonija Sandri?, Mate Male?, Stipe Brali? and many others.
The famous multi-purpose hall located in the Baldekin neighbourhood of the same name was the home arena of KK ?ibenik, the famous basketball club which has played the final of the Kora? Cup twice, and the final of the 1982-83 Yugoslav League championship. The team was leading by then 19-year-old, Dra?en Petrovi?.
The women's basketball club, ?KK ?ibenik, is among leading women's basketball clubs in Croatia, winning the Yugoslav League championship in 1991, Yugoslav Cup twice, Croatian League championship four times, Croatian Cup four times, Adriatic League five times, and the Vojko Herksel Cup four times.
The dissolved men's basketball club, Jolly Jadranska Banka, has played the play-off semifinal in the Croatian League championship twice, and the Kre?imir ?osi? Cup final game in the 2016-17 season.
The biggest success of GKK ?ibenka, a club founded in 2010, following the dissolution of the famous KK ?ibenik, came in the 2016-17 Croatian League championship season, when the club played the play-off semifinals against powerhouse Cibona Zagreb. ?ibenka, unfortunately, lost to Cibona in the semifinals.
?ubi?evac Stadium, located in the neighborhood of the same name has been the home ground of the football club HNK ?ibenik, that has played many years in the Yugoslav Second League and later many years in the Croatian First League. In the 2009-10 season, the club played in the Croatian Cup final which they lost to the powerhouse Hajduk Split. Today, it also competes in the Croatian First League.
VK ?ibenik, the dissolved water polo club, is considered one of the best clubs in former Yugoslavia, winning the second place in the 1986-87 domestic league season. It also has played in the LEN Euro Cup final in the 2006-07 season, but lost to Sintez Kazan, as well as the club played in the LEN Champions League in the 2008-09 season, led both times by Ivica Tucak, today the head coach for the senior men's Croatia national team.
Perica Buki? and Renato Vrbi?i? are Olympic medalists, winning the gold medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta, representing the Croatia national team. Ivica Tucak has been the most successful coach of the senior men's Croatia national team ever.
In the 2011 Croatian census, ?ibenik's total city population is 46,332 which makes it the tenth-largest city in Croatia, with 34,302 in the urban settlement.
Of ?ibenik's citizens, 94.02% were ethnic Croats.
The list of settlements is as follows:
?ibenik is one of the best protected ports on the Croatian Adriatic and is situated on the estuary of the Krka River. The approach channel is navigable by ships up to 50,000 tonnes deadweight. The port itself has depths up to 40 m.
?ibenik is twinned with:
?ibenik sea including Banj beach and ?ibenik Bridge
Sunset over St. Anthony's Channel
Banj beach's traditional New Year's Day swimming
Media related to ?ibenik at Wikimedia Commons