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1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1689th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 689th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1689, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 11 (January 22 O.S.) – Glorious Revolution in England: The Convention Parliament is convened to determine if King James II of England, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, vacated the throne when he fled to France, at the end of 1688. The settlement of this is agreed on 8 February.
- February 13 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are proclaimed co-rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland.
- March 2 – Nine Years' War: As French forces leave, they set fire to Heidelberg Castle, and the nearby town of Heidelberg.
- March 22 (March 12 O.S.) – Start of the Williamite War in Ireland: The deposed James II of England lands with 6,000 French soldiers in Ireland, where there is a Catholic majority, hoping to use it as the base for a counter-coup. However, many Irish Catholics see him as an agent of Louis XIV of France, and refuse to support him.
- March 27 – Japanese haiku master Bash? sets out on his last great voyage, which will result in the prose and verse classic Oku no Hosomichi ("Narrow Road to the Interior").
- April 11 (O.S.) – William III and Mary II are crowned in London as King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland. Ireland does not recognise them yet, while the Estates of Scotland declare King James VII of Scotland deposed.
- April 18
- May 11 (May 1 O.S.) – Williamite War in Ireland – Battle of Bantry Bay: The French fleet under the Marquis de Châteaurenault is able to protect its transports, unloading supplies for James II, from the English Royal Navy under the Earl of Torrington, and withdraws unpursued.
- May 12 – Nine Years' War: With England and the Netherlands now both ruled by William III, they join the Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), thus escalating the conflict, which continues until 1697. This is also the effective beginning of King William's War, the first of four North American Wars (until 1763) between English and French colonists, both sides allied to Native American tribes. The nature of the fighting is a series of raids on each other's settlements, across the Canadian and New England borders.
- May 24 – The Bill of Rights establishes constitutional monarchy in England, but with Roman Catholics barred from the throne. Parliament also passes the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants but with Roman Catholics intentionally excluded. This effectively concludes the Glorious Revolution.
- May 25 – The last hearth tax is collected in England and Wales.
- May 31 – Leisler's Rebellion: Calvinist Jacob Leisler deposes lieutenant governor Francis Nicholson and assumes control of the Province of New York.
- July 25 – The Council of Wales and the Marches is abolished.
- July 27 – First Jacobite rising: Battle of Killiecrankie near Pitlochry in Perthshire – Scottish Covenanter supporters of William III and Mary II (under Hugh Mackay) are defeated by Jacobite supporters of James II, but the latter's leader, John Graham, Viscount Dundee, is killed. Hand grenades are used in action.
- July 28 – English sailors break through a floating boom across the River Foyle, to end the Siege of Derry after 105 days.
- August 2 – Boston Revolt: Edmund Andros, former governor of the Dominion of New England, escapes from Boston to Connecticut, but is recaptured.
- August 5 – Beaver Wars: Lachine massacre – A force of 1,500 Iroquois largely destroys the village of Lachine, New France.
- August 12 – Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi, b. 1611), Pope since 1676, dies. He played a major part in founding both the League of Augsburg, against Louis XIV, and the Holy League, against the Ottoman Empire.
- August 20 – A large Williamite force under Marshal Schomberg begins the Siege of Carrickfergus in the north of Ireland, which surrenders on August 27.
- August 21 – First Jacobite rising: Battle of Dunkeld – Covenanters defeat the Jacobites in Scotland.
- August 27 – China and Russia sign the Treaty of Nerchinsk.
- October 6 – Pope Alexander VIII succeeds Pope Innocent XI, to become the 241st pope, the first Venetian to hold the office in over 200 years.
- November 22 – Peter the Great decrees the construction of the Great Siberian Road to China.
- December 16 – Convention Parliament – The English Bill of Rights is officially declared in force.
