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1725 ( MDCCXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1725th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 725th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 25th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1725, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Asia The Terengganu Sultanate is established at Terengganu Darul Iman (now known as Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia).
February 8 – Catherine I becomes Empress of Russia, on the death of her husband, Peter the Great. 
February 20 – The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony.
March 2 – In London, a night watchman finds a severed head by the River Thames; it is later recognized to be that of the husband of Catherine Hayes. She and an accomplice are later executed. 
March 30 – The second performance of Johann Sebastian Bach's , St John Passion BWV 245 (including 5 movements from his ), takes place at Weimarer Passion St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
April 30 – Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and King Philip V of Spain sign the Treaty of Vienna.
May 12 – The is raised as a military company, as part of the pacification of the Black Watch Scottish Highlands under General George Wade. 
May 21 – The Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky is instituted in Russia by Empress Catherine I.
May 24 – Jonathan Wild, fraudulent Thief-Taker General, is hanged at Tyburn in London, for actually aiding criminals. June 24 – The Grand Lodge of Ireland in Dublin holds its first recorded meeting, making it the second most senior Grand Lodge in world Freemasonry, and the oldest in continuous existence. 
Date unknown A fire in
Wapping, London, destroys 70 houses. In
Qing dynasty China, 66 copies of a 5,020 volume-long encyclopedia, the ( Gujin Tushu Jicheng Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times) are printed, necessitating the crafting of 250,000 movable type characters cast in bronze. 1725– 1730 – Freemasonry is established in France, as an English import.
January 25 – Antoine Court de Gébelin, French pastor (d. 1784)
February 4 – Dru Drury, English entomologist (d. 1803)
February 15 – Abraham Clark, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1794)
February 25 – Karl Wilhelm Ramler, German poet (d. 1798)
February 26 – Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, French steam vehicle pioneer (d. 1804)
March 6 – Henry Benedict Stuart, Italian-born cardinal, Jacobite claimant to the British throne (d. 1807)
March 17 – Lachlan McIntosh, Scottish-born American military and political leader (d. 1806)
March 20 – Abdul Hamid I, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1789)
March 28 – Andrew Kippis, English non-conformist clergyman, biographer
April 2 – Giacomo Casanova, Italian adventurer, writer (d. 1798)
April 6 – Pasquale Paoli, Corsican patriot, military leader (d. 1807)
April 23 – Gerard Majella, Italian Catholic lay brother and saint (d. 1755)
April 25 – Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel, British admiral (d. 1786)
May 12 – Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, French soldier, writer (d. 1785)
May 25 – Samuel Ward, American politician (d. 1776)
June 29 – Maria Teresa Cybo-Malaspina, Duchess of Massa, Italian ruler (d. 1790)
July 1 – Rhoda Delaval, English portrait painter (d. 1757)
July 24 – John Newton, English cleric and hymnist (d. 1807)
August 21 – Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French painter (d. 1805)
August 29 – Charles Townshend, English politician (d. 1767)
September 5 – Jean-Étienne Montucla, French mathematician (d. 1799)
September 12 – Guillaume Le Gentil, French astronomer (d. 1792)
September 24 – Arthur Guinness, Irish brewer (d. 1803)
September 29 – Robert Clive, British general, statesman (d. 1774)
October 12 – Étienne Louis Geoffroy, French pharmacist, entomologist (d. 1810)
October 21 – Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy, Austrian field marshal (d. 1801)
December 11 – George Mason, American founding father (d. 1792)
December 18 – Johann Salomo Semler, German historian, Bible commentator (d. 1791) date unknown – Magdalena Dávalos y Maldonado, Ecuadorian scholar, socialite (d. 1806)
January 6 – Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Japanese dramatist (b. 1653)
January 26 – Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani, Georgian prince (b. 1658)
January 29 – Nuno Álvares Pereira de Melo, 1st Duke of Cadaval, Portuguese nobleman and statesman (b. 1638)
February 7 – Johann Philipp Krieger, German Baroque composer (b. 1649)
February 8 – Emperor Peter I of Russia (b. 1672)
March 2 – José Benito de Churriguera, Spanish architect, sculptor (b. 1665)
March 10 – John Conyers, English politician (b. 1650)
March 30 – René de Froulay de Tessé, French Marshal and diplomat (b. 1648)
April 8 – John Wise, English clergyman (b. 1652)
April 12 – Giovanni Battista Foggini, Italian artist (b. 1652)
April 25 – Paul de Rapin, French historian (b. 1661)
May 22 – Robert Molesworth, 1st Viscount Molesworth, Irish politician (b. 1656)
May 24 – Jonathan Wild, English criminal (b. 1682)
May 31 – Erik Carlsson Sjöblad, Swedish governor, admiral, and baron (b. 1647)
July 11 – Salomon Franck, German lawyer, scientist, poet (b. 1659)
July 17 – Thomas King, English and British soldier, MP for Queenborough, lieutenant-governor of Sheerness (b. before 1660?) 
September 16 – Antoine V de Gramont, French military leader (b. 1672)
October 11 – Hans Herr, Swiss-born Mennonite bishop (b. 1639)
October 16 – Ralph Thoresby, British historian (b. 1658)
October 24 – Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian composer (b. 1660)
November 20 – William, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg (from 1683) (b. 1648)
December 7 – Florent Carton Dancourt, French dramatist, actor (b. 1661)
December 10 – Nicolaas Hartsoeker, Dutch mathematician and physicist (b. 1656)
"Historical Events for Year 1725 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com . Retrieved 2016.
Bentley, G. E. Jr. (March 2009). "Blake's Murderesses: Visionary Heads of Wickedness". . University of California Press. Huntington Library Quarterly 72 (1): 69-105. JSTOR 10.1525/hlq.2009.72.1.69. At Catherine's urging, "Billings went into the room with a hatchet, with which he struck Hayes so violently that he fractured his skull" but did not kill him. Wood, "taking the hatchet out of Billings's hand, gave the poor man two more blows, which effectually dispatched him." They were then faced with the problem of how to dispose of the body.
"Notable Dates in History". The Flag in the Wind. The Scots Independent. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016 . Retrieved 2016.
Dublin Weekly Journal 26 June 1725. "History of Freemasonry in Ireland". Freemasonry in North Munster. Provincial Grand Lodge of North Munster . Retrieved 2012.
Newman, A. N. "KING, Thomas (?bef.1660-1725), of St. Margaret's, Westminster and Sheerness, Kent". History of Parliament Online . Retrieved 2020.