January 8 – All 237 crewmen on the Dutch East India Company ship Rooswijk are drowned when the vessel strikes the shoals of Goodwin Sands off of the coast of England. Rooswijk was beginning its second voyage to Indies. The wreckage is discovered more than 250 years later in 2004. 
February 15-- Troops of the Kingdom of Prussia, Saxony and France, under the command of Prince Dietrich of Anhalt-Dessau, capture the Moravian town of Iglau (now Jihlava). At that point, the Saxons and French declare that their obligations to Prussia have ceased. 
Accompanied by 10 French Army observers, Choctaw Indians from the French Louisiana territory cross the Tombigbee River and raid Chickasaw Indian towns in Georgia.  Over three days, the attackers lose 50 men, the Chickasaw defenders about 25. For permitting the attack, the French Louisiana governor, the Sieur de Bienville, is summoned back to Paris.
Irish author and poet Jonathan Swift is declared by a court to be "of unsound mind and memory" and confined to home treatment for the remaining three years of his life. 
A British fleet led by Commodore William Martin enters the harbor of Naples with three warships, two frigates, and four bomb vessels, and sends a message giving the King Charles VII of Naples (the future King Charles III of Spain) 30 minutes to agree to withdraw Neapolitan troops from the Spanish Army. Don Carlos agrees and ends the threat of a Spanish foothold in Italy. 
Voltaire's controversial play Fanatacism, or Mahomet the Prophet is first performed, in Paris, to a theatre audience filled with French nobility 
September 5 – The 46 survivors of Russia's Great Northern Expedition return to Petropavlovsk after having been shipwrecked on an island in the Bering Strait ten months earlier. They had completed the building of a new ship from the wreckage of the St Pyotr on August 21. 
Pennsylvania's Colonial Governor George Thomas bars citizens from settling in Lancaster County, or west of the Blue Mountains Lois Mulkearn, ed., George Mercer Papers: Relating to the Ohio Company of Virginia (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1954) p657
May - In Peru, Juan Santos takes the name Atahualpa II, and begins an ill-fated rebellion against Spanish rule. Father Domingo Garcia sends the first report of the rebellion with his superiors on June 2 
Charles Jervas's English translation of Don Quixote is published posthumously. Through a printer's error, the translator's name is printed as 'Charles Jarvis', leading the book to forever be known as the Jarvis translation. It is acclaimed as the most faithful English rendering of the novel made up to this time.
The Roman Catholic church decrees that Roman ceremonial practice in Latin (not in Chinese) is to be the law for Chinese missions.
October 19 – Louis Maria Colons, one of nine French Canadians who had attempted to colonize territory in what is now New Mexico, is executed for attempting to persuade the Pueblo Indians to rise up against the Spanish colonial government.
May 11 – Russia's treasury begins an effort to reduce the number of copper five-kopeck pieces (20 of which equal a Russian ruble) by declaring that it will buy them back at a ruble for every 20 until August 1, after which kopecks would be redeemed at a ruble for every 25; then at the rate of 33 for a ruble on October 1, and 50 for a ruble on and after August 28, 1746.
June 28 – At the age of 15, Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, the future Empress of Russia, is received into the Russian Orthodox Church after converting from the Lutheran faith. Upon her conversion to the Russian Orthodox religion, she is given the name Yekaterina (Catherine). In 1762, she takes the throne as the Empress Catherine II, later known as Catherine the Great.
July 8 – The Royal Navy privateer Somerset capsizes and sinks in the Bristol Channel, killing 86 of the 97 crew.
