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1890 ( MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1890th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 890th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1890, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
April 2 – Kashihara Shrine, a landmark spot in Nara Prefecture, Japan, is officially built by Emperor Mutsuhito (Emperor of Meiji). 
April 14 – At the First International Conference of American States, in Washington D.C., The Commercial Bureau of the American Republics is founded.
May 1 – A coordinated series of mass rallies and one-day strikes is held throughout many cities and mining towns, in Europe and North America, to demand an eight-hour workday. 
May 2 – President Benjamin Harrison signs the Oklahoma Organic Act, under which Oklahoma Territory is organized, a prerequisite for later statehood.
May 12 – The first ever official English County Championship cricket match begins in Bristol; Yorkshire beats Gloucestershire, by eight wickets.
May 20 – Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh moves to Auvers-sur-Oise on the edge of Paris, in the care of Dr Paul Gachet, where he will produce around seventy paintings in as many days.
May 31 – The five-story skylight Arcade opens in Cleveland, Ohio.
June 1 – The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to tabulate census returns using punched card input, a landmark in the history of computing hardware. Hollerith's company eventually becomes . IBM
June 12 – In Michigan, the wooden steamer Ryan is lost near Thunder Bay Island. 
June 20 – (by The Picture of Dorian Gray Oscar Wilde) is published by Philadelphia-based (dated July). Lippincott's Monthly Magazine June 27 – Canadian-born boxer George Dixon defeats the British bantamweight champion in London, giving him claim to be the first black world champion in any sport. 
October 9 – The first brief flight of Clément Ader's steam-powered fixed-wing aircraft takes place in Ader Éole Satory, France. It flies uncontrolled approximately 50 m (160 ft) at a height of 20 cm (7.9 in), the first take-off of a powered airplane solely under its own power.   
October 11 – In Washington, D.C., the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded.
October 12 – In Uddevalla, the Uddevalla Suffrage Association is founded, with a formal founding event on November 2 a month later.
November 4 – The first deep level London Underground (Tube) Railway, the City and South London Railway, opens officially.
November 21 – Edward King, Anglican bishop of Lincoln, is convicted of using ritualistic practices. 
November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir, and his daughter Princess Wilhelmina becomes Queen, causing the end of the personal union of thrones with Luxembourg (which requires a male heir) so that Adolphe, Duke of Nassau becomes Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
November – Scotland Yard, headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, moves to a building on London's Victoria Embankment, as New Scotland Yard.
December 15 – Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull is killed by police on Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
December 27 – The British steamship burns in the Shanghai East China Sea off the coast of Anhui Province; 101 lives are lost.  December 29 – Wounded Knee Massacre: At Wounded Knee, South Dakota, a Native American camp, the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment tries to disperse the non-violent "Ghost-Dance" which was promised to usher in a new era of power and freedom to Native Americans but is feared as a potential rallying tool for violent rebellion by some in the U.S. government. Shooting begins, and 153 Lakota Sioux and 25 troops are killed; about 150 flee the scene. This is the last tribe to be defeated and confined to a reservation as well as the beginning of the decline of both the American Indian Wars and the American frontier.
Date unknown The
folding carton box is invented by Robert Gair, a Brooklyn printer who developed production of paper-board boxes in 1879. The United States city of
Boise, Idaho, drills the first geothermal well.
Brown trout are introduced into the upper Firehole River, in Yellowstone National Park.
is written by High School Cadets John Philip Sousa.
William II of Prussia opposes Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic Party.
Blackwall Buildings, Whitechapel, noted philanthropic housing, is built in the East End of London. English archaeologist
Flinders Petrie excavates at Tell el-Hesi, Palestine (mistakenly identified as Tel Lachish), the first scientific excavation of an archaeological site in the Holy Land, during which he discovers how tells are formed. American
geostrategist Alfred Thayer Mahan publishes his influential book . The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783
Francis Galton announces a statistical demonstration of the uniqueness and classifiability of individual human fingerprints. 
Alfred Tucker becomes Anglican Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa.  The Ohio Northern University Marching Band is founded as a part of the military department. Now known as the "Star of Northwest Ohio" they perform regularly each football season and travel across the world through their sponsoring university. 
