The 1030s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1030, and ended on December 31, 1039.
Battle of Azaz: Emperor Romanos III (Argyros) decides to retaliate upon the incursions of the Muslims on the eastern frontier. He leads an Byzantine expeditionary force (20,000 men) to secure Antioch. Emir Shibl al-Dawla Nasr sues for peace, but Romanos refuses to negotiate. The Byzantine army invades Syria and encampes in Azaz (near Aleppo). There, they are encircled by the Arabs (Mirdasids) who cut off the Byzantines from food and water. Romanos orders a retreat to Antioch. As the army is exhausted from the heat and the lack of supplies, the retreat soon turns into a flight in panic - with probably 10,000 killed.
June – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) leads a invasion into Hungary. He plunders the lands west of the River Rába, but suffers from consequences of the scorched earth tactics used by the Hungarians. Conrad, threatened by starvation, is forced to retreat back to Germany. King Stephen I pursues his forces, which are defeated and captured by the Hungarians at Vienna.
The Caliphate of Córdoba collapses after years of infighting, the caliphate fractures into a number of independent Muslim taifa (kingdoms). The last Umayyad ruler, Caliph Hisham III, tries to consolidate the caliphate, but his raising of taxes (to pay for mosques) leads to heavy opposition and he is imprisoned by his rivals.
Winter – Conrad II marches with his army into Champagne and devastes the land - forcing Odo II to sue for peace and swear to abandon Burgundy. The bishops prevent Conrad from seizing control of Burgundy.
Panic spreads throughout Europe that the end of the universe may be near, on the supposed 1,000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Christ, due to some unusually harsh spring weather. The Book of Revelation predicts the end of the earth after a 1,000 year period.
May – King Mieszko II dies after a 6-year reign (probably killed as a result of a conspiracy) and is succeeded by his 17-year-old son Casimir I (the Restorer). A violent revolt spreads throughout Poland.
July – The 8-year-old William I becomes duke of Normandy after his father Robert I (the Magnificent) dies on a pilgrimage at Nicaea (modern Turkey). Robert's death leads to a period of instability in Normandy as William is too young to take his father's place. The Norman nobles in the region take the opportunity to settle old feuds and to increase their private wealth.
Duke John II drives his brother Manso II and his mother Maria out of Amalfi. He has Manso blinded and exiled to the island of Sirenuse. John reconciles with Maria, and allows her to remain as co-ruler of Amalfi.