October 4 – In one of the greatest disasters for the Royal Navy, HMS Victory sinks in a storm in the English Channel, killing 1,100 sailors and officers it had been bringing back from Gibraltar to England, including Admiral John Balchen The wreck will be located 264 years later, in January, 2009 
December 18 – Queen Maria Theresa of Austria issues a proclamation to rid Bohemia of its Jewish residents, with the Jews to leave Prague over the next two weeks, and then to depart from Bohemia entirely in 1745 
February 27 – Pierre Bouguer appears before the French Academy of Sciences to deliver his report of the data gathered in the French Geodesic Mission, including the first precise measurement of the Earth's circumference. His determination that the circumference is 24,854.85 miles (40,000.00 km) and that the distance from the pole to equator is roughly 6,214 miles (10,000 km) eventually leads to the Academy's calculation of the metre and the metric system.
April 29 – The heavily-armed French NavyfrigateRenommée approaches the French colony of Nova Scotia, after having been dispatched to warn French forces at Louisbourg of the impending attack by British American forces. However, the Massachusetts privateer HMS Shirley Galley, commanded by John Rous, attacks the Renommée and forces it to sail away. The command at Louisbourg is not warned of the impending attack 
July 3 – Father Joachim Royo, the last of the five Spanish Catholic missionaries to Fuzhou in China, is captured by Chinese authorities after having spent three decades defying orders to not evangelize  He and three fellow priests, are put to death two years later, on October 28, 1748.
March 25 – A fire in the City of London starts at Change Alley in Cornhill and continues for two days. Dr. Samuel Johnson later writes, "The conflagration of a city, with all its turmoil and concominant distress, is one of the most dreadful spectacles which this world can afford to human eyes". Another history notes more than a century later that "the fire led to a great increase in the practice of fire insurance", after the blaze causes more than £1,000,000 worth of damage.
May 10 – As word arrives that the Dutch Republic has agreed to return control of Maastricht to France, the French Army's leader of the siege, Count Löwendal, marches through the opened city gates with his troops and accepts its surrender.
A fire in Moscow kills 482 people and destroys 5,000 buildings.
José de Escandón is designated by the Viceroy of New Spain as the first Royal Governor of Nuevo Santander. The area covered by the Viceroyalty's new province is now part of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, and the part of the U.S. state of Texas south of the Guadalupe River (including San Antonio and Corpus Christi).
July 29 – Royal Navy Admiral Edward Boscawen arrives at the coast of southeastern India with 28 ships, to defend Fort St. David from attacks by armies of French India. Historian Francis Grose later writes that Boscawen had brought the largest fleet "ever seen together in the East Indies", with nine ships of the line, two frigates, a sloop, and two tenders"  and 14 ships of the British East India Company. Altogether, Boscaven has 3,580 sailors under his command. He then launches an offensive to destroy the French fort at Pondicherry and drive France from the subcontinent.
March 6 – A "corpse riot" breaks out in Glasgow after a body disappears from a churchyard in the Gorbals district. Suspicion falls on anatomy students at the Glasgow Infirmary "had raised a dead body from the grave and carried it to the college" for dissection. The city guard intervenes after a mob of protesters begin breaking windows at random buildings, but groups of citizens begin to make regular patrols of church graveyards
March 17 – At London's Covent Garden, composer George Frideric Handel conducts the first performance of his new oratorio, Solomon. More than 250 years later, an instrumental from Solomon, "The Arrival of the Queen of Sheba"; will be featured in the 2012 London Summer Olympics opening ceremony.
May 19 – King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company 200,000 acres (81,000 ha) of land (312½ square miles or 810 km2) of land north of the Ohio River, encompassing most of the modern U.S. state of Ohio and part of West Virginia. The grant is conditioned on the Company being able to attract 100 European families every year, for seven years, to move to the area occupied by Indian tribes, and to build a fort to protect them
August 2 – Irish-born trader George Croghan, unaware of the recent British grant of land in the Ohio River valley to the Ohio Company, purchases 200,000 acres of much of the same land from the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, dealing directly with "the three most important Iroquois chiefs resident in that area, in return for an immense quantity of Indian goods." The deal takes place at the Iroquois capital of Onondaga, near present-day Syracuse, New York.
