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1670s decade ran from January 1, 1670, to December 31, 1679.
January 21 – French-born highwayman Claude Duval is executed at Tyburn, in London.
April 29 – Pope Clement X succeeds Pope Clement IX, as the 239th pope.
May 2 – The Hudson's Bay Company is founded in England, to operate in Canada.
June 1 – At Dover, England, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, ending hostilities between their kingdoms. Louis will give Charles 200,000 pounds annually. In return Charles will relax the laws against Catholics, gradually re-Catholicize England, support French policy against the Dutch Republic (leading England into the Third Anglo-Dutch War), and convert to Catholicism himself. June 15 – The first stone of Fort Ricasoli is laid down in Malta.
January 22 – Impostor Mary Carleton is hanged at Newgate Prison in London, for multiple thefts and returning from penal transportation.
February 10 – Molière's comédie-ballet premiers in Paris. During the fourth performance, on The Imaginary Invalid February 17, the playwright, playing the title rôle, collapses on stage, dying soon after.
March 29 – Test Act: Roman Catholics and others who refuse to receive the sacrament of the Church of England cannot vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend the universities or assemble for meetings in England. On June 12, the king's Catholic brother, James, Duke of York, is forced to resign the office of Lord High Admiral because of the Act. 
April 27? – Jean-Baptiste Lully's first opera, Cadmus et Hermione, is premièred in France.
May 17 – In America, trader Louis Joliet and Jesuit missionary- explorer Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.
June 7 – First Battle of Schooneveld: In a sea battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, fought off the Netherlands coast, the Dutch Republic fleet (commanded by Michiel de Ruyter) defeats the allied Anglo-French fleet, commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine.
June 14 – The Dutch fleet again defeats the jointed Anglo-French fleet in the Second Battle of Schooneveld. June 17 – French explorers Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet reach the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descend to Arkansas.
July 6 – French troops conquer Maastricht.
July 11 – The Netherlands and Denmark sign a defense treaty.
July 24 – Edmund Halley enters The Queen's College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.
August 8 – In the American colonies, a Dutch battle fleet of 23 ships demands the surrender of New York.
August 9 – Dutch forces under Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge recapture New York from the English; the city is known as New Orange until regained by the English in 1674.
August 21 – Battle of Texel (Kijkduin): The Dutch fleet under Michiel de Ruyter defeats the English and French fleet. This prevents England's Blackheath Army from landing in Zeeland.
August 30 – Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Netherlands and the Lutherans form an anti-French covenant.
September 12 – William, Prince of Orange occupies Naarden, Netherlands.
November 9 – King Charles II of England removes Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, from his position as Lord Chancellor.
November 11 – Battle of Khotyn: Polish and Lithuanian military units, under the command of soon-to-be-king Jan Sobieski, defeat the Turkish army. In this battle, rockets of Kazimierz Siemienowicz are successfully used.
November 13 – Dutch troops commanded by Raimondo Montecuccoli and William, Prince of Orange conquer Bonn.
November 14 – Christopher Wren is knighted in England. November 23 – James, Duke of York, marries Mary of Modena; they meet for the first time immediately before the ceremony in  Dover.
January 5 – Franco-Dutch War – Battle of Turckheim: The French defeat Austria and Brandenburg.
January 29 – John Sassamon, an English-educated Native American Christian, dies at Assawampsett Pond, an event which will trigger a year-long war between the English American colonists of New England, and the Algonquian Native American tribes.
March 30 – The guild organisation is founded in Paris. Maîtresses couturières
April – English merchant Anthony de la Roché, blown off course after rounding Cape Horn eastabout, makes the first discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence, landing on South Georgia and (probably) Gough Island.   
June 8 – John Sassamon's alleged murderers are executed at Plymouth.
June 11 – Armed Wampanoags are reported traveling around Swansea, Massachusetts.
June 14– 25 – Colonial authorities of Rhode Island, Plymouth, and Massachusetts attempt a negotiation with Metacomet (King Philip), leader of the Wampanoags, and seek guarantees of fidelity from the Nipmuck and Narragansett tribes.
June 24 – King Philip's War breaks out, as the Wampanoags attack Swansea.
June 26 – Massachusetts troops march to Swansea, to join the Plymouth troops.
