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1680s decade ran from January 1, 1680, to December 31, 1689.
In 1681 the last
July 1 – Oliver Plunkett, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, falsely convicted in June of treason, is hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, London, the last Catholic martyr to die in England; he is  canonised in 1975. August – English sea captain
Robert Knox of the East India Company escapes prison in Ceylon, and details his adventures across Kandy, and life in the kingdoms of the Tamil country Vanni, in his book . An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon
August 12 – Ahom King Gadadhar Singha (or Gadapani), who takes the Tai name Supaatphaa, ascends the throne.
August 31 – English perjurer Titus Oates is told to leave his state apartments in Whitehall; his fame begins to wane, and he is soon arrested and imprisoned for sedition.
September 30 – France annexes the city of Strasbourg (German: Strassburg), previously a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.
October 28 – A London woman is publicly flogged, for the crime of "involving herself in politics."
December – Wu Shifan, grandson of Chinese general Wu Sangui, commits suicide in Yunnan province, ending the 8-year Revolt of the Three Feudatories against Qing dynasty authority in China, at this time led by the Kangxi Emperor. December 22 – King Charles II of England signs a warrant for the building of the Royal Hospital Chelsea in London for wounded and retired soldiers.
March 11 – Work begins on construction of the Royal Hospital Chelsea for old soldiers in London, England. 
March 22 – A fire breaks out in Newmarket, Suffolk, consuming half the town and spreading into sections of surrounding Cambridgeshire. Historian Laurence Echard describes it later as "A Providential Fire", noting that King Charles II "by the approach of the fury of the flames was immediately driven out of his own palace", and, after moving to safety in another section of town, was forced to flee again "when the wind, as conducted by an invisible power, suddenly changed about, and blew the smoke and cinders directly on his new lodgings, and in a moment made them as untenable as the other." 
April 7 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, exploring rivers in America, reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River.
April 9 – At the mouth of the Mississippi River, near modern Venice, Louisiana, Robert de La Salle buries an engraved plate and a cross, claiming the territory as for La Louisiane France.
May 6 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.
May 7 – The reign of Peter the Great officially begins in Russia. May 11 – Moscow Uprising of 1682: A mob takes over the Kremlin and lynches the leading boyars and military commanders.
Celia Fiennes, noblewoman and traveller, begins her journeys across Britain, in a venture that will prove to be her life's work. Her aim is to chronicle the towns, cities and great houses of the country. Her travels continue until at least 1712, and will take her to every county in England, though the main body of her journal is not written until the year 1702. The Richard Wall House, believed to be the longest continuously-inhabited residence in the US, is built in Pennsylvania.
July 8 – Qing Dynasty Chinese admiral Shi Lang leads 300 ships with 20,000 troops out of Tongshan, Fujian, and sails towards the Kingdom of Tungning, in modern-day Taiwan and Penghu, in order to quell the kingdom in the name of Qing.
July 14 – A 140,000-man Ottoman force arrives at Vienna, and starts to besiege the city.
July 16 and July 17 – Battle of Penghu: Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang defeats the naval forces of Zheng Keshuang, in a decisive victory.
September 5 – Qing Chinese admiral Shi Lang receives the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang, ushering in the collapse of the Kingdom of Tungning, which is then incorporated into the Qing Empire.
September 12 – Battle of Vienna: The Ottoman siege of the city is broken, with the arrival of a force of 70,000 Poles, Austrians and Germans under Polish-Lithuanian king Jan III Sobieski, whose cavalry turns their flank (considered to be the turning point in the Ottoman Empire's fortunes). 
October 3 – Shi Lang reaches Taiwan and occupies present day Kaohsiung.
October 6 – Germantown, Philadelphia is founded as the first permanent German settlement in North America (in 1983 U.S. President Ronald Reagan declares a 300th Year Celebration, and in 1987, it becomes an annual holiday, German-American Day).
November 1 – The English crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties. December – The River Thames freezes, allowing a frost fair to be held.
Pope Innocent XI forms a Holy League with the Habsburg Empire, Venice and Poland, to end the Ottoman Turkish rule in Europe. Japanese poet
Saikaku composes 23,500 verses in 24 hours at the Sumiyoshi Shrine at Osaka; the scribes cannot keep pace with his dictation and just count the verses.
