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1590s decade ran from January 1, 1590, to December 31, 1599.
January 11 – The Cortes of Castile approves a new subsidy, the . millones
March – Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, takes Breda, by concealing 68 of his best men in a peat-boat, to get through the impregnable defences.
March 14 – Battle of Ivry: Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League, under Charles, Duke of Mayenne.
May–August – Henry IV of France unsuccessfully attempts to besiege Paris. Henry is forced to raise the siege, when Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma comes to its rescue with a Spanish army.
May 17 – Anne of Denmark is crowned queen consort of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh.  May 21 – The Treaty of Constantinople is signed.
March 13 – Battle of Tondibi: In Mali, forces sent by the Saadi Dynasty ruler of Morocco, Ahmad al-Mansur, and led by Judar Pasha, defeat the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one.
April 10 – English merchant James Lancaster sets off on a voyage to the East Indies. 
April 21 – Japanese tea-master Sen no Riky? commits seppuku, on the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
May 15 – In Russia, Tsarevich Dimitri, son of the Ivan the Terrible, is found dead in mysterious circumstances, at the palace in Uglich. The official explanation is that he has cut his own throat during an epileptic seizure. Many believe he has been murdered by his rival, Boris Godunov, who becomes tsar.
May 24 – Sir John Norreys, with an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England, takes the town of Guingamp after a brief siege, on behalf of Henry of Navarre.
May 30 – Timbuktu is captured by an expedition of Arma people, sent by the Saadi ruler of Morocco, and led by Judar Pasha.
May 30 – Zutphen is captured by the Dutch and English, under Maurice of Nassau. June 10 – Deventer is captured by the Dutch, under Maurice of Nassau.
July – Battle of Bhuchar Mori in Gujarat: the Mughal Empire gains a decisive victory over the Nawanagar State.
July 22 – The Durtnell (Dartnell) family of Brasted, Kent, England, begin to work as building contractors. The business continues under thirteen generations of the family until ceasing to trade in 2019. 
July 25 – Siege of Knodsenburg: Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere defeat the Duke of Parma outside Nijmegen.
August – Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex leads an English army in support of the Protestant Henry IV of France at the Siege of Rouen.  August–September – During this year's
Atlantic hurricane season, probably the most severe of the pre-1600 seasons, at least eight intense hurricanes occur.
August 30– September 1 – Battle of Flores off Flores Island (Azores): the Spanish fleet is victorious over the English; English ship is captured on September 1 (and Revenge Richard Grenville fatally wounded) but soon afterwards lost with all hands in a week-long storm, along with a large number of the Spanish ships.
September 14 – Siege of Hulst: Hulst is captured by Maurice.
October 8 – The Separation Edict, a law preventing social mobility in Japan, is promulgated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
October 21 – Siege of Nijmegen: Nijmegen is captured by Maurice.
October 26 – The Portuguese invasion of Jaffna Kingdom begins. October 29 – Pope Innocent IX succeeds Pope Gregory XIV, as the 230th pope.
January 30 – Pope Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
February 7 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to Donibristle Castle in Scotland, and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray.
March 3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is founded.
March 14 – Ultimate : the largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of Pi Day pi, since the introduction of the Julian calendar.
April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his intention to take instruction in, and convert to, the Catholic religion.
April 13 – The Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) begin, with the Siege of Busanjin.
April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the Koreans ( Joseon).
April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju: Japan inflicts a decisive defeat on Korea.
May 7 – Battle of Okpo: The Korean navy is victorious over Japan.
May 29 – Battle of Sacheon: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin destroys all 13 Japanese ships taking part, using his improved turtle ship for the first time in battle.
June 2 – Battle of Dangpo:The Korean navy is again victorious over Japan. June 10– 19 – Siege of Biha? in the Kingdom of Croatia, by Hasan Pasha Predojevi? of the Ottoman Empire. Biha? is captured and lost for Croatia forever.
July 20 – The Japanese capture the Korean capital Pyongyang, causing Seonjo to request the assistance of Ming Dynasty Chinese forces, who recapture the city a year later.
July 30 – Alonso de Sotomayor petitions the viceroy of Peru for more troops, to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates.
August 9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the , probably discovers the Desire Falkland Islands.
August 14 – Battle of Hansan Island: The Korean navy defeats the Japanese.
August 15 (or 19) – The great Portuguese carrack, , captured Madre De Deus in a fierce battle in the Azores, enters Dartmouth harbour on 7 September, and is then subjected to mass theft.
September 1 – Battle of Busan: The Korean fleet makes a surprise attack on the Japanese, but fails to break their supply lines to Busan.
October 5 – Siege of Jinju: The Korean navy is victorious over the Japanese.
November 3 – The city of San Luis Potosí is founded. November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund, as King of Sweden.
January – Siege of Pyongyang (1593): A Japanese invasion is defeated in Pyongyang, by a combined force of Korean and Ming troops. 