June 26– 29 – Wampanoags assault Rehoboth and Taunton; the natives elude colonial troops and leave Mount Hope for Pocasset, Massachusetts. The Mohegan tribe travels to Boston, in order to side with the English colonists against the Wampanoags. June 28 – Brandenburg defeats the Swedes in the Battle of Fehrbellin.
July 15 – The Narragansett tribe signs a peace treaty with Connecticut.
July 16– 24 – An envoy from Massachusetts attempts to negotiate with the Nipmuck tribe.
August 2– 4 – The Nipmucks attack Massachusetts troops and besiege Brookfield, Massachusetts.
August 10 – King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London; construction begins.
August 13 – The Massachusetts Council orders that Christian Indians are to be confined to designated praying towns.
September 1– 2 – While Wampanoags and Nipmucks attack Deerfield, Massachusetts, Captain Samuel Moseley commands Massachusetts troops in an attack on the Pennacook tribe.
September 12 – English colonists abandon Deerfield, Squakeag, and Brookfield due to a coalition of Indian attacks.
September 15 – The Bremen-Verden Campaign of the Northern Wars begins, with the invasion of Amt Wildeshausen by the Münster army, and their advance on Verden via the city of Bremen.
September 18 – The Narragansetts sign a treaty with the English in Boston; meanwhile, Massachusetts troops are ambushed near Northampton, Massachusetts.
September 20 – In England, a fire destroys most of the town of Northampton. According to a contemporary account, "the market place (which was a very goodly one), the stately church of Allhallows, 2 other parish churches and above three-fourth parts of the whole town was consumed and laid in ashes.". 
October 5 – The Pocomtuc tribe attacks and destroys Springfield, Massachusetts.
October 13 – The Massachusetts Council convenes and agrees that all Christian Indians should be ordered to move to Deer Island.
October 29 – Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz makes the first use of the long s (?) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.
November 2– 12 – Commissioners of the Thirteen Colonies organize a united force to attack the Narragansett tribe.
December 11 – Antonio de Vea expedition enters San Rafael Lake in western Patagonia. 
December 19 – United colonial forces attack the Narragansetts at the Great Swamp Fight. December 24 – 1675-1676 Malta plague epidemic begins.
January – Six months into King Philip's War, Metacomet (King Philip), leader of the Algonquian tribe known as the Wampanoag, travels westward to the Mohawk nation, seeking an alliance with the Mohawks against the English colonists of New England; his efforts in creating such an alliance are a failure.
January 29 – Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia.
February 10 – After the Nipmuc tribe attacks Lancaster, Massachusetts, colonist Mary Rowlandson is taken captive, and lives with the Indians until May.
February 14 – Metacomet and his Wampanoags attack Northampton, Massachusetts; meanwhile, the Massachusetts Council debates whether a wall should be erected around Boston.
February 23 – While the Massachusetts Council debates how to handle the Christian Indians they had exiled to Deer Island on October 13, 1675, a coalition of Indians led by Metacomet attacks colonial settlements just 16 km (9.9 mi) outside of Boston.
March 29 – Providence, Rhode Island is attacked and destroyed by Native Americans.
May 2– 3 – Mary Rowlandson is released from captivity, and returns to Boston.
May 19 – Peskeomskut Massacre – Battle of Turner's Falls: Captain William Turner leads a raid at first light, on an encampment consisting mainly of women and children. An estimated 300-400 lives are taken in less than half an hour, first from gunshot directly into the sleeping tents, then by sword and by drowning as the victims try to flee. This incident happens on the west bank of the Connecticut River, just above the falls known as Turner's Falls in Gill, Massachusetts.
May 26 – A fire destroys the town hall and 624 houses in Southwark, England. 
May 31 – The Massachusetts Council finally decides to move the Christian Indians from Deer Island to Cambridge, Massachusetts (approximate date).
June – Bacon's Rebellion begins in the Virginia Colony. On July 30, Nathaniel Bacon and his followers issue the Declaration of the People of Virginia.
June 1 – Battle of Öland: A combined fleet of the Dutch Republic and Denmark-Norway decisively defeats the Swedish Navy, which loses its flagship . Kronan
June 12 – The Indian coalition attacks Hadley, Massachusetts, but are repelled by Connecticut troops. June 19 – Massachusetts issues a declaration of amnesty, to any Indian who surrenders.
July 2 – Major John Talcott and his troops begin sweeping Connecticut and Rhode Island, capturing large numbers of Native Americans from Algonquian tribes and exporting them out of the Thirteen Colonies as slaves.