January 1 – Anton Melik, Slovenian geographer (d. 1966)
January 4 – Victor Lustig, Bohemian-born con artist (d. 1947)
January 5 – Sarah Aaronsohn, member of the Jewish spy ring Nili (d. 1917)
January 8 – Taixu, Chinese Buddhist activist (d. 1947)
January 11 – Oswald de Andrade, Brazilian Modernist writer (d. 1954)
January 13 – Jüri Uluots, 8th Prime Minister of Estonia (d. 1945)
January 19 – Élise Rivet, French Roman Catholic nun and war heroine (d. 1945)
January 20 – Boris Kozo-Polyansky, Russian botanist and evolutionary biologist (d. 1957)
January 21 – Wesley Englehorn, American football player (d. 1993)
January 22 – Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1953) January 28
March 1 – Theresa Bernstein, Polish-born American artist and writer (d. 2002)
March 4 – Norman Bethune, Canadian doctor and humanitarian (d. 1939)
March 8 – Eugeniusz Baziak, Polish Roman Catholic archbishop (d. 1962)
March 11 – Vannevar Bush, American engineer, inventor, and politician (d. 1960)
March 19 – Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, African-American artist known for her sculpture. (d. 1960)
March 26 – Aaron S. "Tip" Merrill, American admiral (d. 1961)
March 28 – Paul Whiteman, American bandleader (d. 1967) March 31 – William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971)
April 6 – Anthony Fokker, Dutch aircraft manufacturer (d. 1939)
April 11 – Rachele Mussolini, Italian, wife of Benito Mussolini (d. 1979)
April 15 – Percy Shaw, British inventor (d. 1976)
April 17 – Victor Chapman, French-American fighter pilot (d. 1916)
April 18 – Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (d. 1958)
April 21 – Michitaro Tozuka, Japanese admiral (d. 1966)
April 24 – Masatane Kanda, Japanese general (d. 1983)
April 26 – Edgar Kennedy, American comedic actor (d. 1948)
April 29 – Daisy Fellowes, French society figure, writer and heiress (d. 1962) April 30 – Géza Lakatos, 36th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1967)
June 1 – Frank Morgan, American actor (d. 1949)
June 6 – Ted Lewis, American jazz musician and entertainer (d. 1971)
June 10 – William A. Seiter, American film director (d. 1964)
June 11 – Béla Miklós, 38th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1948)
June 12 – Junius Matthews, American actor (d. 1978)
June 16 – Stan Laurel, English-born actor (d. 1965)
June 17 – Hataz? Adachi, Japanese general (d. 1947)
June 21 – Lewis H. Brereton, American aviation pioneer and air force general (d. 1967)
June 23 – Salvatore Papaccio, Italian tenor (d. 1977)
June 25 – Charlotte Greenwood, American actress (d. 1977)
June 28 – William H. P. Blandy, American admiral (d. 1954)
October 2 – Groucho Marx, American comedian (d. 1977)
October 3 – Emilio Portes Gil, Mexican teacher, journalist, lawyer, and substitute President of Mexico, 1928-1930 (d. 1978) 
October 6 – Jack Rockwell, Mexican-American actor (d. 1947)
October 9 – Aimee Semple McPherson, Canadian-American Pentecostal Evangelist (d. 1944)
October 13 – Conrad Richter, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1968)
October 14 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, US general and 34th President of the United States (d. 1969)
October 17 – Roy Kilner, English cricketer (d. 1928)
October 20 – Sherman Minton, American politician and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1965)
October 23 – Abdul Hamid Karami, 16th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1950)
October 25 – Floyd Bennett, American aviator and explorer (d. 1928)
October 26 – John Aae, Norwegian politician (d. 1968) October 29 – Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (d. 1944)
January 2 – Julián Gayarre, Spanish opera singer (b. 1844)
January 7 – Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Empress Consort of William I, German Emperor (b. 1811)
January 18 – King Amadeo I of Spain (b. 1845)
February 18 – Gyula Andrássy, Hungarian statesman, 4th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1823)
January 23 – Emily Jane Pfeiffer, Welsh poet and philanthropist (b. 1827)
March 3 – Innocenzo da Berzo, Italian Capuchin friar and blessed (b. 1844)
March 7 – Karl Rudolf Friedenthal, Prussian statesman (b. 1827)
March 9 – Sir Mangaldas Nathubhoy, Indian politician (b. 1832)
March 16 – Princess Zorka of Montenegro (b. 1864)
March 23 – Mary Jane Katzmann, Canadian historian (b. 1828)
April 19 – James Pollock, American politician (b. 1810)
June 24 – Subba Row, Hindu theosophist (b. 1856) June 30 – Samuel Parkman Tuckerman, American composer (b. 1819)
July 7 – Henri Nestlé, Swiss confectioner and the founder of Nestlé (b. 1814)
