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Year 1255 (MCCLV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
- Hulagu Khan is dispatched by his brother Möngke Khan, to destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia.
- May – William of Rubruck from Constantinople returns to Cyprus, from his missionary journey to convert the Tatars of central and eastern Asia, his efforts having been unsuccessful.
- August – The final Cathar stronghold in southern France falls, eliminating their last refuge, since the Roman Catholic Church began the Albigensian Crusade to crush the sect in 1209.
- The death of Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln prompts the persecution of Jews in England, based on the blood libel.
- Lisbon becomes the capital of Portugal.
- A survey of royal privileges is conducted, which is included in the Hundred Rolls, an English census seen as a followup to the Domesday Book completed in 1086; the Hundred Rolls is later completed with two larger surveys, in 1274/1275 and 1279/1280.
- Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) is founded by the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, and named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia.
- Theodore II Laskaris, Byzantine Emperor (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea), conducts a military campaign to recover Thrace from the Bulgarians. He concludes the task successfully a year later, in 1256.
- The Duchy of Bavaria is split into Upper and Lower Bavaria.
- The lands of the House of Nassau are divided, not to be reunited until 1806.
- King Béla IV of Hungary grants Banská Bystrica the municipal rights of a royal town.
Arts and culture
- At the death of Bernardo Bonsignori, his brother, Orlando, is left sole director of the largest banking firm in western Europe, the Gran Tavola of Siena. 
- ^ Catoni, Giuliano. "BONSIGNORI". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Retrieved 2011.