January 18 – Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back, kills Burmese Crown Prince Mingyi Swa on Monday, Moon 2 Waning day 2, Year of the Dragon, Chulasakarat 954, reckoned as corresponding to January 25, 1593, of the Gregorian calendar, and commemorated as Royal Thai Armed Forces Day.
January 27 – The Roman Inquisition opens the seven-year trial of scholar Giordano Bruno.
February 2 – Battle of Pi?tek: Polish forces led by Janusz Ostrogski are victorious.
February 12 – Battle of Haengju: Korea defeats Japan.
March 7 (February 25 Old Style) – The Uppsala Synod discontinues; the Liturgical Struggle between the Swedish Reformation and Counter-Reformation ends in Sweden.
March 14 – The Pi Day, giving the most digits of Pi when written in mm/dd/yyyy format (Flemish mathematician Adriaan van Roomen arrived at 15 decimal places of Pi in 1593, using the polygon approximation method).
May 18 – Playwright Thomas Kyd's accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe.
June 22 – Battle of Sisak in Croatia: The Habsburgs defeat the Ottoman Empire. July 29 – The Long War breaks out in Hungary, between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.
July 21 – A Spanish expedition led by navigator and explorer Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira makes the first European landing in Polynesia, on the Marquesas Islands.
July 23 – The Spanish raid Cornwall, England. 
August 23 – Battle of Calugareni: The Wallachians, led by Michael the Brave, accomplish a great tactical victory against the vast army of the Turks, numbering over 150,000 men, led by Sinan Pasha.
August 28 – Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins depart from England, on their final voyage to the Spanish Main, which ends in both of their deaths. 
September 2 – Battle of the Lippe ( Eighty Years' War): Spanish cavalry, led by Cristóbal de Mondragón (aged over 80), defeat combined forces of the Dutch Republic and England led by Philip of Nassau (who dies of wounds received), on the banks of the river Lippe in Germany.
October 26 – Battle of Giurgiu: Michael the Brave, led by Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory, again defeats the Turkish army led by Sinan Pasha, pushing them on the east side of the Danube.
December 9 – Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's in Richard II London. December 14 – Sultan Murad, 4th son of Emperor Akbar of the Mughal Empire invades Ahmednagar Sultanate which is defended by Chand Bibi.
July 5 – An English fleet, commanded by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Lord Howard of Effingham, sacks Cádiz.
July 14 – King Dominicus Corea (Edirille Bandara) is beheaded by the Portuguese in Colombo, Ceylon.
August – David Fabricius discovers the star Mira.
September 17 – The Spanish capture Amiens.
September 20 – Diego de Montemayor founds the city of Monterrey, Mexico.
October 8– 10 – The Union of Brest: The Ukrainian Church west of the Dnieper becomes known as the Ukrainian Rite of Catholicism, whereas the East officially renounces the authority of the Pope.
October 18 – The Second Armada, a Spanish fleet sent to attack England in revenge for the raid on Cadiz, is wrecked in storms between Corcubion and Cape Finisterre; 2,000 men are lost.
October 19 – The Spanish galleon founders in Japan, leading to San Felipe 26 Christians being martyred the next year. October 24– 26 – Battle of Keresztes: The Turks defeat a combined Habsburg- Transylvanian army.
Elizabeth I of England decrees that all Africans should be removed from the British realm, in reaction to the food crisis.  The first
water closet, by Sir John Harington, is installed in a manor near Kelston in England. King
Sigismund III Vasa moves the capital of Poland from Kraków to Warsaw.
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, is founded. The
Black Death hits parts of Europe.
Dutch ships, commanded by Frederick de Houtman, reach Sumatra and Java for the first time. The fourth of a five year run of poor harvests, largely caused by the weather, a pattern typical of the last third of the century. This causes famine throughout Europe, which leads to food riots in Britain. 
July – Thomas Nashe and Ben Jonson's satirical play is performed at the The Isle of Dogs Swan Theatre in London; it is immediately suppressed by the authorities and no copy survives.
July 14 – Scottish poet Alexander Montgomerie is declared an outlaw, after the collapse of a Catholic plot.
August 13 – The Siege of Namwon begins.
August 14 – First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch expedition commanded by Cornelis de Houtman returns to Amsterdam, after having successfully reached Java. This achievement opens the Spice trade, which had until then been monopolised by the Portuguese, to the Dutch, who in the next years launch several more expeditions to the Indies.
August 17 – Islands Voyage: Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Sir Walter Raleigh set sail on an expedition to the Azores.
August 19 – Rheinberg capitulates to forces led by Maurice of Naussau.
August 24 – Christian IV of Denmark refuses to let Tycho Brahe return to Denmark.
August 28 – Imjin War: Battle of Chilcheollyang – The Japanese fleet defeats the Koreans, in their only naval victory of the war.