- January 18 – Montesquieu, French writer (d. 1755)
- February 3 – Blas de Lezo, admiral of the Spanish Empire (d. 1741)
- c. February 23 – Samuel Bellamy, English pirate captain (d. 1717)
- April 2 – Arthur Dobbs, Irish politician and governor of the Province of North Carolina (d. 1765)
- May 24 – Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea, English politician (d. 1769)
- May 26 – Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, English writer (d. 1762)
- June 26 – Edward Holyoke, American President of Harvard University (d. 1769)
- July 9 – Alexis Piron, French writer (d. 1773)
- August 19 – Samuel Richardson, English writer (d. 1761)
- October 22 – King John V of Portugal (d. 1750)
- December 23 – Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, French composer (d. 1755)
- January 6 – Bishop Seth Ward, English mathematician and astronomer (b. 1617)
- January 9 – Sir Hugh Cholmeley, 4th Baronet, English politician (b. 1632)
- January 18 – Ernest Günther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (b. 1609)
- January 27
- February 12 – Marie Louise of Orléans (b. 1662)
- February 13 – Carlo Pio di Savoia, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1622)
- February 22 – Willem Ogier, Flemish playwright (b. 1618)
- February 24 – Elsa Elisabeth Brahe, Swedish countess and duchess (b. 1632)
- March 10 – Philip Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg (b. 1620)
- March 18 – John Dixwell, English judge (b. 1607)
- March 30 – Kazimierz ?yszczy?ski, Polish philosopher (b. 1634)
- April 14 – Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, youngest surviving daughter of Ferdinand III (b. 1654)
- April 16 – Aphra Behn, English author (b. 1640)
- April 18 – George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys, British Lord Chief Justice (b. 1648)
- April 19 – Christina, Queen of Sweden (b. 1626)
- April 22 – Thomas Proby, English politician (b. 1632)
- May 12 – Sir John Reresby, 2nd Baronet, English politician and diarist (b. 1634)
- May 14 – Sambhaji, High Protector of the Maratha Empire (b. 1657)
- May 15 – Jean Paul Médaille, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1618)
- June 8 – Decio Azzolino, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1623)
- June 20 – Richard Sherlock, English priest (b. 1612)
- June 25 – William Thomas, Welsh Anglican bishop (b. 1613)
- June 27 – Richard Waldron, colonial settler, acting President of the Province of New Hampshire (b. 1615)
- June 28 – Thomas Mainwaring, English politician (b. 1623)
- July 7 – Princess Louise of Savoy, Hereditary Princess of Baden-Baden (b. 1627)
- July 8 – Edward Wooster, English Connecticut pioneer (b. 1622)
- July 27 – John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee, Scottish general (b. 1648)
- August 6 – Sophia Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Prussian royal consort (b. 1636)
- August 9 – Dionisio Lazzari, Italian sculptor and architect (b. 1617)
- August 12 – Pope Innocent XI (b. 1611)
- August 13 – Count Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (b. 1636)
- August 21 – William Cleland, Scottish poet and soldier (b. c. 1661)
- August 28 – Claude-Jean Allouez, French Jesuit missionary and explorer of North America (b. 1622)
- September 10 – John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse of England (b. 1614)
- September 26 – August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (b. 1652)
- September 30 – Julius Francis, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Bohemian noble (b. 1641)
- October 4 – Quirinus Kuhlmann, German Baroque poet and mystic (b. 1651)
- October 13 – George Ent, English scientist (b. 1604)
- October 15 – Sir Edward Dering, 3rd Baronet, English politician (b. 1650)
- October 24 – Adolph John I, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, Swedish prince (b. 1629)
- November 13 – Philipp von Zesen, German poet (b. 1619)
- November 20 – Samuel Peterson, American city founder (b. 1639)
- November 26 – Marquard Gude, German archaeologist (b. 1635)
- December 6 – Pjetër Bogdani, Albanian priest and writer (b. c. 1630)
- December 16 – Cornelis Geelvinck, Dutch mayor (b. 1621)
- December 29 – Thomas Sydenham, English physician (b. 1624)