10 (ten) is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11. Ten is the base of the decimal numeral system, by far the most common system of denoting numbers in both spoken and written language. The reason for the choice of ten is assumed to be that humans have ten fingers (digits).
Usage and terms
- A collection of ten items (most often ten years) is called a decade.
- The ordinal adjective is decimal; the distributive adjective is denary.
- Increasing a quantity by one order of magnitude is most widely understood to mean multiplying the quantity by ten.
- To reduce something by one tenth is to decimate. (In ancient Rome, the killing of one in ten soldiers in a cohort was the punishment for cowardice or mutiny; or, one-tenth of the able-bodied men in a village as a form of retribution, thus causing a labor shortage and threat of starvation in agrarian societies.)
- Ten is used as a theoretical highest number in topics that require a rating ("a mark out of ten"), by contrast having 0 or 1 as the lowest number, and 5 being average.
- Ten is the second discrete semiprime (2 × 5) and the second member of the (2 × q) discrete semiprime family. Ten has an aliquot sum ?(n) of 8 and is accordingly the first discrete semiprime to be in deficit. All subsequent discrete semiprimes are in deficit. The aliquot sequence for 10 comprises five members (10,8,7,1,0) with this number being the second composite member of the 7-aliquot tree.
- Ten is the smallest semiprime that is the sum of all the distinct prime numbers from its lower factor through its higher factor (10 = 2 + 3 + 5 = 2 . 5) Only three other small semiprimes (39, 155, and 371) share this attribute.
- Ten is the sum of the first three prime numbers, of the four first positive integers (1 + 2 + 3 + 4), of the square of the two first odd numbers and also of the first four factorials (0! + 1! + 2! + 3!). Ten is the eighth Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 5, 5, 7.
- Ten is the smallest number whose status as a possible friendly number is unknown.
- Ten factorial seconds is exactly equal to 6 weeks.
- According to a conjecture, ten is the average sum of the proper divisors of the natural numbers if the size of the numbers approaches infinity (sequence in the OEIS).
- Ten is the smallest number whose fourth power can be written as a sum of two squares in two different ways. (802 + 602 and 962 + 282)
In numeral systems
As is the case for any base in its system, ten is the first two-digit number in decimal and thus the lowest number where the position of a numeral affects its value. Any integer written in the decimal system can be multiplied by ten by adding a zero to the end (e.g. 855 × 10 = 8550).
The Roman numeral for ten is X (which looks like two Vs [the Roman numeral for 5] put together); it is thought that the V for five is derived from an open hand (five digits displayed), and X for ten from both hands. Incidentally, the Chinese word numeral for ten, is also a cross: ?.
Positional numeral systems other than decimal
The digit '1' followed by '0' is how the value of p is written in base p. (E.g. 16 in hexadecimal is 10.)
List of basic calculations
|10 ÷ x
|x ÷ 10
The SI prefix for 10 is "deca-".
The meaning "10" is part of the following terms:
- decapoda, an order of crustaceans with ten feet.
- decane, a hydrocarbon with 10 carbon atoms.
Also, the number 10 plays a role in the following:
The metric system is based on the number 10, so converting units is done by adding or removing zeros (e.g. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters, 1 decimeter = 10 centimeters, 1 meter = 100 centimeters, 1 dekameter = 10 meters, 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters).
In religion and philosophy
- References in the Bible, Judaism and Christianity:
- The Ten Commandments of Exodus and Deuteronomy are considered a cornerstone of Judaism and Christianity.
- People traditionally tithed one-tenth of their produce. The practice of tithing is still common in Christian churches today, though it is disputed in some circles as to whether or not it is required of Christians.
- In Deuteronomy 26:12, the Torah commands Jews to give one-tenth of their produce to the poor (Maaser Ani). From this verse and from an earlier verse (Deut. 14:22) there derives a practice for Jews to give one-tenth of all earnings to the poor.
- Ten Plagues were inflicted on Egypt in Exodus 7-12.
- Jews observe the annual Ten Days of Repentance beginning on Rosh Hashanah and ending on Yom Kippur.
- In Jewish liturgy, Ten Martyrs are singled out as a group.
- There are said to be Ten Lost Tribes of Israel (those other than Judah and Benjamin).
- There are Ten Sephirot in the Kabbalistic Tree of Life.
- In Judaism, ten men are the required quorum, called a minyan, for prayer services.
- Interpretations of Genesis in Talmudic and Midrashic teachings suggest that on the first day, God drew forth ten primal elements from the abyss in order to construct all of Creation: Heaven (or Fire), Earth, Chaos, Void, Light, Darkness, Wind (or Spirit), Water, Day, and Night. See also Bereshit (parsha).
- Jesus tells the Parable of the Ten Virgins in Matthew 25:1-13.
- In Pythagoreanism, the number 10 played an important role and was symbolized by the tetractys.
- In Hinduism, Lord Vishnu appeared on the earth in 10 incarnations, popularly known as Dashaavathar.
- In Sikhism, there are ten human Gurus.
Most countries issue coins and bills with a denomination of 10 (See e.g. 10 dollar note). Of these, the U.S. dime, with the value of ten cents, or one tenth of a dollar, derives its name from the meaning "one-tenth" - see Dime (United States coin)#Denomination history and etymology.
In sports and games
- Decathlon is a combined event in athletics consisting of ten track and field events.
- In association football, the number 10 is traditionally worn by the team's advanced playmaker. This use has led to "Number 10" becoming a synonym for the player in that particular role, even if he or she does not wear that number.
- In gridiron football, a team has a limited number of downs to advance the ball ten yards or more from where it was on its last first down; doing this is referred to as gaining another first down.
- In auto racing, driving a car at ten-tenths is driving as fast as possible, on the limit.
- In blackjack, the Ten, Jack, Queen and King are all worth 10 points.
- In boxing, if the referee counts to 10 whether the boxer is unconscious or not, it will declare a winner by knockout.
- In men's field lacrosse, each team has 10 players on the field at any given time, except in penalty situations.
- In most rugby league competitions, the number 10 is worn by one of the two starting props. One exception to this rule is the Super League, which uses static squad numbering.
- In rugby union, the starting fly-half wears the 10 shirt.
- In ten-pin bowling, 10 pins are arranged in a triangular pattern and there are 10 frames per game.
In other fields