Tokyo University, formally registered as a university in 1877, has its predecessor established. The
British East India Company receives Chinese permission to build a trading station at Canton. Tea sells in Europe for less than a shilling a pound, but the import duty of 5 shillings makes it too expensive for most English people to afford; hence smuggled tea is drunk much more than legally imported tea.
John Bunyan writes , Part 2, in The Pilgrim's Progress England. The Chipperfield's Circus dynasty begins, when James Chipperfield introduces performing animals to England, at the River Thames frost fairs in London.
February 6 – Catholic James Stuart, Duke of York, becomes King James II of England and Ireland, and King James VII of Scotland, in succession to his brother Charles II (1660-1685), King of England, Scotland, and Ireland since 1660. James II and VII reigns until deposed, in 1688.
February 20 – René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, intending to establish a colony near the mouth of the Mississippi River, lands with 200 surviving colonists at Matagorda Bay on the Texas coast, believing the Mississippi near. He establishes Fort St. Louis. 
February–March – Morean War (part of the Great Turkish War): The Ottoman Halil Pasha invades the serasker Mani Peninsula, and forces it to surrender hostages.
March – Louis XIV of France passes the , allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. Code Noir
May 7 – Morean War – Battle on Vrtijeljka: Advancing Ottoman forces prevail over defending Venetian irregulars, on a hill in the Sanjak of Montenegro.
May 11 – The Killing Time: Five Covenanters in Wigtown, Scotland, notably Margaret Wilson, are executed for refusing to swear an oath declaring King James of England, Scotland and Ireland as head of the church, becoming the . Wigtown martyrs 
June 11 – Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, lands at Lyme Regis with an invasion force brought from the Netherlands, to challenge his uncle, James II, for the Crown of England.  June 20 – Monmouth Rebellion: James, Duke of Monmouth declares himself at Taunton to be King, and heir to his father's Kingdoms as James II of England and Ireland, and James VII of Scotland. 
July 6 – Monmouth Rebellion – Battle of Sedgemoor: The armies of King James II of England defeat rebel forces under James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, and capture the Duke himself, shortly after the battle.
July 15 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, is executed at Tower Hill, London, England.
August 11 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the fortress of Koroni from the Ottoman Empire; its garrison is massacred.
August 25 – The Bloody Assizes begin in Winchester; over 1000 of Monmouth's rebels are tried, and condemned to death or transportation.
September 14 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice defeats an 8,000-strong Ottoman army at Kalamata.
September – The first organised street lighting is introduced in London, England, with oil lamps to be lit outside every tenth house, on moonless winter nights.
October 22 – Louis XIV issues the Edict of Fontainebleau, which revokes the Edict of Nantes and declares Protestantism illegal, thereby depriving Huguenots of civil rights. Their Temple de Charenton-le-Pont is immediately demolished. November 11 – Morean War: The Republic of Venice captures the fortress town of Igoumenitsa from the Ottoman Empire, and razes it to the ground.
Russia, Saxony, Brandenburg and Bavaria join the Holy League, against the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Imperial forces under Austrian leadership invade Ottoman-occupied Hungary and advance on Buda. The
confirms and describes the rights of the Lutheran Church and confirms Sweden as a Lutheran state: all non-Lutherans are banned from immigration unless they convert to Lutheranism; the Swedish Church Law 1686 Romani people are to be incorporated to the Lutheran Church; the poor care law is regulated; and all parishes are forced by law to teach the children within them to read and write, in order to learn the scripture, which closely eradicates illiteracy in Sweden.  In
Greece, Ottoman-occupied Morea (i.e., the Peloponnese) falls to the Venetians. A
hurricane saves Charleston, South Carolina from attack by Spanish vessels.
English historian and naturalist Robert Plot publishes The Natural History of Staffordshire, a collection of illustrations and texts detailing the history of the county. It is the first document known to mention crop circles and a double sunset. The Café Procope, which remains in business in the 21st century, is opened in Paris by Procopio Cutò, as a coffeehouse.
July 5 – Isaac Newton's , known as the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Principia, is published by the Royal Society of London. In it, Newton describes his theory of universal gravitation, explains the laws of mechanics, and gives a formula for the speed of sound. The writing of ushers in a tidal wave of changes in thought, significantly accelerating the Principia Mathematica scientific revolution by providing new and practical intellectual tools, and becomes the foundation of modern physics.
