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1650s decade ran from January 1, 1650, to December 31, 1659.
August 13 – Colonel George Monck forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, forerunner of the Coldstream Guards.
September 3 – Third English Civil War: Battle of Dunbar (1650) – Parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell defeat a Scottish army, commanded by David Leslie.
September 27 – The Kolumbo volcano on Santorini experiences a massive eruption (VEI 6).
September 29 – Henry Robinson opens his Office of Addresses and Encounters, a form of employment exchange, in Threadneedle Street, London.
November 4 – William III of Orange becomes Prince of the House of Orange at the moment of his birth, succeeding his father, who had died a few days earlier. He does not become stadtholder, so the United Provinces becomes a true republic.
December 14 – Anne Greene is hanged at Oxford Castle in England for infanticide, having concealed an illegitimate stillbirth. The following day she revives in the dissection room and, being pardoned, lives until 1665.   December 25 – Thomas Cooper, former Usher of Gresham's School, England, is hanged as a Royalist rebel.
July 20 – Battle of Inverkeithing in Scotland: The English Parliamentarian New Model Army, under Major-General John Lambert, defeats a Scottish Covenanter army acting on behalf of Charles II, led by Sir John Brown of Fordell.
September 3 – English Civil War: The future King Charles II of England is defeated in the Battle of Worcester, the last major battle of the war.
October – An English diplomatic team, headed by Oliver St John, goes to The Hague, to negotiate an alliance between the Commonwealth of England and the Dutch Republic.
October 14 – Laws are passed in Massachusetts, forbidding poor people from adopting excessive styles of dress.
October 15– 16 – Escape of Charles II from England to France.  December 17 – Castle Cornet in Guernsey, the last stronghold which had supported the King in the Third English Civil War, surrenders.
January 11 – A Spanish army is defeated by local Mapuche-Huilliches as it tries to cross Bueno River in Southern Chile. 
March 12– 13 – The Treaty of Pereyaslav is concluded in the city of Pereyaslav, during the meeting between the Cossacks of the Zaporozhian Host and Tsar Alexey I of Russia, following the end to the Khmelnytsky Uprising in Ukraine, which had started in 1648 and had resulted in the massacre of many thousands of Jews.
April 5 – The Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War, is signed. 
April 11 – A commercial treaty between England and Sweden is signed. 
April 12 – Oliver Cromwell creates a union between England and Scotland, with Scottish representation in the Parliament of England. 
May 8 – Otto von Guericke demonstrates the power of atmospheric pressure and the effectiveness of his vacuum pump, using the Magdeburg hemispheres, before Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Imperial Diet in Regensburg. 
June 3 – Louis XIV of France is crowned at Reims. June 16 (June 6 Old Style) – Charles X Gustav succeeds his cousin Christina on the Swedish throne. After her abdication on the same day, Christina, now the former reigning queen of a Protestant nation, secretly converts to Catholicism.
July – The Russian Army seizes Smolensk, and the Thirteen Years' War starts between Russia and Poland over Ukraine.
July 10 – Peter Vowell and John Gerard are executed in London for plotting to assassinate Oliver Cromwell.
July 10 – Don Pantaleon, brother of the Portuguese ambassador, is executed after the death of an innocent man, following a fracas at the exchange in Exeter. 
August – Oliver Cromwell launches the Western Design, an English expedition to the Caribbean to counter Spanish commercial interests, effectively beginning the Anglo-Spanish War (which will last until after the English Restoration in 1660). The fleet leaves  Portsmouth in late December.
August 22 – Twenty-three Jewish refugees from Brazil settle in New Amsterdam, forming the nucleus of what will be the second largest urban Jewish community in history, that of New York City.  
September – is founded as the first Congregation Shearith Israel synagogue in North America.
September 3 – In England, the First Protectorate Parliament assembles. 
September 12 – Oliver Cromwell orders the exclusion of 120 members of Parliament, who are hostile to him. 
October 12 – The Delft Explosion, in the arsenal, devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100, among whom is Carel Fabritius (32), the most promising student of Rembrandt.
October 31 – Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, is crowned. His absolutist style of leadership becomes a benchmark for the rest of Germany. November 23 – French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense mystical vision, that marks him for life.
January 5 – Emperor Go-Sai ascends to the throne of Japan.
February 14 – The Mapuches launch coordinated attacks against the Spanish in Chile, beginning the Mapuche uprising of 1655. 
February 16 – Dutch Grand Pensionary advisor Johan de Witt marries Wendela Bicker.
March 8 – John Casor became the first legally recognized slave, as a result of a civil case in what will be the United States.