The Battle of Ambur is fought in south India as the Second Carnatic War begins between the French-supported troops of Chanda Sahib of the Mughal Empire and the British-supported defenders of the Arcot State, led by its 77-year old Nawab, Anwaruddin Khan. After marching outside of the walls of Arcot to confront Chanda Sahib and Joseph Dupleix's 4,000 troops, Anwaruddin Khan's numerically superior force is routed and he is killed in the battle.
August 7 – Mary Musgrove Bosomworth, a woman of mixed British and Creek Indian ancestry, presents herself as Coosaponakeesa, Queen of the Creek Indians and marches with 200 Creek Indians into the town of Savannah, Georgia. During her confrontation with British colonial authorities, she and her husband Thomas Bosomworth demand payment of "nearly twenty-five thousand dollars" in compensation for property taken from the Creek Indians, before the British authorities determine that she doesn't have the authority to speak for the tribe.
August 15 – Four Russian sailors-- Aleksei Inkov, Khrisanf Inkov, Stepan Sharapov and Fedor Verigin-- are rescued after having been marooned on the Arctic Ocean island of Edgeøya for more than six years. They are the only survivors of a crew of 14 whose koch had been blown off course in May 1743 and then broken up by ice. The four are returned home on September 28.
August 19 – At a ceremony in San Antonio, Texas (then a part of the New Spain province of Nuevo Santander), four Apache chiefs and Spanish colonial officials and missionaries literally "bury the hatchet", placing weapons of war into a pit and covering it as a symbol that the Apaches and the Spaniards will fight no further war against each other.
September 28 – Three Russian survivors of the shipwreck on Edgeøya return to their homeland after more than six years, as the ship Nikolai i Andrei brings them to the port of Archangelsk. A fourth survivor, Fedor Veriginare, died of scurvy during the six-week voyage home.
October 4 – What is later described as "the least examined yet most influential" of clerical reforms, by the Spanish Bourbon monarchs of the 17th century, begins when King Ferdinand VI of Spain approves a royal cédula, removing control of the Roman Catholic parishes of Latin America from religious orders. Henceforward, jurisdiction over parishioners in the archdioceses of Lima, Mexico City and Bogotá is with the secular clergy.
November 12 – In response to the increasing number of starving people moving into Paris from rural parts of France, King Louis XV issues an ordinance that "all the beggars and vagabonds who shall be found either in the streets of Paris, or in churches or church doorways, or in the countryside around Paris, of whatever age or sex, shall be arrested and conducted into prisons, to stay there as long as shall be necessary."
November 24 – The Province of South Carolina House of Assembly votes to free African-American slave Caesar Norman, and to grant him a lifetime pension of 100 British pounds per year, in return for Caesar's agreement to share the secret of his antidote for poisonous snake venom. Caesar then makes public his herbal cure of juice from Plantago major (the common plantain) and Marrubium vulgare (horehound), combined with "a leaf of good tobacco moistened with rum".
December 1 – Sultan Azim ud-Din I, recently forced to flee to the Manila after being driven from the throne of Sultanate of Sulu elsewhere in the Philippine Islands, announces his intention to convert from Sunni Islam to become baptized as a Christian within the Roman Catholic Church. He changes his name to Fernando after being baptized.
December 7 – Father Junípero Serra begins his missionary work in the New World, 100 days after departing on a voyage from Spain and a day after his arrival at Veracruz in Mexico. During the period from 1769 to 1782, Serra will be the founder of nine missions in the Province of Las Californias, including the sites around which future California cities will be built, including Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá in 1769 and Mission San Francisco de Asís in 1776.
