Spring – Emperor Henry II divides his army into three columns and descends through Rome onto Capua. The bulk of the expeditionary force (20,000 men) led by Henry, makes its way down the Adriatic coast.
Pilgrim, archbishop of Cologne, marches with his army down the Tyrrhenian coast to lay siege to Capua. The citizens open the gates and surrender the city to the imperial army.
Pilgrim besieges the city of Salerno for forty days. Prince Guaimar III offers to give hostages - Pilgrim accepts the prince's son and co-prince Guaimar IV, and lifts the siege.
Summer – Outbreak of the plague among the German troops forces Henry II to abandon his campaign in Italy. He reimposes his suzerainty on the Lombard principalities.
Spring – King Conrad II (the Elder) assembles an army of thousands of armored knights for an expedition into Italy. He besieges Pavia and marches to Milan, where he is crowned with the Iron Crown by Archbishop Aribert as king of the Lombards. Duke William V (the Great) of Aquitaine, who is already en route for Italy, decides to renounce his claim to the Lombard throne and turns back.
April – Conrad II punishes (with the help of Milanese troops) the citizens of Pavia with starvation, for burning down the Royal Palace. He appoints Aribert as his viceroy ("imperial vicar") in Italy and charges him with ensuring that the order is complied.
Summer – Conrad II leaves the bulk of his army at the siege of Pavia and marches to Ravenna. The Ravennan militias close the town gates and assault the imperial train. Conrad rallies his troops and takes Ravenna, taking bloody revenge.
Rainulf Drengot, head of a mercenary band of Norman knights, is approached by Duke John V of Gaeta and is persuaded to change sides. With Norman help, Duke Sergius IV recovers Naples from Capuan occupation.