The 1831 United States Senate election in New York was held on February 1, 1831, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.
Nathan Sanford had been elected in 1826 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1831.
At the State election in November 1830, the Jacksonian Democrats managed to defeat the combined Anti-Masons and National Republicans. Enos T. Throop was narrowly re-elected Governor, a large Jacksonian-Democratic majority was elected to the Assembly, and five of the nine State Senators elected were Jacksonian Democrats. The 54th New York State Legislature met from January 4 to April 26, 1831, at Albany, New York. The party strength in the Assembly as shown by the election for Speaker was: 91 for Jacksonian Democrat George R. Davis and 30 for Anti-Mason John C. Spencer.
The Jacksonian Democratic State legislators held a caucus before the election, and nominated New York Supreme Court Justice William L. Marcy. The vote was 77 for Marcy, 15 for Erastus Root, 6 for the incumbent Nathan Sanford and 6 scattering votes.
William L. Marcy was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.
|Office||House||Jacksonian Democrat||Anti-Mason||National Republican|
|U.S. Senator||State Senate (32 members)||William L. Marcy||20||Samuel Works||5|
|State Assembly (128 members)||William L. Marcy||86||Samuel Works||27||Nathan Sanford||1|
Marcy resigned his seat on January 1, 1833, upon taking office as Governor of New York. The State Legislature held a special election to fill the vacancy in January 1833, and elected Silas Wright, Jr.