July 9 – Clinton B. Fisk, American philanthropist and temperance activist (b. 1828)
July 15 – Gottfried Keller, Swiss writer (b. 1819)
July 29 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (b. 1853)
August 6 – William Kemmler, American murderer, first person executed in the electric chair (b. 1860)
August 10 – John Boyle O'Reilly, Irish-born poet, journalist and fiction writer (b. 1844)
August 11 – John Henry Newman, English Roman Catholic Cardinal (b. 1801)
August 27 – Juan Seguín, American soldier and politician (b. 1806)
October 4 – Catherine Booth, Mother of The Salvation Army (b. 1829)
October 17 – Julian Gutowski, Polish politician (b. 1823)
October 20 – Richard Francis Burton, English explorer, linguist, soldier (b. 1820)
October 26 – Carlo Collodi, Italian writer ( ) (b. The Adventures of Pinocchio 1826)
November 3 – Ulrich Ochsenbein, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1811)
November 4 – Félix du Temple de la Croix, French Army Captain & aviation pioneer (b. 1823)
November 7 – Comanche, American horse, survivor of Custer's cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
November 8 – César Franck, Belgian composer and organist (b. 1822)
November 11 – Marie-Charles David de Mayréna, French adventurer and self-styled King of Sedang (b. 1842)
November 23 – King William III of the Netherlands (b. 1817)
November 24 – August Belmont, Sr., Prussian-born financier (b. 1816)
December 15 – Sitting Bull, Native American chief (b. c. 1831)
December 21 – Johanne Luise Heiberg, Danish actress (b. 1812)
December 26 – Heinrich Schliemann, German archaeologist (b. 1822) December 31 – Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (b. 1826)
Date unknown Ann Leah Underhill, one of the Uck sisters, American fraudulent medium (b. 1814)
^ a b c
"Full List of Thunder Bay Region Shipwrecks (by name)". MSU Sea Grant Extension, Northeast District, Michigan State University. 2000. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009 . Retrieved 2006.
^ a b c d
"Many Great Liners Paid Toll Of The Sea; Republic Was First to Utilize the Wireless in Calls for Aid" (PDF). . April 16, 1912 The New York Times . Retrieved 2011.
"This Day in History: 1890". History.com. A&E Television Networks. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010 . Retrieved 2009.
"A Steamer and 400 Lives Lost". Otago Times. January 17, 1890 . Retrieved 2012.
The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978.
Statement Showing, in Chronological Order, the Date of Opening and the Mileage of Each Section of Railway, Statement No. 19, p. 182, ref. no. 200954-13
"Asuka Area, Nara". Iwate University . Retrieved 2019.
^ Hermann, Christoph:
Capitalism and the Political Economy of Work Time, p. 113
"Dixon, George (Little Chocolate)". . University of Toronto; Université Laval. 2000 Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online . Retrieved 2012.
Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 317-318. ISBN . 0-7126-5616-2
(London). The Daily News "lime, . n" 2 . Oxford University Press. September 2011 Oxford English Dictionary online version . Retrieved 2011. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
"History of UNT | 125th Anniversary". 125.unt.edu . Retrieved 2017.
Crouch, Tom D. "Clément Ader". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 2011.
Gray, Carroll (1998-2003). "Clement Ader 1841–1925". Flying Machines . Retrieved 2011.
Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. (1959). "Hops and Flights: A Roll Call of Early Powered Take-offs". . Flight 75: 468 . Retrieved 2011.
"Read And Others V. The Lord Bishop Of Lincoln: Court Of The Archbishop Of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace, Nov. 21". (33176). London. November 22, 1890. p. 4. The Times
Two Hundred Drowned - Panic among the Chinese on the burned steamer Shanghai.
Galton, Francis (1891). "The Patterns in Thumb and Finger Marks – On Their Arrangement into Naturally Distinct Classes, the Permanence of the Papillary Ridges that Make Them, and the Resemblance of Their Classes to Ordinary Genera". . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 182: 1-23. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1891.0001. JSTOR 91733.
"Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa". . 1908 World Digital Library . Retrieved 2013.
"ONU Marching Band".
"Emilio Portes Gil" (in Spanish). Busca Biografias . Retrieved 2019.
Further reading and year books 1890 Annual Cyclopedia online; highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" (1891); compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage.