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1593 (MDXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. As of the start of 1593, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar.
- January – Siege of Pyongyang (1593): A Japanese invasion is defeated in Pyongyang by a combined force of Korean and Ming troops.
- January 18 – Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back, kills Burmese Crown Prince Mingyi Swa on Monday, Moon 2 Waning day 2, Year of the Dragon, Chulasakarat 954, reckoned as corresponding to January 25, 1593, of the Gregorian calendar, and commemorated as Royal Thai Armed Forces Day.
- January 27 – The Roman Inquisition opens the seven-year trial of scholar Giordano Bruno.
- February 2 – Battle of Pi?tek: Polish forces led by Janusz Ostrogski are victorious.
- February 12 – Battle of Haengju: Korea defeats Japan.
- March 7 (February 25 Old Style) – The Uppsala Synod discontinues; the Liturgical Struggle between the Swedish Reformation and Counter-Reformation ends in Sweden.
- March 14 – The Pi Day, giving the most digits of Pi when written in mm/dd/yyyy format (this year Flemish mathematician Adriaan van Roomen arrives at 15 decimal places of Pi using the polygon approximation method).
- April 18 – Anglo-Spanish War: Naval Battle of Blaye in the Gironde estuary sees a Spanish victory over the blockading English fleet, allowing the Spanish to relieve the French Catholic garrison of Blaye.
- After April – William Shakespeare's poem Venus and Adonis probably becomes his first published work, printed in London from his own manuscript. In his lifetime it will be his most frequently reprinted work: at least nine times.
- May 5 – "Dutch church libel" bills posted in London threaten Protestant refugees from France and the Netherlands, alluding to Christopher Marlowe's plays.
- May 12 – English dramatist Thomas Kyd is arrested over the "Dutch church libel". "Atheist" literature found in his home is claimed to be Marlowe's.
- May 18 – A warrant for the arrest of Christopher Marlowe is issued. On May 20 he presents himself to the Privy Council.
- May 30 – Christopher Marlowe is stabbed to death in a dispute over a bill at a lodging house in Deptford.
- June 7 – Battle of Salbertrand in Piedmont: Victory of François de Bonne, Duke of Lesdiguières, over the Spanish of Rodrigue Alvarez of Toledo, allies of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy.
- June 22 – Battle of Sisak in Croatia: The Habsburgs defeat the Ottoman Empire.
- July 25 – As he promised in January, Henry IV of France abjures Protestantism at the Basilica of Saint-Denis. Legend attributes to him the saying Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a mass").
- July 29 – The Long War breaks out in Hungary between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.
- October 24–25 – Supposed date of the event described in the 1593 transported soldier legend.
- January 1 – Sun Chuanting, Ming Dynasty general (d. 1643)
- January 10 – Prince Maurice of Savoy, Catholic cardinal and Prince of Savoy (d. 1657)
- February 8 – Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, French Catholic Cardinal (d. 1639)
- February 24 – Henry de Vere, 18th Earl of Oxford, English noble (d. 1625)
- March 1 – Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg, German Catholic cardinal (d. 1661)
- March 13 – Georges de La Tour, French Baroque painter (d. 1652)
- March 20 – Jean de La Haye, French preacher and biblical scholar (d. 1661)
- March 22 – Johann Ulrich Steigleder, German composer (d. 1635)
- March 25 – Jean de Brébeuf, French Jesuit missionary who travelled to Canada in 1625 (d. 1649)
- April – Mumtaz Mahal, Queen of India (d. 1631)
- April 3 – George Herbert, Welsh-born English poet (d. 1633)
- April 4 – Edward Nicholas, English statesman (d. 1669)
- April 12 – Nicholas Martyn, English politician (d. 1653)
- April 13 – Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, English statesman (d. 1641)
- April 19 – Sir John Hobart, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1647)