March 25 – Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christiaan Huygens.
April 4 – Battle of Porto Farina, Tunis: English admiral Robert Blake's fleet defeats the Barbary pirates.
April 7 – Pope Alexander VII, born Fabio Chigi, succeeds Pope Innocent X as the 237th pope.
April 24 – The Easter Massacre of the Waldensians: Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy slaughters 1,500 men, women and children; this is memorialized in John Milton's sonnet " On the Late Massacre in Piedmont" and apologized for by Pope Francis in 2015.
April 26 – The Dutch West India Company denies Peter Stuyvesant's request to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam ( Manhattan).
April 28 – Admiral Blake severely damages the arsenal of the Bey of Tunis.
May 10– 27 – Anglo-Spanish War: Invasion of Jamaica – Forces of the English Protectorate led by William Penn and Robert Venables capture the island of Jamaica from Spain. June 13 – Adriana Nooseman-van de Bergh becomes the first actress, in Amsterdam theater.
Date unknown The is erected, the only surviving 17th century example in the Netherlands, of a building designed as a library. Bibliotheca Thysiana
January 17 – The Treaty of Königsberg is signed, establishing an alliance between Charles X Gustav of Sweden and Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.
January 24 – The first Jewish doctor in the Thirteen Colonies of America, Jacob Lumbrozo, arrives in Maryland.
April 1 – Lwów Oath: John II Casimir Vasa, King of Poland, crowns the Black Madonna of Cz?stochowa as Queen and Protector of Poland in the cathedral of Lwów, after the miraculous saving of the Jasna Góra Monastery during the Deluge, an event which changed the course of the Second Northern War.
April 2 – The Treaty of Brussels is signed, creating an alliance between Philip IV of Spain and the exiled Royalists of the British Isles, led by Charles II.
April 28 – The ship is wrecked off Vergulde Draeck Ledge Point, Western Australia after it departs the Cape of Good Hope; rescue missions fail to find survivors. May 12 – The Dutch capture the city of Colombo, Sri Lanka, marking the start of Dutch Ceylon.
Undated The Stockholm Banco, the first bank to issue
banknotes, is founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The only
English fifty shilling coin is minted. Konoike Zen'amon (son of Konoike Shinroku) founds a baking and money-changing business in
Adams' Grammar School at Newport, Shropshire, England is founded by William Adams. Physician Samuel Stockhausen of the metal mining town of Goslar, Lower Saxony publishes his Libellus de lithargyrii fumo noxio morbifico, ejusque metallico frequentiori morbo vulgò dicto die Hütten Katze oder Hütten Rauch ("Treatise on the Noxious Fumes of Litharge, Diseases caused by them and Miners' Asthma"), a pioneering study of occupational disease.   
January 8 – Miles Sindercombe and his group of disaffected Levellers are betrayed, in their attempt to assassinate Oliver Cromwell, by blowing up the Palace of Whitehall in London, and arrested. 
February 4 – Oliver Cromwell gives Antonio Fernandez Carvajal the assurance of the right of Jews to remain in England.
February 23 – In England, the offers Lord Protector Humble Petition and Advice Cromwell the crown. 
March 2 – The Great Fire of Meireki in Edo, Japan, destroys most of the city and damages Edo Castle, killing an estimated 100,000 people. 
March 23 – Anglo-Spanish War (1654-60): By the Treaty of Paris, France and England form an alliance against Spain; England will receive  Dunkirk.
May 8 – Lord Protector Cromwell confirms his refusal of the crown of England, preferring the title " Lord Protector".  June 1
July 13 – Following his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to Oliver Cromwell, English army leader John Lambert is ordered to resign his commissions. 
August 20 – The ship Les Armes d'Amsterdam arrives at Quebec, New France. Among the passengers is Michel Mathieu Brunet dit Lestang (1638-1708), colonist, explorer and co-discoverer of what is today Green Bay, Wisconsin. He is the ancestor of the Brunet, Lestang and Carisse families of North America.
September – Shah Jahan becomes ill, allowing his son to take control of the Mughal Empire.
September 19 – Brandenburg and Poland sign the Treaty of Wehlau.
September 24 – The first autopsy and coroner's jury verdict are recorded, in the Colony of Maryland.
October 1 – Treaty of Raalte: William III, Prince of Orange is no longer stadtholder of Overijssel.
October 3 – French troops occupy Mardyck.
November 6 – Brandenburg and Poland sign the Treaty of Bromberg.
November 10 – Christina, former Queen of Sweden, has Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi killed in her presence, at the Palace of Fontainebleau. December 27 – The Flushing Remonstrance is signed in New Amsterdam, at the site of the future ( 1862) Flushing Town Hall in New York.
