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An EMD 16-567B on display at the North Carolina Transportation Museum. Shown in the foreground is an exploded power assembly, with the piston, piston carrier and piston rod (fork type) on the left, and the cylinder liner and cylinder head on the right.
|Manufacturer||Electro-Motive Division of General Motors|
|Also called||A-Engine, B-Engine, C-Engine, and D-Engine|
|Configuration||45° Vee in V6, V8, V12, or V16|
|Displacement||3,405 to 9,080 cu in|
(55.8 to 148.8 L)
567.5 cu in (9.3 L) per cylinder
|Cylinder bore||in (216 mm)|
|Piston stroke||10 in (250 mm)|
|Valvetrain||Overhead camshaft, one per bank|
|Supercharger||One or two Roots-type|
|Turbocharger||Single, clutch driven|
|Fuel system||Unit injector actuated by engine camshaft|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
|Cooling system||Liquid cooled|
|Power output||600 to 2,500 hp|
(450 to 1,860 kW)
The EMD 567 is a line of large medium-speed diesel engines built by General Motors' Electro-Motive Division. This engine, which succeeded Winton's 201A, was used in EMD's locomotives from 1938 until its replacement in 1966 by the EMD 645. It has a bore of in (216 mm), a stroke of 10 in (254 mm) and a displacement of 567 cu in (9.29 L) per cylinder. Like the Winton 201A, the EMD 645 and the EMD 710, the EMD 567 is a two-stroke engine.
Eugene W. Kettering, son of Charles F. Kettering, joined Winton Engine in 1930. He moved to Detroit in 1936, and was a central figure in the development of the 567 and the Detroit Diesel 6-71. He moved to EMD in 1938, became Chief Engineer at EMD in 1948, then Division Director in 1956 and subsequently Research Assistant to the General Manager in 1958 until his retirement in 1960. The 567 was released in 1938.
In 1951, Eugene Kettering presented a paper to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers entitled History and Development of the 567 Series General Motors Locomotive Engine, which goes into great detail about the technical obstacles that were encountered during the development of the 567 engine (these same considerations apply to the 645 and 710). The 567's designers started with a tabula rasa, systematically eliminating each of the 201A's many deficiencies which were preventing the earlier design from becoming successful in freight service, although the 201A was relatively successful in the less-demanding passenger and switching services. The 567 design had nothing in common with the 201A except the two-stroke cycle itself: each and every component of the 201A was replaced with a new design, even the "dipstick", to paraphrase one of Kettering's off-handed comments. The 567 proved to be exceptionally successful in passenger, switching, freight, marine and stationary services, and, counting its two successors, the 645 and 710, which are not materially different from the 567 (all have the same external dimensions, differing mainly in per cylinder displacement), collectively have given nearly 80 years of exceptionally reliable service to those applications. As but one example of the achievements of the tabula rasa design: whereas the Winton 201A was doing very well with a 50,000-to-100,000-mile (80,000 to 161,000 km) piston lifetime, the 567 immediately achieved a 400,000-to-500,000-mile (640,000 to 800,000 km) piston lifetime, and in at least one case, reached a 1,000,000-mile (1,600,000 km) piston lifetime, a 10:1 to 20:1 improvement.
All 567 engines are two-stroke V-engines with an angle of 45° between cylinder banks. The 201A was 60° between cylinder banks; 45° later proved to be significant when EMD subsequently adapted the road switcher concept for most of its locomotives, and which required the narrower (albeit taller) engine which 45° provides. The 710, 645, and 567 are the only two-stroke engines commonly used today in locomotives.
The engine is a uniflow design with four poppet-type exhaust valves in the cylinder head. For maintenance, a power assembly, consisting of a cylinder head, cylinder liner, piston, piston carrier, and piston rod, can be individually and relatively easily and quickly replaced. The block is made from flat, formed and rolled structural steel members and steel forgings welded into a single structure (a "weldment"). Blocks may, therefore, be easily repaired, if required, using conventional shop tools. Each bank of cylinders has an overhead camshaft which operates the exhaust valves and the unit injectors.
The 567 is laid out with engine accessories (oil and water pumps and governors) at the "forward" end and the power take off at the "rear" end. The blowers and camshafts are at the "rear" end of the engine, with the blowers mounted above the power take off.
All engines have mechanically-controlled unit injectors (patented in 1934 by General Motors, EMD's former owner).
All 567 engines utilize forced induction, with either a Roots blower or a turbocharger. The turbocharger (a combination turbo-compressor system) follows EMD's innovative design that uses a gear train and over-running clutch to drive the compressor rotor during low engine speed, when exhaust gas temperature (and, correspondingly, heat energy) alone is insufficient to drive the turbine. At higher engine speeds, increased exhaust gas temperature is sufficient to drive the turbine and the clutch disengages, turning the turbo-compressor system into a true turbocharger. The turbo-compressor can revert to compressor mode momentarily during demands for large increases in engine output power. While more expensive to maintain than Roots blowers, the turbocharger significantly reduces fuel consumption and emissions, while improving high-altitude performance. Additionally, EMD's turbo-compressor can provide a 50 percent increase in maximum rated horsepower over Roots-blown engines for the same engine displacement.
Horsepower for naturally aspirated engines (including Roots-blown two-stroke engines) is usually derated 2.5 percent per 1,000 feet (300 m) above mean sea level, a tremendous penalty at the 10,000 feet (3,000 m) or greater elevations which several Western U.S. and Canada railroads operate, and this can amount to a 25 percent power loss. Turbocharging effectively eliminates this derating.
