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1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1793rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 793rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1793, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
The French Republic introduced the French Revolutionary Calendar starting with the year I.
- January 7 – The Ebel riot occurs in Sweden.
- January 9 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first to fly in a gas balloon in the United States.
- January 13 – Nicolas Jean Hugon de Bassville, a representative of Revolutionary France, is lynched by a mob in Rome.
- January 21 – French Revolution: After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Citizen Capet, Louis XVI of France, is guillotined in Paris.
- January 23 – Second Partition of Poland: The Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia partition the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- February 1 – French Revolutionary Wars: The French First Republic declares war on Great Britain, the Dutch Republic and (on March 7) Spain. During the year, the War of the First Coalition is joined by Portugal, the Holy Roman Empire, Naples and Tuscany in opposition to France.
- February 11 – French expedition to Sardinia (Expédition de Sardaigne): A French fleet under admiral Laurent Truguet debarks troops near Cagliari in Sardinia.
- February 22 – French expedition to Sardinia: A small French and Corsican force briefly occupies the small Sardinian island of La Maddalena, then withdraws to Corsica. Young lieutenant Napoleon Buonaparte is second-in-command.
- February 25 – George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting, as President of the United States.
- February 27 – The Giles Resolutions are introduced to the United States House of Representatives, asking the House to condemn Alexander Hamilton's handling of loans.
- March 1–3 – John Langdon serves as President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
- March 4 – George Washington is sworn in as President of the United States in Philadelphia, for his second term.
- March 5 – French troops are defeated by Austrian forces, and Liège is recaptured.
- March 18
- April 6 – French Revolutionary Wars: The Committee of Public Safety is established in France, with Georges Danton as its head.
- April 9 – Edmond-Charles Genêt, France's new Minister to the United States, arrives at Charleston, South Carolina. 
- April 22 – George Washington signs the Neutrality Proclamation.
- April 25 – The pioneer parishes of New Orleans and Louisiana are erected, as well as incorporated into the Diocese of Louisiana and the Two Floridas.
- May 25 – French expedition to Sardinia: The last French troops occupying the small Sardinian island of San Pietro surrender to a Spanish fleet.
- May 31 – French Revolution: Regular troops under François Hanriot demand that the Girondins be expelled from the National Convention.
- June – The Macartney Embassy, a British diplomatic mission to China led by George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, reaches Canton, but will be rebuffed by the Qianlong Emperor.
- June 2 – French Revolution: The Girondins are overthrown in France.
- June 10 – French Revolution: The Jardin des Plantes and the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle are created by the National Convention. The museum opens in Paris the following year, and the garden houses one of the first public zoos.
- June 21 – The Town of Hamilton is incorporated. 
- October 16 – French Revolution: Marie Antoinette, the widowed queen consort of Louis XVI of France, is guillotined in the Place de la Révolution in Paris at the conclusion of a 2-day trial before the Revolutionary Tribunal.
- October 24 – French Revolution:The French Republican Calendar is adopted by the National Convention.
- November 10 – The dechristianization of France during the French Revolution reaches a climax with the celebration of the Goddess of Reason in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris.
- November 12 – French Revolution: Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first Mayor of Paris, is guillotined.
- December 8 – French Revolution: Madame du Barry is guillotined.
- December 9 – New York City's first daily newspaper, the American Minerva, is established by Noah Webster.
- December 18 – French forces under Dugommier capture Toulon from royalists and British forces under Vice Admiral Lord Hood. The British fire the dockyards and take 16 ships, one of which, the Lutine, becomes a famous treasure ship.
- December 23 – French Revolution: War in the Vendée: Battle of Savenay – A Republican force decisively defeats the counterrevolutionary Catholic and Royal Army, ending the Virée de Galerne.
