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1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1847th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 847th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 47th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1847, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
January 4 - Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the U.S government.
January 13 - The Treaty of Cahuenga ends fighting in the Mexican-American War in California.
January 16 - John C. Frémont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory.
January 17 - St. Anthony Hall fraternity is founded at Columbia University, New York City.
January 30 - Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco.
February 5 - A rescue effort, called the First Relief, leaves Johnson's Ranch to save the ill-fated Donner Party (California-bound emigrants who became snowbound in the Sierra Nevada earlier this winter; some have resorted to survival cannibalism).
February 22 - Mexican-American War: Battle of Buena Vista - 5,000 American troops under General Zachary Taylor use their superiority in artillery to drive off 15,000 Mexican troops under Antonio López de Santa Anna, defeating the Mexicans the next day.
February 25 - State University of Iowa is founded in Iowa City, Iowa.
March - First known publication of the classic joke " Why did the chicken cross the road?", in . The Knickerbocker, or New-York Monthly Magazine
March 4 - The 30th United States Congress is sworn into office.
March 9 - Mexican-American War: United States forces under General Winfield Scott invade Mexico near Veracruz.
March 14 - Verdi's opera premieres at the Macbeth Teatro della Pergola, in Florence, Italy. March 29 - Mexican-American War: United States forces under General Winfield Scott take Veracruz after a siege.
April 5 - The world's first municipally-funded civic public park, Birkenhead Park in Birkenhead on Merseyside, England, is opened. 
April 15 - The Lawrence School, Sanawar is established in India.
April 16 - New Zealand Wars: A minor M?ori chief is accidentally shot by a junior British Army officer in Whanganui on New Zealand's North Island, triggering the Wanganui Campaign (which continues until July 23).
April 25 - The , carrying Irish emigrants from Exmouth Derry bound for Quebec, is wrecked off Islay, with only three survivors from more than 250 on board.  
May - The Architectural Association School of Architecture is founded in London.
May 7 - In Philadelphia, the American Medical Association (AMA) is founded.
May 8 - The Nagano earthquake leaves more than 8,600 people dead in Japan.
May 31 - Second Treaty of Erzurum: the Ottoman Empire cedes Abadan Island to the Persian Empire.
June - E. H. Booth & Co. Ltd, which becomes the northern England supermarket chain Booths, is founded when tea dealer Edwin Henry Booth, 19, opens a shop called "The China House" in Blackpool.
June 1 - The first congress of the Communist League is held in London.
June 9 - Radley College, an English public school, is founded near Oxford as a High Anglican institution.  June 26 - The first passenger railway wholly within modern-day Denmark opens, from Copenhagen to Roskilde. 
October - The last volcanic eruption of Mount Guntur in West Java occurs.
October 12 - German inventors and industrialists Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske found Siemens & Halske to develop the electrical telegraph.
October 19 - Charlotte Brontë publishes under the pen name of Currer Bell in England. Jane Eyre
October 31 - Theta Delta Chi is founded as a social fraternity at Union College, Schenectady, New York.
November 3- 29 - Sonderbund War: In Switzerland, General Guillaume-Henri Dufour's Federal Army defeats the Sonderbund (an alliance of seven Catholic cantons) in a civil war, with a total of only 86 deaths.
November 4- 8 - James Young Simpson discovers the anesthetic properties of chloroform and first uses it, successfully, on a patient, in an obstetric case in Edinburgh.  
November 10 - The first brew of Carlsberg beer is finished in Copenhagen.
November 17 - The Battle of Um Swayya Spring takes place near a spring in Qatar, after a Bahraini force under Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa Deputy Ruler of Bahrain defeats the Al Binali tribe. The chief of the Al Binali, Isa bin Tureef, is slain in battle with over 70 fatalities from his side.
December 14 - Emily Brontë and Anne Brontë publish and Wuthering Heights , respectively, in a 3-volume set under the pen names of Ellis Bell and Acton Bell in England. Agnes Grey December 21 - Emir Abdelkader surrenders to the French in Algeria.
February 3 - Warington Baden-Powell, British admiralty lawyer (d. 1921)
February 4 - Remus von Woyrsch, German field marshal (d. 1920)
February 5 - João Maria Correia Ayres de Campos, 1st Count of Ameal, Portuguese politician and antiquarian (d. 1920)
February 8 - Hugh Price Hughes, Methodist social reformer, first Superintendent of the West London Mission (d. 1902)
February 11 - Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor (d. 1931)
February 13 - Sir Robert McAlpine, Scottish builder (d. 1930)
February 15 - Robert Fuchs, Austrian composer (d. 1927)
February 16 - Philipp Scharwenka, Polish-German composer (d. 1917) February 17 - Otto Blehr, Norwegian attorney, Liberal Party politician, 7th Prime Minister of Norway (d. 1927)
October 1 - Annie Besant, English women's rights activist, writer and orator (d. 1933)
October 2 - Paul von Hindenburg, German field marshal, President of Germany (d. 1934)
October 3 - Lilian Whiting, American journalist, editor, and author (d. 1942)
October 14 - Wilgelm Vitgeft, Russian admiral (d. 1904)
October 15 - Ralph Albert Blakelock, American romanticist painter (d. 1919)
October 17 - Chiquinha Gonzaga, Brazilian composer (d. 1935)
October 19 - Aurilla Furber, American author, editor, and activist (d. 1898)
October 20 - Mifflin E. Bell, American architect (d. 1904)
October 22 - Koos de la Rey, Boer general (d. 1914) October 30
January 19 - Charles Bent, first Governor of New Mexico Territory (b. 1799) (assassinated)
February 3 - Marie Duplessis, French courtesan (b. 1824)
February 5 - Luis José de Orbegoso, Peruvian general and politician, 11th and 12th President of Peru (b. 1795)
March 9 - Mary Anning, British paleontologist (b. 1799)
April 21 - Barbara Spooner Wilberforce, wife of British abolitionist William Wilberforce (b. 1777)
April 30 - Archduke Charles of Austria, Austrian general (b. 1771)
May 14 - Fanny Mendelssohn, German composer, pianist (b. 1805)
May 15 - Daniel O'Connell, Irish politician who promoted the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 (b. 1775)
May 16 - Vicente Rocafuerte, 2nd President of Ecuador (b. 1783)
May 29 - Emmanuel de Grouchy, Marquis de Grouchy, French marshal (b. 1766)
May 31 - Abbasgulu Bakikhanov, Azerbaijani writer (b. 1794) June 11 - Sir John Franklin, British explorer (b. 1786)
"The History of Birkenhead Park". Archived from the original on June 26, 2008 . Retrieved 2007.
"The Exmouth - a terrible tragedy on Islay". Isle of Islay. 2011 . Retrieved 2012.
"The Exmouth shipwreck off the Antrim Coast, Northern Ireland". My Secret Northern Ireland . Retrieved 2012.
Boyd, A. K. (1948). . Oxford: Blackwell The History of Radley College 1847-1947 . Retrieved 2020.
Marshall, John (1989). The Guinness Railway Book. Enfield: Guinness Books. ISBN . 0-8511-2359-7 OCLC 24175552.
^ First communicated to the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, November 10, and published in a pamphlet,
Notice of a New Anæsthetic Agent, in Edinburgh, November 12.
Gordon, H. Laing (2002). . Minerva Group, Inc. Sir James Young Simpson and Chloroform (1811-1870) ISBN 978-1-4102-0291-8 . Retrieved 2011.