567AC engines (an "A" block upgraded to "C" block specifications) and 567BC engines (a "B" block upgraded to "C" block specifications), both of which modifications eliminate the engine's "water deck" and substitute a "water manifold", as well as 567C and 567D engines, may be upgraded to use 645 power assemblies, theoretically achieving an increase in horsepower, but not without corresponding changes to the engine's Woodward governor which activates and controls the engine's "fuel rack". Although this power increase is not recommended, horsepower-for-horsepower updates (e.g., 2,000 hp or 1,500 kW 567D to 2,000 hp or 1,500 kW "645D"--645 power assemblies in a 567 block) are quite successful and common.
As 645 power assemblies are more readily available than 567 power assemblies, this upgrade may also be employed in so-called "life extension" programs, in which case the power assemblies would be upgraded, and the engine may be de-turbo-ed, without corresponding changes to the engine's Woodward governor, hence without a corresponding power increase.
Because of their age, 567 engines are generally exempt from emissions rules. EMD manufactures a special series of 645 power assemblies which are particularly useful in updating these exempt 567 engines and also certain exempt 645 engines.
Numerous early improvements were aimed at increasing reliability and life, including a switch from the "U" shaped top (exhaust) well to a "V" shaped top well. This eliminated the cast top deck, which had been the source of some early-life failures, in favor of a top deck fabricated from plate steel. The 567 gave way to the 567A in 1941, which incorporated further top deck improvements and camshaft gear train changes. The 567B followed in 1946 with minor improvements. The 567C was released to further improve reliability and manufacturability. Visually, the 567C may be distinguished from earlier models by the presence of round (instead of square) handholes.
The cost of a 16-567 in 1941 was US$24000, and a 16-567B in 1951 was US$32,905.
|Engine model||Max RPM||Aspiration||Dates built||Compression
|567||800||Roots blown||9/38-3/43||16:1||600||447||1,000||746||1,350||1,007||"U" Deck or "V" Deck versions were built with rectangular hand hole covers.|
|1,350||1,007||Rectangular hand hole covers.|
|Rectangular hand hole covers.|
|New crankcase design with round hand hole covers and replacing the water deck with water manifold piping.|
|567AC||800||Roots blown||8/53-6/61||16:1||600||447||1,000||746||Rebuild of 567A block to incorporate water manifold piping and to use 567C or certain 645 power assemblies|
|1,500||1,119||Production engine from September 1953 to May 1954 then used to rebuild 567Bs block to incorporate water manifold piping and to use 567C or certain 645 power assemblies|
|567CR||835||Roots blown||10/56-11/65||16:1||900||671||"Rebalanced" |
|567D2||835||Turbocharged||11/59-4/62||14.5:1||2,000||1,491||De-turbo-ed versions using 645 power assemblies, but still rated 2,000 hp are quite common|
|De-turbo-ed versions using 645 power assemblies, but re-rated 2,000 hp are very rare|
|567D3A||900||Turbocharged||7/63-1/66||14.5:1||2,500||1,864||De-turbo-ed versions using 645 power assemblies, but re-rated 2,000 hp are somewhat common|
|1,491||645E block with 567C power assemblies|
Like most EMD engines, the 567 was also sold for stationary and marine applications. Stationary and marine installations were available with either a left or right-hand rotating engine.
Marine engines differ from railroad and stationary engines mainly in the shape and depth of the engine's oil sump, which was altered to accommodate the rolling and pitching motions encountered in marine applications.
A pair of 12-567 engines powered one version of the Allies' LST vessels.
An EMD locomotive catalog, contemporary with the 567, lists the following models:
|F9||16-567C||1,750||1,305||4-motor Freight or Passenger (Blomberg B trucks)[b]||Derivatives FP9 and FL9 also produced, FL9 using Flexicoil Trucks|
|GP9||16-567C||1,750||1,305||4-motor General Purpose Road Switcher (Blomberg B trucks)|
|SD9||16-567C||1,750||1,305||6-Motor Special Duty Road Switcher (Blomberg Flexicoil C trucks)|
|E9||12-567C (x2)||2,400||1,790||4-Motor Passenger Locomotive (Blomberg A1A trucks)||Two prime movers installed on same frame|
|SW600||6-567C||600||447||100-Ton Yard Switcher (Blomberg AAR Type A switcher trucks)[c]|
|SW900||8-567C||900||671||115-Ton Yard Switcher (AAR type A truck, Flexicoil B optional)|
|SW1200||12-567C||1,200||895||125-Ton Yard Switcher (AAR type A truck, Flexicoil B optional)|
|GP35||16-567D3A||2,500||1,864||4-Motor Freight Locomotive (AAR type A truck, Flexicoil B optional)|
|BL2||16-567B||1,500||1,100||4-Axle Road Switcher (B-B Configuration)|
Most 567C locomotive models used D37B traction motors until mid 1959 when the D47B traction motor was used in production locomotives. Very early 567C locomotives from 1953 used the D27B traction motor.
These two models are by far the most maintainable, with many 645 service parts being rather easily fitted to C and D engines.
The 567D's turbocharger is perhaps the least maintainable part of such an engine, and the 567D turbo has many more maintenance issues than 645E and later turbos. A common choice is conversion of a 567D turbo engine to Roots-blown, thereby abandoning the turbo and its many issues. Installation of 645 power assemblies will still allow Roots-converted 4-axle locomotives (GP20s) to produce 2,000 hp (1,500 kW), as does a Roots-blown 16-645E, thereby becoming the functional equivalent of a GP38, although with older electrical equipment and controls, and, of course, the older carbody.
Many EMD locomotives with C and D engines are still operating, particularly as their relatively light weight (about 260,000 pounds or 120,000 kilograms) is of significant benefit to shortline and industrial operators.