Date unknown Portuguese traders are expelled from
Ceylon by Dutch invaders. The Dutch in the Cape Colony start to import slaves from India and South-East Asia (later from Madagascar).
Date unknown First British colonists arrive on
Saint Helena. Spanish Infanta
Maria Theresa brings cocoa to Paris.
Diego Velázquez's portrait of Infanta Maria Theresa is first exhibited.
Thomas Hobbes publishes De Homine. Parisian police raid a monastery, sending monks to prison for eating meat and drinking wine during
Lent. Drought occurs in India.
Christiaan Huygens writes Systema Saturnium. Peter Swink, the first known non-white settler to own land in Massachusetts, and first known African to live in Springfield, Massachusetts, arrives. He holds a seat in the town meetings.
A Scholler in Oxford (1651). Newes from the Dead, or a True and Exact Narration of the Miraculous Deliverance of Anne Greene; whereunto are prefixed certain Poems casually written upon that subject. Oxford: printed by Leonard Lichfield for Tho. Robinson. Includes Latin verses by Christopher Wren.
Hughes, J. Trevor (1982). "Miraculous Deliverance of Anne Green: An Oxford Case Of Resuscitation In The Seventeenth Century". . British Medical Journal 285 (6357): 1792-1793. doi: 10.1136/bmj.285.6357.1792. JSTOR 29509089. PMC . 1500297 PMID 6816370 . Retrieved .
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"Time and Place". Slavery and the Making of America. Thirteen. 2004 . Retrieved . Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years.
^ "Fires, Great", in
The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p30
Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN . 0-14-102715-0
"Commonwealth Instrument of Government, 1653". Modern History Sourcebook. New York: Fordham University. August 1998 . Retrieved .
Barros Arana, Diego. "Capítulo XIV". (in Spanish). Tomo cuarto (Digital edition based on the second edition of 2000 ed.). Alicante: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. pp. 346-347. Historia general de Chile
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Williams, Hywel (2005). . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. Cassell's Chronology of World History 266. ISBN . 0-304-35730-8
"Guericke, Otto von". . Encyclopædia Britannica 9 (11th ed.). The Encyclopædia Britannica Co. 1910. p. 670.
^ Oliver Cromwell, letters and Speeches Thomas Carlyle
"Jews arrive in the New World". American Jewish Archives . Retrieved .
LeElef, Ner (2001). "World Jewish Population". SimpleToRemember . Retrieved . Metropolitan Tel Aviv, with 2.5 million Jews, is the world's largest Jewish city. It is followed by New York, with 1.9 million.
Wu, Bin (2014). Britannia 1066-1884: From Medieval Absolutism to the Birth of Freedom under Constitutional Monarchy, Limited Suffrage, and the Rule of Law. Springer. p. 53. ISBN . 9783319046839 OCLC 947041435.
Barros Arana, Diego. (in Spanish). Tomo cuarto (Digital edition based on the second edition of 2000 ed.). Alicante: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. p. 349. Historia general de Chile
Eisinger, J. (July 1982). "Lead and wine: Eberhard Gockel and the colica Pictonum". Medical History. 26 (3): 279-302. doi: 10.1017/s0025727300041508. ISSN 0025-7273. PMC . 1139187 PMID 6750289.
Risse, Guenter B. (2005). . Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 207. New Medical Challenges During the Scottish Enlightenment ISBN 90-420-1814-3 . Retrieved .
Rosen, George (1943). The History of Miners' Diseases: a medical and social interpretation (book preview). Schuman's. p. 10 . Retrieved .
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"1657". British Civil Wars. Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638-60. 2010-06-07 . Retrieved .
Morrill, John (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599-1658)". . Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography doi: 10.1093/ref:odnb/6765 . Retrieved . (subscription or UK public library membership required)
Blusse, Leonard; Vaillé, Cynthia (2005). The Deshima Dagregisters, Volume XII 1650-1660. Leiden.
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"Chocolate Arrives in England". Cadbury. Archived from the original on February 2, 2012 . Retrieved 2012.
Brems, Hans (June 1970). "Sweden: From Great Power to Welfare State". Journal of Economic Issues. Association for Evolutionary Economics. 4 (2, 3): 1-16. JSTOR 4224039. A swift and brilliantly conceived march from Holstein across the frozen Danish waters on Copenhagen, by Karl X Gustav in 1658, finally wrests Bohuslin, Sk'ane, and Blekinge from Denmark. Denmark no longer controls both sides of Oresund, and Swedish power is at its peak.
^ On display at