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1570s decade ran from January 1, 1570, to December 31, 1579.
January 11 – The Austrian nobility are granted freedom of religion.
January 23 – The Royal Exchange opens in London, England. c.
February 4– 9 – The Spanish Jesuit missionaries of the Ajacán Mission, established on the Virginia Peninsula of North America in 1570, are massacred by local Native Americans.
March 18 – The Order of the Knights of Saint John transfers the capital of Malta, from Birgu to Valletta.
May 24 – Moscow is burnt by the Crimean army, under Devlet I Giray.
June 3 – Following the Battle of Bangkusay Channel, the conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila is complete, Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi makes Manila a city, and the capital of the Philippines.
June 25 – Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Horncastle, is founded in Lincolnshire, England. June 27 – Jesus College is established "within the City and University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeth's foundation" in England, by Welsh cleric and lawyer Hugh Price. 
July 25 – St Olave's Grammar School is founded in Tooley Street, London.
August 1 – The Ottoman conquest of Cyprus is concluded, by the surrender of Famagusta. Cyprus is established as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, and the first Turkish colony moves into the island.
August 29 – Liliw, Laguna, Philippines is founded by Gat Tayaw, followers and residents as a municipality of Laguna.
September 28 – The House of Commons of England introduces the first pro forma bill, symbolizing its authority over its own affairs.  October 7 – Battle of Lepanto: Spanish, Venetian, and Papal naval forces, under Don John of Austria, defeat the Ottoman fleet of Müezzinzade Ali Pasha.
Date unknown Using mercury in the silver extraction process dramatically increases the output of the
Potosí mine; thus begins the great silver flow that links the New and Old Worlds.  The Swedish Church Ordinance 1571 creates the first complete order of the Protestant Swedish church. The church ordinance also includes a chapter about schooling, in which all children in the cities, regardless of sex, are to be given elementary schooling. 
July 6 – Córdoba, in the Viceroyalty of Peru, is founded by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera.
July 12 – Siege of Haarlem: Spanish forces under the Duke of Alva capture Haarlem, after a seven-month siege.
July – The Edict of Boulogne is signed by Charles IX of France, granting limited rights to Huguenots, and ending the Fourth War of Religion in France.
August – Alva begins to besiege Alkmaar in North Holland.
August 27 – Oda Nobunaga drives the 15th Ashikaga sh?gun Ashikaga Yoshiaki out of Kyoto, effectively destroying the Ashikaga shogunate, and historically ending the Muromachi and Sengoku periods. The Azuchi-Momoyama period of Japan begins.
September 8– 16 – Siege of Hikida Castle, Siege of Ichij?dani Castle in Japan: The Asakura clan is eliminated by Oda Nobunaga.
September 22– 26 – Siege of Odani Castle in Japan: The Azai clan is eliminated by Oda Nobunaga.
October 8 – The Spanish abandon the siege of the city of Alkmaar.
November 15 – Santa Fe, Argentina, is founded by Juan de Garay. November – Alva resigns as Spanish Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief in the Netherlands, and is succeeded by Luis de Requesens, who attempts to pursue a more conciliatory policy.
Sarsa Dengel, emperor of Ethiopia, defeats the Oromo in a battle near Lake Zway. The first
Spanish galleon, laden with silver for the porcelain and silk trade with the Ming Dynasty of China, lands at Manila in the Philippines. This occasion marks the beginning of the Spanish silver trade to China, that will trump that of the Portuguese, the latter of whom acted as an intermediary between the silver mines of Japan, and the luxury items in China to be purchased with that silver. Most of the silver entering China comes from what is now Mexico, Bolivia, and Peru in the New World. The
Luzhou Laojiao liquor is made. The Portuguese are expelled from the
Maldives. Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School for Boys, Barnet, England, is formed. 
August 30 – Guru Ram Das becomes the fourth of the Sikh gurus.
September – A plot to assassinate John III of Sweden is discovered, headed by Charles de Mornay and implicating Charles Dancay, Hogenskild Bielke, Gustaf Banér, Pontus De la Gardie, Princess Elizabeth of Sweden, Princess Cecilia of Sweden, and Duke Charles. 
October 3 – The city of Leiden, besieged by the Spanish, is relieved by a Sea Beggars fleet under Louis Boisot.
