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He
Phonemic representationh
Position in alphabet5
Numerical value5
Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician

He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician H? Phoenician he.svg, Hebrew H? ?, Aramaic H? He0.svg, Syriac H? ?, and Arabic H ?. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative ([h]).

The proto-Canaanite letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon ? ?, Etruscan E ?, Latin E, Ë and ?, and Cyrillic ?, ?, ? and ?. He, like all Phoenician letters, represented a consonant, but the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic equivalents have all come to represent vowel sounds.

Origins

In Proto-Northwest Semitic there were still three voiceless fricatives: uvular ? IPA: [?], glottal h IPA: [h], and pharyngeal ? IPA: [?]. In the Wadi el-Hol script, these appear to be expressed by derivatives of the following Egyptian hieroglyphs

V28

?ayt "thread",

A28

hillul "jubilation", compare South Arabian Himjar ha.PNG h, Himjar ha2.PNG ?, Himjar kha.PNG ?, Ge'ez ?, ?, ?, and

O6

?asir "court".

In the Phoenician alphabet, ?ayt and ?asir are merged into Heth "fence", while hillul is replaced by He "window".

Arabic h

The letter is named h. It is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form:
(Help)
?

H is used as a suffix (with the harakat dictated by ?I?rab) indicating possession, indicating that the noun marked with the suffix belongs to a specific masculine possessor; for example, kit?b ("book") becomes kit?buhu ('his book') with the addition of final h; the possessor is implied in the suffix. A longer example, ? , (huwa yaqra'u kit?bahu, "he reads his book") more clearly indicates the possessor. H is also used as the Arabic abbreviation for dates following the Islamic era AH.

The h suffix appended to a verb represents a masculine object (e.g. ?, yaqra?uhu, 'he reads it').

The feminine form of this construction is in both cases ? -h?.

In Nasta?l?q the letter has a variant, gol he, with its own particular shapes. As Urdu and other languages of Pakistan are usually written in Nasta?l?q, they normally employ this variant, which is given an independent code point (U+06C1) for compatibility:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Naskh glyph form:
(Help)
?
Nasta?l?q glyph form: ?

For aspiration and breathy voice Urdu and other languages of Pakistan use the medial (in Nastaliq script) or initial (in Naskh script) form of h, called in Urdu do cashm? he ('two-eyed he'):

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Naskh glyph form:
(Help)
?
Nasta?l?q glyph form: ?

Arabic ae

Many Turkic languages of Central Asia like Uyghur as well as Kurdish use the modification of the letter for front vowels /æ/ or /?/. This has its own code point (U+06D5). To distinguish it from Arabic h /h/ the letter lacks its initial and medial forms: [?]

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form:
(Help)
? ?

Hebrew Hei

Orthographic variants
Various print fonts Cursive
Hebrew
Rashi
script
Serif Sans-serif Monospaced
? ? ? Hebrew letter He handwriting.svg Hebrew letter He Rashi.png

Hebrew spelling:

Pronunciation

In modern Hebrew, the letter represents a voiced glottal fricative /?/, and may also be dropped, although this pronunciation is seen as substandard.

Also, in many variant Hebrew pronunciations the letter may represent a glottal stop. In word-final position, Hei is used to indicate an a-vowel, usually that of qamatzָ ), and in this sense functions like Aleph, Vav, and Yud as a mater lectionis, indicating the presence of a long vowel.

Hei, along with Aleph, Ayin, Reish, and Khet, cannot receive a dagesh. Nonetheless, it does receive a marking identical to the dagesh, to form Hei-mappiq (‎). Although indistinguishable for most modern speakers or readers of Hebrew, the mapiq is placed in a word-final Hei to indicate that the letter is not merely a mater lectionis but the consonant should be aspirated in that position. It is generally used in Hebrew to indicate the third-person feminine singular genitive marker. Today, such a pronunciation only occurs in religious contexts and even then often only by careful readers of the scriptures.

Significance of Hei

In gematria, Hei symbolizes the number five, and when used at the beginning of Hebrew years, it means 5000 (i.e. in numbers would be the date 5754).

Attached to words, Hei may have three possible meanings:

  • A preposition meaning the definite article "the", or the relative pronouns "that", or "who" (as in "a boy who reads"). For example, yeled, a boy; hayeled, the boy.
  • A prefix indicating that the sentence is a question. (For example, Yadata, You knew; Hayadata?, Did you know?)
  • A suffix after place names indicating movement towards the given noun. (For example, Yerushalayim, Jerusalem; Yerushalaymah, towards Jerusalem.)

In modern Hebrew the frequency of the usage of he, out of all the letters, is 8.18%.