^Thomas Carlyle, History of Friedrich II of Prussia, called Frederick the Great, Vol. 15 (1865, reprinted by Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903) p319
^"Appendix E: History of the Publication", by Paul A. Scanlon in Joseph Andrews, by Henry Fielding (Broadview Press, 2001) p504
^International Military Alliances, 1648-2008, ed. by Douglas M. Gibler (Congressional Quarterly Press, 2008) p88
^Doane Robinson, History of South Dakota (B. F. Bowen & Company, 1904) p53
"The Jewish living space in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: tendencies and ways of its formation", by Jurgita ?iau?i?nait?-Verbickien?, in Jewish Space in Central and Eastern Europe: Day-to-Day History (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009) p24
^"Goldbach's Conjectures: A Historical Perspective", by Robert C. Vaughan, in Open Problems in Mathematics, ed. by John Forbes Nash, Jr. and Michael Th. Rassias
Springer, 2016) p479
^"Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p50
^Edward J. Cashin, Guardians of the Valley: Chickasaws in Colonial South Carolina and Georgia (University of South Carolina Press, 2009) p57
^"Swift, Jonathan", by Donald C. Mell, in Macmillan Dictionary of Irish Literature, ed. by Robert Hogan (Macmillan, 2016) p652
^I. S. Leadam, The Political History of England: The history of England from the accession of Anne to the death of George II, 1702-1760 (Longmans, Green and Co., 1909) p372
^S. G. Tallentyre, The Life of Voltaire, Volume 1 (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1910) p141
^"Russo-Swedish War of 1741-43", in Dictionary of Wars, by George Childs Kohn (Routledge, 2013) p420
^"Anson, George", by Keith A. Parker, in Historical Dictionary of the British Empire, ed. by James S. Olson and Robert Shadle (Greenwood Publishing, 1996) p68
^Edward Heawood, "A History of Geographical Discovery in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" (Cambridge University Press,
CUP Archive, 1912) p267
^An Account of the Foundling Hospital in London, for the Maintenance and Education of Exposed and Deserted Young Children (Foundling Hospital, 1826) p20
^Lorenzo Boturini Benaduci, Idea of a New General History of North America: An Account of Colonial Native Mexico (University of Oklahoma Press, 2015) p6
^Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History, ed. by Kenneth Mills, et al. (Rowman & Littlefield, 2002) p302
^Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, Breaking the Wilderness: The Story of the Conquest of the Far West (G.P. Putnam and Sons, 1908) p139
^Maureen Cassidy-Geiger, Fragile Diplomacy (Yale University Press, 2007) p38
^Olin Dunbar Wheeler, The Trail of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1904: A Story of the Great Exploration Across the Continent in 1804-6 (G.P. Putnam and Sons, 1904) p213
^D. R. M. Irving, Colonial Counterpoint: Music in Early Modern Manila (Oxford University Press, 2010)
^The Cambridge Modern History, Volume 6: The Eighteenth Century, ed. by A. W. Ward, et al. (Macmillan, 1909) p314
^Louis de Bonald, On Divorce (Transaction Publishers, 2011) p155
^George M. Wrong, The conquest of New France (Yale University Press, 1918) p129
^Nanda R. Shrestha, In the Name of Development: A Reflection on Nepal (University Press of America, 1997) p6
^Royal B. Hassrick, The Sioux: Life and Customs of a Warrior Society (University of Oklahoma Press, 2012)
^James Ross McCain, Georgia as a Proprietary Province: The Execution of a Trust (R.G. Badger, 1917) p298
^"Adolphus Frederick of Holstein-Entin, in The American Cyclopedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge", ed. by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana (D. Appleton and Company, 1873) p129
^Francisco Antonio Mourelle, Voyage of the Sonora in the Second Bucareli Expedition, translated by Daines Barrington (T.C. Russell, 1920) p108
^"James Oglethorpe", by Dr. Walter H. Charlton, in The American Monthly Magazine (June 1911) p294
^Bernard D. Rostker, Providing for the Casualties of War: The American Experience Through World War II (Rand Corporation, 2013) p46
^Charles C. Royce, Indian Land Cessions of the United States, (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1899) p569