July 24 – Morean War – Battle of Patras: The Republic of Venice defeats the Ottomans, which flee in panic, allowing the Venetians to capture the fortresses of Patras, Rio, Antirrio, and Lepanto unopposed.
August 12 – Great Turkish War – Battle of Mohács: The Habsburg imperial army, and allies under Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, defeat the Ottoman Turks, and enable Austria to conquer most of Ottoman-occupied Hungary.
September – Morean War: The navy of the Republic of Venice raids the Dalmatian coast, and attacks Ottoman Turkish strongholds in Greece.
September 23– 29 – Morean War: Venetian forces under Francesco Morosini besiege the Ottoman garrison in the Acropolis of Athens. The Temple of Athena Nike is demolished, the Propylaea suffer damage, and half the Parthenon is destroyed, when a cannon ball hits a powder magazine there on 26 September.
November 8 – Suleiman II succeeds the deposed Mehmed IV, as Ottoman Emperor. December 31 – In response to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, a group of Huguenots set sail from France, and settle in the recently established Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope, where, using their native skills, they establish the first South African vineyards.
March – William Dampier makes the first recorded visit to Christmas Island.
March 1 – A great fire devastates Bungay, England.
April 3 – Francesco Morosini becomes Doge of Venice.
April 10 – Morean War: The Venetian forces under Francesco Morosini evacuate Athens and Piraeus.
April 18 (Julian calendar) – The Germantown Quaker Protest Against Slavery is drafted by four Germantown Quakers.
April 29 – Friedrich Wilhelm, the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia, dies. Friedrich III becomes Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia until 1701, when he becomes the first King of Prussia, as Friedrich I.
May 4 – King James II of England orders his Declaration of Indulgence, suspending penal laws against Catholics, to be read from every Anglican pulpit in England. The Church of England and its staunchest supporters, the peers and gentry, are outraged; on June 8 the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, is imprisoned in the Tower of London for refusing to proclaim it.
May 10 – King Narai of Ayutthaya nominates Princess Sudawadi as his successor, with Constantine Phaulkon, Mom Pi and Phetracha acting as joint regents.
May 17 – The arrest of King Narai of Ayutthaya launches a coup d'état.
June 5 – Constantine Phaulkon is arrested; he is later beheaded.
June 10 – The birth of James Francis Edward Stuart (later known as the Old Pretender), son and heir to James II of England and his Catholic wife Mary of Modena, at St James's Palace in London, increases public disquiet about a Catholic dynasty, particularly when the baby is baptised into the Catholic faith. Rumours about his true maternity swiftly begin to circulate.
June 24 – French forces under Chevalier de Beauregard abandon their garrison at Mergui, following repeated Siamese attacks; this ultimately leads to their withdrawal from the country. June 30 – A high-powered conspiracy of notables (the ) invite Dutch Immortal Seven stadtholder William III of Orange and Princess Mary to "defend the liberties of England", and depose King James VII and II.
July 13 – The Siege of Negroponte by the Venetians begins.
August 1 – Phetracha becomes king of Ayutthaya, after a coup d'état.
September 6 – Great Turkish War: The Habsburg army captures Belgrade.
October 21 – The Venetians raise the Siege of Negroponte.
October 27 – King James II of England dismisses his minister Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland.
November 11 (November 1 OS) – Glorious Revolution: William III of Orange sets sail a second time from Hellevoetsluis, the Netherlands, to take over England, Scotland and Ireland from King James II of England.
November 15 (November 5 OS) – The Glorious Revolution begins: William of Orange lands at Torbay, England with a multinational force of 15,000 mercenaries. He makes no claim to the British Crown, saying only that he has come to save Protestantism and to maintain English liberty, and begins a march on London.
November 19 (November 9 OS) – William of Orange captures Exeter, after the magistrates flee the city.
November 20 (November 10 OS) – The Wincanton Skirmish between forces loyal to James II led by Patrick Sarsfield and a party of Dutch troops is one of the few armed clashes in England during the Glorious Revolution.
November 23 – A group of 1,500 Old Believers immolate themselves to avoid capture, when troops of the tsar lay siege to their monastery on Lake Onega.
