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1801 ( MDCCCI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1801st year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 801st year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1801, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
January 3 – Toussaint Louverture triumphantly enters Santo Domingo, the capital of the former Spanish colony of Santo Domingo, which has become a colony of Napoleonic France.
January 31 – John Marshall is appointed Chief Justice of the United States.
February 4 – William Pitt the Younger resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
February 9 – The Treaty of Lunéville ends the War of the Second Coalition between France and Austria. Under the terms of the treaty, Aachen is officially annexed by France.
February 17 – An electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr is resolved, when Jefferson is elected President of the United States and Burr Vice President by the United States House of Representatives.
February 27 – Washington, D.C. is placed under the jurisdiction of the United States Congress.
March 4 – Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the third President of the United States.
March 10 – The first census is held in Great Britain. The population of England and Wales is determined to be 8.9 million, with London revealed to have 860,035 residents. 1.5 million people live in cities of 20,000 or more in England and Wales, accounting for 17% of the total English population. 
March 14 – Henry Addington becomes First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer, effectively Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
March 21 – Battle of Alexandria in Egypt: British troops defeat the French, but the British commander, Sir Ralph Abercromby, dies later of a wound received in the action. March 23 – Tsar Paul I of Russia is murdered; he is succeeded by his son Alexander I.
October 17 – A coup d'état is staged in the Batavian Republic.
November 16 – The first edition of the is printed. New-York Evening Post
December 15 – Had?i Mustafa Pasha, Ottoman commander and politician, is assassinated in Belgrade, Sanjak of Smederevo, by Ku?uk-Alija.
December 19 – South Carolina College, a precursor to The University of South Carolina, is established in Columbia, South Carolina. December 24 – Cornish engineers Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian demonstrate "Puffing Devil", their steam-powered road locomotive, in Camborne. The trial is successful but Trevithick realises the limitations of steam power in a road-running vehicle and turns his attention to rail, introducing the world's first steam railway locomotive in 1804. 
January 3 – Gijsbert Haan, Dutch-American religious leader (d. 1874)
January 11 – Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, Brazilian politician (d. 1856)
January 14 – Jane Welsh Carlyle, wife of Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle (d. 1866)
February 13 – János Kardos, Hungarian Slovenes evangelical priest, teacher and writer (d. 1875)
February 21 – John Henry Newman, English Catholic Cardinal (d. 1890)
May 5 – Pío Pico, last Governor of Alta California (d. 1894)
May 9 – Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood, English Member of Parliament, developer (d. 1866)
May 11 – Henri Labrouste, French architect (d. 1875)
May 16 – William H. Seward, 24th United States Secretary of State (d. 1872)
May 17 – Lovisa Åhrberg, first woman doctor, surgeon in Sweden (d. 1881)
May 31 – Johann Georg Baiter, Swiss philologist, textual critic (d. 1877)
June 1 – Brigham Young, American Mormon leader, colonizer (d. 1877)
June 5 – William Scamp, English architect and engineer (d. 1872) 
June 4 – James Pennethorne, English architect (d. 1871)
June 14 – Heber C. Kimball, American religious leader (d. 1868)
June 16 – Julius Plücker, German mathematician, physicist (d. 1868)
June 24 – Caroline Clive, English writer (d. 1873) June 30 – Frédéric Bastiat, French philosopher (d. 1850)
July 5 – David Farragut, American admiral (d. 1870)
July 14 – Johannes Peter Müller, German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist (d. 1858)
July 27 – George Biddell Airy, English mathematician, astronomer (d. 1892)
September 1 – Hortense Allart, French writer (d. 1879)
September 3 – Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer, German palaeontologist (d. 1869)
October 23 – Albert Lortzing, German composer (d. 1851)
November 10 – Vladimir Dal, Russian lexicographer (d. 1872)
November 13 – Queen Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria, queen of Prussia (d. 1873) December 11 – Christian Dietrich Grabbe, German writer (d. 1836)
January 2 – Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss physiognomist (b. 1741)
January 11 – Domenico Cimarosa, Italian composer (b. 1749)
February 7 – Daniel Chodowiecki, Polish painter (b. 1726)
February 17 – Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia (b. 1716)
March 14 – Margarita "Peggy" Schuyler Van Rensselaer, American socialite, Angelica Schuyler Church's sister (b. 1758)
March 19 – Ambrosio O'Higgins, 1st Marquis of Osorno, Spanish viceroy of Peru and Governor of the Captaincy General of Chile, father of Bernardo O'Higgins
March 21 – Andrea Luchesi, Italian composer (b. 1741)
March 23 – Tsar Paul I of Russia (b. 1754)
March 25 – Novalis, German poet (b. 1772)
March 28 – Ralph Abercromby, British general (b. 1734)
April 2 – Thomas Dadford, Jr., British engineer
April 7 – Noël François de Wailly, French lexicographer (b. 1724)
May 3 – Cyrus Trapaud, British Army general (b. 1715)
May 17 – William Heberden, English physician (b. 1710)
June 4 – Frederick Muhlenberg, first Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (b. 1750) June 14 – Benedict Arnold, American Revolution hero, then traitor (b. 1741)
"Chronology of State Medicine". Archived from the original on August 9, 2007 . Retrieved 2007.
Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1801". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale.
Dreadful events in the front rows of the ring at Madrid and the death of the mayor of Torrejón, Plate 21 of La Tauromaquia Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine". National Galleries of Scotland. Retrieved on 25 February 2010.
^ Michael P. Fitzsimmons,
From Artisan to Worker: Guilds, the French State, and the Organization of Labor, 1776-1821 (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p132
British Steam. Igloo Books. 2016. pp. 10-13.
Foucault, Michel (1961). . Folie et déraison: histoire de la folie à l'âge classique
Hughes, Quentin; Thake, Conrad (2005). . Midsea Books Ltd. p. 250. Malta, War & Peace: An Architectural Chronicle 1800-2000 ISBN . 9789993270553