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1720s decade ran from January 1, 1720, to December 31, 1729.
July 12 – " Bubble Act": the Lords Justice in Great Britain attempt to curb some of the excesses of the stock markets during the " South Sea Bubble". They dissolve a number of petitions for patents and charters, and abolish more than 80 joint-stock companies of dubious merit, but this has little effect on the creation of "Bubbles", ephemeral joint-stock companies created during the hysteria of the times. 
July 27 – The takes place in the Ledsund strait between the island communities of Föglö and Lemland. It was the last major naval battle in the Great Northern War that took place in the Åland Islands, marking the end of Russian and Swedish offensive naval operations in Baltic waters. Battle of Grengam
August 14 – The Spanish Villasur expedition, which set out on June 16 from New Mexico, with the intention of checking French influence on the Great Plains of North America, ends in failure, as it is ambushed by a Pawnee and Otoe force.
September – "South Sea Bubble": The English stock market crashes, with dropping prices for stock in the South Sea Company. November 16 – Pirate " Calico Jack" Rackham is brought to trial at Spanish Town in Jamaica; he is hanged at Port Royal two days later.
Edenton is incorporated as the county seat of Chowan County, North Carolina. The governor and assembly of North Carolina move to Edenton, making it the de facto capital of North Carolina until 1746, when the government is moved to New Bern.
Peter the Great of Russia creates the . Table of Ranks A small group of Bohemian Brethren (the "Hidden Seed") from northern
Moravia are allowed to settle in a new village, Herrnhut, on the Berthelsdorf estate of the pietist Count Nicolaus Zinzendorf in Upper Lusatia ( Saxony), forming the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine, seed of the Moravian Church's renewal. The first public theatre in Denmark,
Lille Grønnegade Theatre, is founded in Copenhagen. Modern
music theory finds definition, in Jean-Philippe Rameau's ("Treatise on Harmony"), published in Paris. Traité de l'harmonie réduite à ses principes naturels The
enters into the service of the Brown Bess Musket British Army. Johann Sebastian Bach composes . The Well-Tempered Clavier
January 15 – King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne in favour of his 16-year-old son Louis I. 
January 22 – Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, Spanish Captain general of the Río de la Plata, forces the Portuguese to abandon their fortified settlement at what will become the city of Montevideo in Uruguay.
January 28 – Saint Petersburg State University is established.
February 8 – Catherine I of Russia is officially named czarina by her husband, Peter the Great.
February 20 – The premiere of , an Italian Giulio Cesare opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London.
April 7 – The premiere performance, of the ( St John Passion BWV 245) of Johann Sebastian Bach, takes place at St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig.
May 29 – Pope Benedict XIII (born Pierro Orsini) succeeds Pope Innocent XIII, as the 245th pope. June 23 – The Treaty of Constantinople is signed, partitioning Persia between the Ottoman Empire and Russia.
Asia The Terengganu Sultanate is established at Terengganu Darul Iman (now known as Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia).
February 8 – Catherine I becomes Empress of Russia, on the death of her husband, Peter the Great. 
February 20 – The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony.
March 2 – In London, a night watchman finds a severed head by the River Thames; it is later recognized to be that of the husband of Catherine Hayes. She and an accomplice are later executed. 
March 30 – The second performance of Johann Sebastian Bach's , St John Passion BWV 245 (including 5 movements from his ), takes place at Weimarer Passion St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
April 30 – Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and King Philip V of Spain sign the Treaty of Vienna.
May 12 – The is raised as a military company, as part of the pacification of the Black Watch Scottish Highlands under General George Wade. 
May 21 – The Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky is instituted in Russia by Empress Catherine I.
May 24 – Jonathan Wild, fraudulent Thief-Taker General, is hanged at Tyburn in London, for actually aiding criminals. June 24 – The Grand Lodge of Ireland in Dublin holds its first recorded meeting, making it the second most senior Grand Lodge in world Freemasonry, and the oldest in continuous existence. 
Date unknown A fire in
Wapping, London, destroys 70 houses. In
Qing dynasty China, 66 copies of a 5,020 volume-long encyclopedia, the ( Gujin Tushu Jicheng Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times) are printed, necessitating the crafting of 250,000 movable type characters cast in bronze. 1725– 1730 – Freemasonry is established in France, as an English import.
February 11 – Spain besieges Gibraltar, in order to recapture the territory. 
February 2 – Johann Sebastian Bach's solo cantata, , premieres in Ich habe genug, BWV 82 Leipzig.
February 20 – German composer George Frideric Handel becomes a British subject. 
April 11 – Johann Sebastian Bach's (BWV 244b) premieres at St Matthew Passion St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
May 12 – History of the Moravian Church: The 18th century renewal: The Brotherly Agreement is adopted by the Moravian Church community at Herrnhut, under the influence of Count Nicolaus Zinzendorf, beginning the Church's renewal.
May 31 – The Royal Bank of Scotland is founded by Royal Charter in Edinburgh. 
June 11 – George, Prince of Wales, becomes King George II of Great Britain, on the death of his father.  June 27 – Uxbridge, Massachusetts, is incorporated as a town.
July – History of the Ursulines in New Orleans: Seventeen Ursuline Sisters from France land in New Orleans, Louisiana, where they found the orphanage which is the predecessor of Catholic Charities and the Ursuline Academy, making the latter the oldest continuously-operating school for girls, and the oldest Catholic school in the United States.
August 13 – History of the Moravian Church: The 18th century renewal: The Moravian Church community at Herrnhut undergoes a Pentecostalist experience.
August 30 – Anne, eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain, is given the title Princess Royal.
September 8 – A barn fire during a puppet show in the village of Burwell, Cambridgeshire, England, kills 78 people, many of them children. Another report says that all but six of the 160 persons assembled were killed in the accidental fire. 
October 11 – George II of Great Britain is crowned. Handel's are composed for the event, including Coronation Anthems , which has been played at every subsequent Zadok the Priest Coronation of the British monarch. 
November 18 – An earthquake in Tazriz, Persia kills 77,000.
November 21 – The Netherlands signs the Treaty of Seville. November 27 – The foundation stone of the Jerusalem's Church in Berlin is laid.
March 23 (evening) – Johann Sebastian Bach's premieres at First Köthen Funeral music St. Jakob, Köthen, in honor of the funeral of his former employer Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen.
March 24 (morning) – Johann Sebastian Bach's funeral cantata premieres at St. Jakob, for the same event as the previous day. Klagt, Kinder, klagt es aller Welt, BWV 244a April 15 – Johann Sebastian Bach's , BWV 244b is performed again, at St Matthew Passion St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
July 25 – Seven of the original eight Lords Proprietor sell their tracts within the Province of Carolina, back to the British crown. The Province is permanently divided, and reorganized into the Royal Colonies of North Carolina and South Carolina.
July 30 – Baltimore, Maryland is founded.
August 1 – The Comet of 1729, possibly the largest comet based on the absolute magnitude, on record, is discovered by Fr. Nicolas Sarrabat, a professor of mathematics at Marseille.
September 29 – October 5, Battle of Damghan: The Persians under Nader Shah Afshar defeat the Afghans and their allies.
November – The first (wooden) Putney Bridge is completed, as the only fixed crossing of the River Thames between London Bridge and Kingston, England.
November 9 – The Treaty of Seville is signed between Great Britain, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic.  November 29 – Natchez revolt: The worst native american massacre to take place on Mississippi soil occurs when Natchez people kill 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie (near modern-day Natchez, Mississippi).
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