September 25 – Amiens is retaken from the Spanish by Anglo-French forces, led by Henry IV of France, after a four-month siege.
October – John Gerard, a Jesuit priest, escapes from the Tower of London.
October/November – The 3rd Spanish Armada is dispersed by a storm; a number of Spanish ships are captured off the coasts of Wales, Cornwall and Devon.
October 26 – Battle of Myeongnyang: The Koreans, commanded by Yi Sunsin, are victorious over a Japanese invasion fleet. November 12 – Lingen capitulates to forces led by Maurice of Nassau.
August 14 – Battle of the Yellow Ford in Ireland: Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, gains victory over an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal, in the Nine Years' War against English rule.
September 13 – Philip III of Spain starts to rule, on the death of his father.
September 25 – Battle of Stångebro at Linköping in Sweden: The Catholic King Sigismund of Sweden and Poland is defeated in his attempt to resume control of Sweden by the Protestant forces of his uncle, Charles. Sigismund is deposed shortly thereafter. Autumn –
Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: After being separated from the main Dutch fleet of Admiral Wybrand Van Warwyck, three ships under Jacob Corneliszoon van Neck land on the island which they name Mauritius, after Maurice, Prince of Orange, and sight the dodo.
December 16 ( November 19 (lunar calendar)) – Battle of Noryang: An allied Korean and Chinese fleet under Korean Admiral Yi Sun-sin and Chinese Admiral Chen Lin defeats the Japanese navy, ending the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-98).  December 21 – Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelantaro, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile; all Spanish cities south of the Bío Bío River eventually fall victim to the Destruction of the Seven Cities by the Mapuches, and all conquest of Mapuche territories by Europeans practically ceases, until the later 19th century Occupation of Araucanía.
January 8 - The Jesuit educational plan, known as the , is issued. Ratio Studiorum
March 12 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, by Queen Elizabeth I of England.
April 23 - The Earl of Essex arrives in Dublin at the head of 16,000 troops, the largest army ever seen in Ireland.
May 16 - The Kalmar Bloodbath takes place in Kalmar, Sweden.
May 29 - Essex takes Cahir Castle, supposedly the strongest in Ireland, after a short siege. June 20 - The Synod of Diamper is convened.
July-December July -
Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch fleet returns to Amsterdam, carrying 600,000 pounds of pepper and 250,000 pounds of cloves and nutmeg.
July 24 - Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa is dethroned by his uncle Duke Charles, who takes over as regent of the realm until 1604, when he becomes King Charles IX.
August 15 - First Battle of Curlew Pass: Irish forces defeat the English.
September 21 - The first reported performance at the Globe Theatre in London (erected over Spring/Summer), a presentation of Shakespeare's (probably new to that year), is recorded by Swiss traveller Julius Caesar Thomas Platter the Younger.
September 28 - The Earl of Essex arrives back in England, disobeying the Queen's strict orders.
October 18 - Battle of Sellenberk: Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the army of Andrew Báthory near ?elimb?r, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanians.
November 10 - The Åbo Bloodbath takes place in Åbo, Swedish Finland.
November - Persian embassy to Europe (1599-1602): A Persian embassy arrives in Moscow. December 19 - The forces of Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo and his ally Min Razagyi of the Kingdom of Mrauk U end the First Toungoo Empire by capturing Pegu (modern-day Bago, Myanmar).
"Anne of Denmark: Biography". www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk . Retrieved 2019.
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Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233-238. ISBN . 0-304-35730-8
"Britain's oldest building firm collapses". . 2019-07-04 BBC News . Retrieved .
Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis Societatis Jesu in octo libros physicorum Aristotelis Stagyritæ.
"Historical Events for Year 1593 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com . Retrieved .
"Khwaja Usman". Banglapedia . Retrieved 2018.
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Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 163-165. ISBN . 0-7126-5616-2
Green, Toby. A fistful of shells : West Africa from the rise of the slave trade to the age of revolution. Chicago. ISBN . 9780226644578 OCLC 1051687994.
Emily C. Bartels (April 2006). "Too Many Blackamoors: Deportation, Discrimination, and Elizabeth I". SEL: Studies in English Literature 1500-1900. Rice University. 46 (2): 305-322. JSTOR 3844644. In 1596, Queen Elizabeth issued an 'open letter' to the Lord Mayor of London, announcing that 'there are of late divers black-moores brought into this realme, of which kinde of people there aire allready here to manie,' and ordering that they be deported from the country.
Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN . 0-212-97022-4
"From liquid to vapor and back: origins". Special Collections Department. University of Delaware Library . Retrieved 2007.
Turnbull, Stephen (2002). . London: Cassell. Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War ISBN . 978-0-304-35948-6
Ottavio Rinuccini's libretto survives complete but only fragments of the music are known.
MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2013). Silence: A Christian History. London: Allen Lane. ISBN . 9781846144264