- January 3 – Lucretia Mott, American women's rights activist, abolitionist (d. 1880)
- January 11 – Johanna Stegen, German heroine (d. 1842)
- January 14 – John C. Clark, American politician (d. 1852)
- March 2 – Sam Houston, American President of the Republic of Texas (d. 1863)
- March 3 – William Macready, English actor (d. 1873)
- March 4 – Karl Lachmann, German philologist (d. 1851)
- March 6 – William Dick, Scottish veterinarian, founder of Edinburgh Veterinary College (d. 1866)
- April 8 – Karl Ludwig Hencke, German astronomer (d. 1866)
- April 19 – Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria (d. 1875)
- June 1 – Augustus Earle, English artist (d. 1838)
- June 6 – Edward C. Delavan, American temperance movement leader (d. 1871)
- June 29 – Josef Ressel, German-Bohemian inventor (d. 1857)
- July 15 – Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps, American educator, British science writer (d. 1884)
- July 18 – Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz, French stage actress, later Princess Consort and regent de facto of Monaco (d. 1879)
- August 19 – Barthélemy Thimonnier, French inventor (d. 1857)
- September 25 – Felicia Hemans, British poet (d. 1835)
- November 3 – Stephen F. Austin, American pioneer (d. 1836)
- November 17 – Charles Lock Eastlake, English painter (d. 1865)
- Approximate date – Sarah Booth, English actress (d. 1867)
- January 26 – Francesco Guardi, Italian painter (b. 1712)
- January 21 – King Louis XVI of France (executed) (b. 1754)
- February 1 – William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, British statesman (b. 1717)
- February 6 – Carlo Goldoni, Italian playwright (b. 1707)
- March 2 – Carl Gustaf Pilo, Swedish-born artist
- March 4 – Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre, French admiral (b. 1725)
- March 20 – William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, Scottish judge, politician (b. 1705)
- March 26 – John Mudge, English physician, inventor (b. 1721)
- April 13 – Princess Marie Victoire d'Arenberg, Margravine of Baden-Baden as consort of Augustus George (b. 1714)
- April 15 – Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian Jesuit missionary, geographer (b. 1718)
- April 29
- May 3 – Martin Gerbert, German theologian, historian (b. 1720)
- May 7 – Pietro Nardini, Italian composer (b. 1722)
- May 18 – Timur Shah Durrani, ruler of the Durrani Empire (b. 1748)
- May 20 – Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist (b. 1720)
- May 26 – Eliza Lucas, American agronomist (b. 1722)
- June 26 – Gilbert White, English ornithologist (b. 1720)
- July 13 – Jean-Paul Marat, Swiss-born French Revolutionary leader (assassinated) (b. 1743)
- July 17 – Charlotte Corday, French assassin of Jean-Paul Marat (executed) (b. 1768)
- July 23 – Roger Sherman, American lawyer, signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1721)
- July 26 – Alessandro Besozzi, Italian composer (b. 1702)
- August 22
- August 28 – Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine, French general (executed) (b. 1740)
- September 17 – George Handley, American politician (b. 1752)
- September 20 – Fletcher Christian, English sailor (b. 1764)
- October 7
- October 8 – John Hancock, American businessman and patriot, signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1737)
- October 9 – Jean Joseph Marie Amiot, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1718)
- October 16 – Marie-Antoinette, Queen Consort of France (executed) (b. 1755)
- October 31
- November 3 – Olympe de Gouges, French playwright (executed) (b. 1748)
- November 6 – Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, French noble, revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1747)
- November 8 – Madame Roland, French Revolutionary hostess (executed) (b. 1754)
- November 10 – Jean-Marie Roland, vicomte de la Platière, French revolutionary leader (suicide) (b. 1734)
- November 12 – Jean Sylvain Bailly, French astronomer (b. 1736)
- November 14 – Caterina Dolfin, Italian (Venetian) poet (b. 1736)
- November 24 – Clément Charles François de Laverdy, French statesman (executed) (b. 1723)
- November 29 – Antoine Barnave, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1761)
- December 4 – Armand de Kersaint, French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1742)
- December 5 – Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne French revolutionary leader (executed) (b. 1743)
- December 6 – Sir John Dashwood-King, 3rd Baronet, English country gentleman (b. 1716)
- December 7 – Joseph Bara, French Revolution child-hero (b. 1780)
- December 8
- date unknown – Im Yunjidang, Korean scholar, writer and neo-Confucian philosopher (b. 1721)