November 26 – Hearing that William of Orange has landed in England, Louis XIV declares war on the Netherlands. Perhaps revealingly, he does not attack the Netherlands, but instead strikes at the heart of the Holy Roman Empire, with about 100,000 soldiers. The Nine Years' War begins in Europe and America.
December 7 – The gates of Derry were shut in front of the Jacobite Earl of Antrim and his "redshanks". This initiated the Siege of Derry which was the first major event in the Williamite War in Ireland.
December 9 – The Battle of Reading takes place in Reading, Berkshire. It is the only substantial military action in England during the Glorious Revolution and ends in a decisive victory for forces loyal to William of Orange.
December 11 – Having led his army to Salisbury and been deserted by his troops, James VII and II attempts to flee to France. December 18 – William of Orange enters London.
January 11 (January 22 O.S.) – Glorious Revolution in England: The Convention Parliament is convened to determine if King James II of England, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, vacated the throne when he fled to France, at the end of 1688. The settlement of this is agreed on 8 February. 
February 13 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are proclaimed co-rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland. 
March 2 – Nine Years' War: As French forces leave, they set fire to Heidelberg Castle, and the nearby town of Heidelberg.
March 22 (March 12 O.S.) – Start of the Williamite War in Ireland: The deposed James II of England lands with 6,000 French soldiers in Ireland, where there is a Catholic majority, hoping to use it as the base for a counter-coup. However, many Irish Catholics see him as an agent of  Louis XIV of France, and refuse to support him.
March 27 – Japanese haiku master Bash? sets out on his last great voyage, which will result in the prose and verse classic ("Narrow Road to the Interior"). Oku no Hosomichi
April 11 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are crowned in London as King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland. Ireland does not recognise them yet, while the  Estates of Scotland declare King James VII of Scotland deposed.
May 11 (May 1 O.S.) – Williamite War in Ireland – Battle of Bantry Bay: The French fleet under the Marquis de Châteaurenault is able to protect its transports, unloading supplies for James II, from the English Royal Navy under the Earl of Torrington, and withdraws unpursued. 
May 12 – Nine Years' War: With England and the Netherlands now both ruled by William III, they join the Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), thus escalating the conflict, which continues until 1697. This is also the effective beginning of King William's War, the first of four North American Wars (until 1763) between English and French colonists, both sides allied to Native American tribes. The nature of the fighting is a series of raids on each other's settlements, across the Canadian and New England borders.
May 24 – The Bill of Rights establishes constitutional monarchy in England, but with Roman Catholics barred from the throne. Parliament also passes the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants but with Roman Catholics intentionally excluded. This effectively concludes the Glorious Revolution.
May 25 – The last hearth tax is collected in England and Wales. May 31 – Leisler's Rebellion: Calvinist Jacob Leisler deposes lieutenant governor Francis Nicholson and assumes control of the Province of New York.
July 25 – The Council of Wales and the Marches is abolished.
July 27 – First Jacobite rising: Battle of Killiecrankie near Pitlochry in Perthshire – Scottish Covenanter supporters of William III and Mary II (under Hugh Mackay) are defeated by Jacobite supporters of James II, but the latter's leader, John Graham, Viscount Dundee, is killed. Hand grenades are used in action.
July 28 – English sailors break through a floating boom across the River Foyle, to end the Siege of Derry after 105 days. 
August 2 – Boston Revolt: Edmund Andros, former governor of the Dominion of New England, escapes from Boston to Connecticut, but is recaptured.
August 5 – Beaver Wars: Lachine massacre – A force of 1,500 Iroquois largely destroys the village of Lachine, New France.
August 12 – Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi, b. 1611), Pope since 1676, dies. He played a major part in founding both the League of Augsburg, against Louis XIV, and the Holy League, against the Ottoman Empire.
August 20 – A large Williamite force under Marshal Schomberg begins the Siege of Carrickfergus in the north of Ireland, which surrenders on August 27.
August 21 – First Jacobite rising: Battle of Dunkeld – Covenanters defeat the Jacobites in Scotland.
August 27 – China and Russia sign the Treaty of Nerchinsk.
October 6 – Pope Alexander VIII succeeds Pope Innocent XI, to become the 241st pope, the first Venetian to hold the office in over 200 years.
November 22 – Peter the Great decrees the construction of the Great Siberian Road to China. December 16 – Convention Parliament – The English Bill of Rights is officially declared in force.
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