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?ayn (?) used to represent the phoneme , is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet, based on zayn (?) with two additional diacritic dots. It is one of the four letters that the Persian alphabet adds to the original Arabic script, others being ? ,? and ?.

It is found with this value in other Arabic-derived scripts. It is used in Pashto, Kurdish, other Iranian languages, Uyghur, Ottoman Turkish (j in the modern Turkish alphabet), Azerbaijani and Urdu, but not in Arabic.

In most of the Levant and Northwestern Africa, the letter ? m is used for .

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form:
? ?

Character encodings

Character information
Preview ژ
Encodings decimal hex
Unicode 1688 U+0698
UTF-8 218 152 DA 98
Numeric character reference ژ ژ

In other scripts


In Devanagari the letter (jha with a nuqta or dot) is used to represent the sound of /?/, e.g. livizhan "television". The letter corresponds to the Urdu Perso-Arabic ?.


The letter ?, common in some Slavic languages, has an equivalent sound to the "s" in "television" e.g. Zharkov (Russian Cyrillic: ).

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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