^Ralph Emerson Twitchell, The Leading Facts of New Mexican History, Vol. I (Torch Press, 1911, reprinted by Sunstone Press, 2007) p438
^Bruce Parker, The Power of the Sea: Tsunamis, Storm Surges, Rogue Waves, and Our Quest to Predict Disasters (St. Martin's Press, 2012)
^Martin Sicker, The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire (Greenwood Publishing, 2001) p63
^Neil Safier, Measuring the New World: Enlightenment Science and South America (University of Chicago Press, 2008) p104
^David A.J. Seargent, The Greatest Comets in History: Broom Stars and Celestial Scimitars (Springer, 2008) p116
^Andrew Lang, A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation (W. Blackwood and Sons, 1907) p443
^Michael A. Beatty, The English Royal Family of America, from Jamestown to the American Revolution (McFarland, 2003) p164
^Giscombe, C. S. (Winter 2012). "Precarious Creatures". The Kenyon Review. Gambier, Ohio: Kenyon College. 34 (NS) (1): 157-175. JSTOR41304743. I looked it up later and found out that it's generally conceded that they were all dead by the 1680s. But a story persists that a fellow named MacQueen killed the last wolf in Scotland - and, implicitly, in all Britain - after that, in 1743. (Henry Shoemaker mentions the story in the section of Extinct Pennsylvania Animals that concerns wolves.)
^Richard Davey, The Tower of London (E. P. Dutton, 1910) pp333-334
Anthony E. Clark, China's Saints: Catholic Martyrdom During the Qing (1644-1911) (Lexington Books, 2011) p73
Sir William W. Hunter, The History of Nations: India (John D. Morris, 1906) p179
^"Eighteenth Century", in Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, ed. by Micheal Clodfelter (McFarland, 2017) p77
^"The Baptism of Sultan Azim ud-Din of Sulu", by Ebrhard Crailsheim, in Image - Object - Performance: Mediality and Communication in Cultural Contact Zones of Colonial Latin America and the Philippines (Waxmann Verlag, 2013) p101
"Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat", by J.W. Allen, in Lives of Twelve Bad Men: Original Studies of Eminent Scoundrels by Various Hands (T. Fisher Unwin, 1894) p196
^Henry L. Fulton, Dr. John Moore, 1729-1802: A Life in Medicine, Travel, and Revolution (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014) p76
^Van den Heuvel, Danielle (Spring 2012). "The Multiple Identities of Early Modern Dutch Fishwives". Signs. University of Chicago Press. 37 (3): 587-594. doi:10.1086/662705. JSTOR10.1086/662705. ... in 1747 fishwives organized a large political demonstration in Amsterdam, and in 1748 the Amsterdam fish hawker Marretje Arents was one of the principal initiators of a tax riot in the city.
^T"Associators", by Paul G. Pierpaoli, Jr., in American Revolution: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection (ABC-CLIO, 2018) p85
^Rosemary F. Williams, Maritime Annapolis: A History of Watermen, Sails & Midshipmen (Arcadia Publishing, 2009)
^George W. Forell, ed., Nine Public Lectures on Important Subjects in Religion by Nicholaus Ludwig Count von Zinzendorf (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1998) p xxix
^ abc"Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p51
^Elizabeth A. H. John, Storms Brewed in Other Men's Worlds: The Confrontation of Indians, Spanish, and French in the Southwest, 1540-1795 (University of Oklahoma Press, 1996) pp282-283
^Francis Henry Skrine, Fontenoy and Great Britain's Share in the War of the Austrian Succession, 1741-1748 (W. Blackwood and Sons, 1906) pp346-347
^Charles Rathbone Low, History of the Indian Navy: (1613-1863) (Richard Bentley and Son, 1877) p140
^Henry Eyster Jacobs, A History of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States (The Christian Literature Co., 1893 p243
Paul Peucker, A Time of Sifting: Mystical Marriage and the Crisis of Moravian Piety in the Eighteenth Century (Penn State Press, 2015)
^H. Parker Willis (December 1895). "Income Taxation in France". Journal of Political Economy. The University of Chicago Press. 4 (1): 37-53. doi:10.1086/250324. The war of the Austrian Succession for the third time threw the treasury back upon the hated fiscal resource in October of 1741, when the income tax was reintroduced accompanied by a royal promise to the effect that upon the close of the war this means of raising revenue should once for all be done away with.
^Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 219-220. ISBN0-7126-5616-2.
^Peter N. Moore, Archibald Simpson's Unpeaceable Kingdom: The Ordeal of Evangelicalism in the Colonial South (Lexington Books, 2018) p40
^Henry L. Fulton, Dr. John Moore, 1729-1802: A Life in Medicine, Travel, and Revolution (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014) p54
^All Music Guide to Classical Music: The Definitive Guide to Classical Music, ed. by Chris Woodstra, et al. (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2013) p556
^John R. Spears and A. H. Clark, A History of the Mississippi Valley: From Its Discovery to the End of Foreign Domination (A. S. Clark, 1903) p123
^ "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p51
^Nicholas B. Wainwright, George Croghan: Wilderness Diplomat (University of North Carolina Press, 1959) p28
^Spencer C. Tucker, ed., A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East (ABC-CLIO, 2009) p756
^Terry A. Barnhart, American Antiquities: Revisiting the Origins of American Archaeology (University of Nebraska Press, 2015)
^Sara Hines Martin, Georgia's Remarkable Women: Daughters, Wives, Sisters, and Mothers Who Shaped History (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015) p15
^ abDavid Roberts, Four Against the Arctic: Shipwrecked for Six Years at the Top of the World (Simon and Schuster, 2005) p10
^"The Covenant Chain", by Elsie Charles Basque, in Dawnland Voices: An Anthology of Indigenous Writing from New England (University of Nebraska Press, 2014) p37
^ ab"'Black with Canoes'. Aboriginal Resistance and the Canoe", by David McNab, et al., in Technology, Disease, and Colonial Conquests, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, ed. by George Raudzens (Brill Academic Publishers, 2003) p261
^Allan J. Kuethe and Kenneth J. Andrien, The Spanish Atlantic World in the Eighteenth Century: War and the Bourbon Reforms, 1713-1796 (Cambridge University Press, 2014) pp167-168
^Michael Dekker, French & Indian Wars in Maine (Arcadia Publishing, 2015) p95
^J. M. Toner, annotations to Journal of My Journey Over the Mountains, by George Washington, while Surveying for Lord Thomas Fairfax, Baron of Cameron, in the Northern Neck of Virginia, beyond the Blue Ridge, in 1747-8 (Joel Munsell's Sons, 1892) p64.
^"Child Abduction Panic", in Outbreak!: The Encyclopedia of Extraordinary Social Behavior, ed. by Hilary Evans and Robert E. Bartholomew (Anomalist Books, LLC, 2009) pp83-84
^Christine Pevitt Algrant, Madame de Pompadour: Mistress of France (Grove Press, 2003) p95
^Robert A. Voeks, The Ethnobotany of Eden: Rethinking the Jungle Medicine Narrative (University of Chicago Press, 2018) pp113-114
^"The Baptism of Sultan Azim ud-Din of Sulu", by Eberhard Crailsheim, in Image - Object - Performance: Mediality and Communication in Cultural Contact Zones of Colonial Latin America and the Philippines, ed. by Astrid Windus, et al. (Waxmann Verlag, 2013) pp97-98
^Cuthbert Girdlestone, Jean-Philippe Rameau: His Life and Work (Courier Corporation, 2014) p278
^Gregory Orfalea, Journey to the Sun: Junipero Serra's Dream and the Founding of California (Simon and Schuster, 2014) p80
^Martin Sicker, The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Emxpire (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) p65