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Registered trademark symbol
In Unicode ® REGISTERED SIGN (HTML ® · ®)
See also TRADE MARK SIGN (HTML ™ · ™)
Different from

The registered trademark symbol (®) is a symbol that provides notice that the preceding word or symbol is a trademark or service mark that has been registered with a national trademark office. A trademark is a symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product.[1][2] In some countries it is against the law to use the registered trademark symbol for a mark that is not officially registered in any country.[1]

Trademarks not officially registered can instead be marked with the trademark symbol (TM), while unregistered service marks are marked with the service mark symbol ?. The proper manner to display these symbols is immediately following the mark; the symbol is commonly in superscript style, but that is not legally required.

In the US, the registered trademark symbol was originally introduced in the Trademark Act of 1946.[3]

Because the ® symbol is not commonly available on typewriters (or ASCII), it is common to approximate it with the characters (R) (or (r)); for example the Python programming language Trademark Usage Policy advocates this usage.[4] Example of legal equivalents are the phrase Registered, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, which may be abbreviated to Reg U.S. Pat & TM Off.,[5] in the U.S.,[2] and the letters RTM in the UK.[1]

Computer usage

The registered trademark character was added to several extended ASCII character sets, including ISO-8859-1 from which it was inherited by Unicode as ® REGISTERED SIGN.[6][7] This is a different character from CIRCLED LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R as many fonts draw the registered trademark symbol smaller and possibly superscripted.

Typing the character

Related and similar symbols

See also


  1. ^ a b c UK IPO, one example of a national trademark office
  2. ^ a b "15 U.S.C. 1111". Retrieved 2005.
  3. ^ The Online Etymology Dictionary
  4. ^ PSF Trademark Usage Policy. https://www.python.org/psf/trademarks/ "The first or most prominent mention of a Python trademark should be immediately followed by a symbol for registered trademark: "®" or "(r)"."
  5. ^ Gregory H. Guillot. A Guide to Proper Trademark Use. 1995-2007. http://www.ggmark.com/guide.html
  6. ^ https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0080.pdf
  7. ^ The Unicode Standard, Version 9.0, C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement (PDF). Mountain View, CA: Unicode Consortium. 2016. pp. 0080-00FF. ISBN 978-1-936213-13-9.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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