Hei, representing five in gematria, is often found on amulets, symbolizing the five fingers of a hand, a very common talismanic symbol.

In Judaism

Hei is often used to represent the name of God as an abbreviation for Hashem, which means The Name and is a way of saying God without actually saying the name of God. In print, Hashem is usually written as Hei with a geresh: ‎.

Syriac Heh

Heh
Syriac Eastern he.svg Madn?aya Heh
Syriac Serta he.svg Ser?o Heh
Syriac Estrangela he.svg Es?rangela Heh

Syriac letter shapes Heh.PNG

In the Syriac alphabet, the fifth letter is ? -- Heh (). It is pronounced as an [h]. At the end of a word with a point above it, it represents the third-person feminine singular suffix. Without the point, it stands for the masculine equivalent. Standing alone with a horizontal line above it, it is the abbreviation for either h?noh (), meaning 'this is' or 'that is', or halelûya (?). As a numeral, He represents the number five.

Character encodings

Character information
Preview ה ه ܗ
Unicode name HEBREW LETTER HE ARABIC LETTER HEH SYRIAC LETTER HE SAMARITAN LETTER IY MANDAIC LETTER AH ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1492 U+05D4 1607 U+0647 1815 U+0717 2052 U+0804 2116 U+0844 4608 U+1200
UTF-8 215 148 D7 94 217 135 D9 87 220 151 DC 97 224 160 132 E0 A0 84 224 161 132 E0 A1 84 225 136 128 E1 88 80
Numeric character reference ה ה ه ه ܗ ܗ ࠄ ࠄ ࡄ ࡄ ሀ ሀ
Character information
Preview 𐎅 𐡄 𐡤 𐢇 𐣤 𐤄 𐩠 𐪀 𐿤
Unicode name UGARITIC LETTER HO IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER HE PALMYRENE LETTER HE NABATAEAN LETTER HE HATRAN LETTER HE PHOENICIAN LETTER HE OLD SOUTH ARABIAN LETTER HE OLD NORTH ARABIAN LETTER HEH ELYMAIC LETTER HE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 66437 U+10385 67652 U+10844 67684 U+10864 67719 U+10887 67812 U+108E4 67844 U+10904 68192 U+10A60 68224 U+10A80 69604 U+10FE4
UTF-8 240 144 142 133 F0 90 8E 85 240 144 161 132 F0 90 A1 84 240 144 161 164 F0 90 A1 A4 240 144 162 135 F0 90 A2 87 240 144 163 164 F0 90 A3 A4 240 144 164 132 F0 90 A4 84 240 144 169 160 F0 90 A9 A0 240 144 170 128 F0 90 AA 80 240 144 191 164 F0 90 BF A4
UTF-16 55296 57221 D800 DF85 55298 56388 D802 DC44 55298 56420 D802 DC64 55298 56455 D802 DC87 55298 56548 D802 DCE4 55298 56580 D802 DD04 55298 56928 D802 DE60 55298 56960 D802 DE80 55299 57316 D803 DFE4
Numeric character reference 𐎅 𐎅 𐡄 𐡄 𐡤 𐡤 𐢇 𐢇 𐣤 𐣤 𐤄 𐤄 𐩠 𐩠 𐪀 𐪀 𐿤 𐿤
Character information
Preview 𐫆 𐭄 𐭤 𐮄 𐼏 𐼳 𐾵
Unicode name MANICHAEAN LETTER HE INSCRIPTIONAL PARTHIAN LETTER HE INSCRIPTIONAL PAHLAVI LETTER HE PSALTER PAHLAVI LETTER HE OLD SOGDIAN LETTER HE SOGDIAN LETTER HE CHORASMIAN LETTER HE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 68294 U+10AC6 68420 U+10B44 68452 U+10B64 68484 U+10B84 69391 U+10F0F 69427 U+10F33 69557 U+10FB5
UTF-8 240 144 171 134 F0 90 AB 86 240 144 173 132 F0 90 AD 84 240 144 173 164 F0 90 AD A4 240 144 174 132 F0 90 AE 84 240 144 188 143 F0 90 BC 8F 240 144 188 179 F0 90 BC B3 240 144 190 181 F0 90 BE B5
UTF-16 55298 57030 D802 DEC6 55298 57156 D802 DF44 55298 57188 D802 DF64 55298 57220 D802 DF84 55299 57103 D803 DF0F 55299 57139 D803 DF33 55299 57269 D803 DFB5
Numeric character reference 𐫆 𐫆 𐭄 𐭄 𐭤 𐭤 𐮄 𐮄 𐼏 𐼏 𐼳 𐼳 𐾵 𐾵

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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