November 22 – The Juan Fernández Islands in the South Pacific Ocean are discovered, by Spanish sailor Juan Fernández.
November 29 – Limahong and Juan de Salcedo quarrel during the Battle of Manila. December – Murad III succeeds Selim II, as (Ottoman Sultan)
July – Martin Frobisher holds the first Thanksgiving celebration by Europeans in North America, on Newfoundland. He ships ore, which proves to be valueless fool's gold, which can only be used as road metal in London.
August 4 – Battle of Alcácer Quibir in North Africa: The Moors defeat King Sebastian of Portugal, who is killed, leaving his elderly uncle, Cardinal Henry, as his heir, initiating a succession crisis in Portugal.
August 20– September 6 – Francis Drake, during his circumnavigation of the globe, passes through the Strait of Magellan in his ship, the newly renamed . Golden Hind 
October 1 – Alessandro Farnese succeeds Don John, as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. October 21 – Battle of Wenden: The Russians are defeated by the Swedes, who proceed to take Polotsk.
January 6 – The Union of Atrecht unites the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain.
January 23 – The Union of Utrecht unites the northern Netherlands in a confederation called the United Provinces. William I of Orange becomes Stadtholder, and the Duc d'Anjou, younger brother of Henry III of France, is invited to become hereditary sovereign.
March – Maastricht is captured by the Spanish under Parma.
May 25 – Japan – Battle of Mimaomote: Doi Kiyonaga defeats the forces of Kumu Yorinobu.
June 17 – Francis Drake, during his circumnavigation of the world, lands in what is now California, which he claims for Queen Elizabeth I. With an English claim here and in Newfoundland, it becomes the basis for English colonial charters which will claim all land from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from "sea to sea." Drake's claim is called "Nova Albion" ( New England), and subsequent maps will show all lands north of New Spain and New Mexico under this name. July 16 – James FitzMaurice FitzGerald lands with a small force of Irish, Spanish, and Italian troops at Smerwick, on the Dingle Peninsula in south-western Ireland, and commences the Second Desmond Rebellion against the rule in Ireland of Elizabeth I of England.
Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1988). The Encyclopædia of Oxford. London: Macmillan. p. 198. ISBN . 0-333-39917-X
"The Library of Parliament's research tool for finding information on legislation". Library of Parliament. 2010-01-28. Archived from the original on February 2, 2010 . Retrieved 2010.
"Epic World History: Potosí (Silver Mines of Colonial Peru)". epicworldhistory.blogspot.com. 2015 . Retrieved 2015. In 1571, after numerous trials, the Spanish perfected the techniques for refining Potosí's silver ore with Huancavelica's mercury, prompting Viceroy Francisco de Toledo to gush that the union of the two mines would create the world's greatest marriage.
^ Du Rietz, Anita, Kvinnors entreprenörskap: under 400 år, 1. uppl., Dialogos, Stockholm, 2013
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Williams, Hywel (2005). . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. Cassell's Chronology of World History 226-229. ISBN . 0-304-35730-8
Tyerman, Christopher (2000). A History of Harrow School. Oxford University Press. pp. 8-17. ISBN . 0-19-822796-5
University of Otago Library exhibition note for The Earth & Beyond Archived February 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine; Allen, R. H. Star Names: their Lore and Meaning, Bill Thayer's edition at LacusCurtius, "Cassiopeia."
"The Lusiads". . 1800-1882 World Digital Library . Retrieved .
"Queen Elizabeth's boys' grammar has been doing its own thing since 1573". The Independent. 9 April 2014 . Retrieved 2019.
^ Karin Tegenborg Falkdalen (2010). Vasadöttrarna ['The Vasa Daughters']. Falun: Historiska Media.
ISBN 978-91-85873-87-6 (In Swedish)
Albardonedo Freire, Antonio José (2002). El urbanismo de Sevilla durante el reinado de Felipe II. Sevilla: Guadalquivir. pp. 191-208. ISBN . 84-8093-115-9
"Thomas Tallis". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Richards, John F. (1996). . Cambridge University Press. p. 33. The Mughal Empire ISBN . 978-0-521-56603-2
Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 156-159. ISBN . 0-7126-5616-2
"Voyage of the Golden Hind". The Golden Hind. Brixham. 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013 . Retrieved 2013.