- April 27 – Jérôme Lalemant, French Jesuit priest and missionary to Canada (d. 1673)
- May 2
- May 5 – Cesare Monti, Italian cardinal, Archbishop of Milan (d. 1650)
- May 19
- June 3 – Richard Knightley, English politician (d. 1639)
- June 8 – George I Rákóczi, Hungarian prince of Transylvania (d. 1648)
- June 22 – Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, Parliamentarian politician and military figure in the English Civil War (d. 1671)
- June 23 – Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (d. 1650)
- June 24 – Abraham von Franckenberg, German writer (d. 1652)
- July 5 – Achille d'Étampes de Valençay, Knight of Malta (d. 1646)
- July 8
- July 20 – Henry Ernest, Count of Stolberg, then count of Stolberg-Ilsenburg (d. 1672)
- July 30 – William, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1596-1677) (d. 1677)
- August 9 – Izaak Walton, English writer (d. 1683)
- August 12 – Jonathan Brewster, American settler (d. 1659)
- August 30 – Noël Juchereau, Quebec pioneer (d. 1648)
- September 5 – Orazio Riminaldi, Italian painter (d. 1630)
- September 8 – Toyotomi Hideyori, Japanese nobleman (d. 1615)
- September 20 – Gottfried Scheidt, German composer (d. 1661)
- September 22 – A. Matthäus Merian, Swiss cartographer (d. 1650)
- September 26 – Francis Osborne, English writer (d. 1659)
- October 6 – Jobst Herman, Count of Schaumburg (d. 1635)
- October 9 – Nicolaes Tulp, Dutch anatomist and politician (d. 1674)
- October 13 – Sixtinus Amama, Dutch Reformed theologian and orientalist (d. 1629)
- October 23 – Michael Warton, English politician (d. 1645)
- October 27 – Christoffer Urne, Governor General of Norway (d. 1663)
- November 1 – Abel Servien, French diplomat (d. 1659)
- November 25 – Alain de Solminihac, French bishop and beatified person (d. 1659)
- December 5 – Liborius Wagner, German Roman Catholic priest (d. 1631)
- December 11 – Sir William Airmine, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1651)
- December 12
- Leonardo Agostini, Italian antiquary (d. 1685)
- Louis Barbier, French bishop (d. 1670)
- William Fitz-Shakespeare, William Shakespeare's son (d. 1630?)
- Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford (d. 1641)
- Miguel de Ayatumo, Filipino Jesuit seminarian (d. 1609)
- Claudia Rusca, Italian composer, singer, and organist (d. 1676)
- Mervyn Tuchet, 2nd Earl of Castlehaven (d. 1631)
- Anthony van Diemen, Dutch merchant (d. 1645)
- Jerónimo Lobo, Portuguese Jesuit missionary (d. 1678)
- Miko?aj Ostroróg, Polish nobleman (d. 1651)
- Sir George Radcliffe, English politician (d. 1657)
- Kimura Shigenari, Japanese samurai (d. 1615)
- Giovanni Battista Pacetti, Italian painter (d. 1630)
- January 8 – Mingyi Swa, Burmese crown prince (b. 1558)
- January 11 – Scipione Gonzaga, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1542)
- February 6
- March 8 – Paul Luther, German scientist (b. 1533)
- March 23 – Henry Barrowe, English Puritan and separatist (b. 1550)
- April 6 – John Greenwood, English Puritan and separatist (hanged) (b. 1556)
- April 24 – William Harrison, English clergyman (b. 1534)
- May 29 – John Penry, Welsh Protestant (hanged) (b. 1559)
- May 30 – Christopher Marlowe, English poet and playwright (murdered) (b. 1564)
- June 3 – Katarina Bengtsdotter Gylta, Swedish abbess (b. 1520)
- June 25 – Michele Mercati, Italian physician and botanist (b. 1541)
- July 4 – Min Phalaung, Burmese monarch (b. 1535)
- July 11 – Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Italian painter (b. 1527)
- September 5 – Andreas von Auersperg, Carniolan noble and military commander in the battle of Sisak (b. 1556)
- September 25 – Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby, English nobleman, diplomat and politician (b. 1531)
- October 25 – Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas, Spanish colonial administrator (murdered) (b. 1519)
- November 11 – Albert, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (b. 1537)
- November 20 – Hans Bol, Flemish artist (b. 1534)
- date unknown