12th United States Congress
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12th United States Congress
12th United States Congress
11th 
-> 13th
USCapitol1800.jpg
March 4, 1811 - March 4, 1813
Senate PresidentGeorge Clinton (DR)
until April 20, 1812
Vacant
from April 20, 1812
Senate President pro temWilliam H. Crawford (DR)
House SpeakerHenry Clay (DR)
Members36 senators
143 members of the House
4 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic-Republican
House MajorityDemocratic-Republican
Sessions
1st: November 4, 1811 - July 6, 1812
2nd: November 2, 1812 - March 3, 1813

The Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1811, to March 4, 1813, during the third and fourth years of James Madison's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Second Census of the United States in 1800. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

Major events

Major legislation

States admitted and territories organized

Senate President
George Clinton
Senate President pro tempore
William H. Crawford
House Speaker
Henry Clay

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

During this congress, two new Senate seats were added for the new state of Louisiana.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 26 8 34 0
Begin 26 7 33 1
End 29 360
Final voting share 80.6% 19.4%
Beginning of next congress 27 6 33 3

House of Representatives

During this congress, one new House seat was added for the new state of Louisiana.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of previous congress 95 46 141 1
Begin 106 36 142 0
End1
Final voting share 74.6% 25.4%
Beginning of next congress 108 68 176 6

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1814; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1816; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1812

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 1
  • deaths: 0
  • resignations: 4
  • interim appointments: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • vacancies:1
  • Total seats with changes: 6
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Massachusetts
(2)
Vacant Legislature elected late.
Successor elected June 29, 1811.
Joseph B. Varnum (DR) June 29, 1811
Rhode Island
(1)
Christopher G. Champlin (F) Resigned October 2, 1811
Successor elected October 28, 1811.
William Hunter (F) October 28, 1811
Tennessee
(2)
Jenkin Whiteside (DR) Resigned October 8, 1811.
Successor elected October 8, 1811.
George W. Campbell (DR) October 8, 1811
Louisiana
(3)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural Senator elected September 3, 1812, for the term ending March 4, 1813.
Allan B. Magruder (DR) September 3, 1812
Louisiana
(2)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural Senator elected September 3, 1812, for the term ending March 4, 1817.
Jean Noel Destréhan (DR) September 3, 1812
Jean N. Destréhan (DR) Resigned October 1, 1812, without having qualified.
Successor appointed October 8, 1812, to continue the term ending March 4, 1817.
Thomas Posey (DR) October 8, 1812
Thomas Posey (DR) Appointee lost election to finish the term.
Successor elected February 4, 1813.
James Brown (DR) February 5, 1813

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 3
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 5
  • contested election: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • vacancies: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 10


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Maryland
6th
John Montgomery (DR) Resigned April 29, 1811, to become Attorney General of Maryland Stevenson Archer (DR) Seated October 26, 1811
Massachusetts
4th
Joseph B. Varnum (DR) Resigned June 29, 1811, to become U.S. Senator William M. Richardson (DR) Seated November 4, 1811
Virginia
8th
John Hungerford (DR) Lost contested election November 29, 1811 John Taliaferro (DR) Seated November 29, 1811
Massachusetts
17th
Barzillai Gannett (DR) Resigned sometime in 1812 before April 6 ([Data unknown/missing.]) Francis Carr (DR) Seated April 6, 1812
North Carolina
3rd
Thomas Blount (DR) Died February 7, 1812 William Kennedy (DR) Seated January 30, 1813
Orleans Territory Julien de Lallande Poydras had resigned in the previous Congress, and the seat remained vacant until the territory became the state of Louisiana on April 30, 1812 Thomas B. Robertson (DR) Seated April 30, 1812
Louisiana
At-large
New York
6th
Robert Le Roy Livingston (F) Resigned May 6, 1812 Thomas P. Grosvenor (F) Seated January 29, 1813
Georgia
At-large
Howell Cobb (DR) Resigned sometime before October 1812 ([Data unknown/missing.]) William Barnett (DR) Seated October 5, 1812
Missouri Territory Territory delegate seat established Edward Hempstead Seated November 9, 1812
Illinois Territory Territory delegate seat established Shadrach Bond Seated December 3, 1812
Pennsylvania
9th
John Smilie (DR) Died December 30, 1812 Vacant Not filled until next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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