July 4 – Captain Benjamin Church and his soldiers begin sweeping Plymouth Colony, for any remaining Wampanoag tribesmen.
July 11 – The Wampanoags attack Taunton, Massachusetts, but are repelled by colonists.
July 17 – In France, Madame de Brinvilliers is executed for poisoning her father and brothers. The case also scares King Louis XIV into starting a series of investigations about possible poisonings and witchcraft (later called the ). Affair of the Poisons
July 27 – Nearly 200 Nipmuc tribesmen surrender to the English colonists in Boston.
July 30 – Virginia colonist Nathaniel Bacon and his makeshift army issue a Declaration of the People of Virginia, instigating Bacon's Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
August 2 – Captain Benjamin Church captures Metacomet's wife and son.
August 12 – King Philip ( Metacomet), chief of the Wampanoags that had waged a war throughout southern New England that bore his name, is killed by an Indian named Alderman, a soldier led by Captain Benjamin Church.
August 17 – Sweden gains a decisive victory over Denmark-Norway in the Battle of Halmstad (fought at Fyllebro).
August 28 – Irish Donation of 1676 is shipped from Dublin to relieve Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
September 21 – Pope Innocent XI succeeds Pope Clement X, as the 240th pope.
October 13 – Trunajaya defeats the Mataram Sultanate in the Battle of Gegodog.
October 17 – The Treaty of ?urawno is signed, between the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
November 16 – A prison is founded on Nantucket Island, in the English colony of Massachusetts.
November 27 – A fire in Boston, Massachusetts, is accidentally set by a careless and sleepy apprentice, who drops a lighted candle, or leaves it too near some combustible substance; this is the largest fire known at this time in the district. The Rev. Increase Mather's church, dwelling and a portion of his personal library are destroyed. 
December 4 – Scanian War: Sweden defeats the forces of Denmark in the Battle of Lund. December 7 – Ole Rømer makes the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.
January 24 – King Charles II of England dissolves the " Cavalier Parliament", after nearly 18 years. 
March 6– May 27 – In England, the " Habeas Corpus Parliament" (or "First Exclusion Parliament") meets. It is dissolved on  July 12, while in recess, by royal prerogative, to prevent it from passing a bill excluding the king's brother, the Catholic James, Duke of York, from the succession to the English throne, as part of the Exclusion Crisis.
May 27 – The Parliament of England passes the Habeas Corpus Act, "for the better securing the liberty of the subject". 
June 1 – Battle of Drumclog: Scottish Covenanters defeat a small government force.
June 4 – Armenia earthquake: A tremor with an estimated surface wave magnitude of 6.4 takes place, in the Yerevan region of the Persian Empire. June 22 – Battle of Bothwell Bridge, Scotland: Royal forces led by James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and John Graham of Claverhouse subdue the Scottish Covenanters.
Urbina C., María Ximena (2017). "La expedición de John Narborough a Chile, 1670: Defensa de Valdivia, rumeros de indios, informaciones de los prisioneros y la creencia en la Ciudad de los Césares" [John Narborough expedition to Chile, 1670: Defense of Valdivia, indian rumours, information on prisoners, and the belief in the City of the Césares]. . Magallania 45 (2). doi: 10.4067/S0718-22442017000200011 . Retrieved 2019.
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Wagner, John A.; Wagner, Edward Ed (2001). . ABC-CLIO. p. 30. Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses ISBN . 9781851093588
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de Seixas y Lovera, Francisco (1690). . Madrid: Antonio de Zafra. Descripcion geographica, y derrotero de la region austral Magallanica
Wace, N. M. (1969). "The discovery, exploitation and settlement of the Tristan da Cunha Islands". Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia (South Australian Branch). 10: 11-40.
^ "Fires, Great", in
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de Vea, Antonio (1886). "Expedición de Antonio de Vea". (in Spanish). Valparaíso. pp. 539-596. Anuario Hidrográfico de la Marina de Chile
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Hubbard, William (1848). A General History of New England, from the discovery to MDCLXXX. Boston: Little, Brown.
Kreyszig, Erwin (June 1991). Differential Geometry. ISBN . 978-0-486-66721-8
Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 308-309. OL 1756160M. Ice cream becomes popular as dessert in Paris.
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Roland, Claudine (1997). The Canal du Midi. MSM. ISBN . 2-909998-66-5