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1915 ( MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1915th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 915th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 15th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1915, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Below, the events of
World War I have the "WWI" prefix.
January - Joseph Larmor published his work on The Influence of Local Atmospheric Cooling on Astronomical Refraction.
January 5 - Joseph E. Carberry sets an altitude record of 11,690 feet (3,560 m), carrying Capt. Benjamin Delahauf Foulois as a passenger, in a fixed-wing aircraft.
January 13 - The 6.7 M w Avezzano earthquake shakes the Province of L'Aquila in Italy, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI ( Extreme). Various agencies estimate the number of people killed to be 29,978-32,610.
January 17 - WWI: Caucasus Campaign - Battle of Sarikamish: Russia defeats Ottoman Turkey.
January 18 - Twenty-One Demands from Japan to China are made.
January 21 - Kiwanis is founded in Detroit, Michigan, as The Supreme Lodge Benevolent Order Brothers.
January 23 - Chilembwe uprising: Baptist minister John Chilembwe initiates an ultimately unsuccessful uprising against British colonial rule in Nyasaland (modern-day Malawi).
January 24 - WWI: Battle of Dogger Bank: The British Grand Fleet defeats the German High Seas Fleet, sinking the armoured cruiser SMS . Blücher 
January 27 - WWI: Military casualties begin arriving at the Hôpital Temporaire d'Arc-en-Barrois, established earlier in the month.
January 28 - An act of the United States Congress designates the United States Coast Guard, began in 1790, as a military branch. January 31 - WWI - Battle of Bolimów: Germany's first large-scale use of poison gas as a weapon occurs, when 18,000 artillery shells containing liquid xylyl bromide tear gas are fired on the Imperial Russian Army, on the Rawka River west of Warsaw; however, freezing temperatures prevent it being effective. 
March - The 1915 Palestine locust infestation breaks out in Palestine; it continues until October.
March 3 - The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the predecessor of NASA, is founded in the United States.
March 10 - 13 - WWI - Battle of Neuve Chapelle: In the first deliberately planned British offensive of the war, British Indian troops overrun German positions in France, but are unable to sustain the advance.
March 11 - WWI: British armed merchantman HMS is sunk in the Bayano North Channel off the coast of Scotland by Imperial German Navy U-boat . Around 200 crew are lost, a number of bodies being washed up on the SM U-27 Isle of Man, with only 26 saved. 
March 14 - WWI:
March 19 - Pluto is photographed for the first time, but is not classified as a planet.
March 25 - The U.S. submarine F-4 sinks off Hawaii; 21 are killed.
March 26 - The Vancouver Millionaires win the Stanley Cup in ice hockey over the Ottawa Senators, 3 games to 0. March 28 - The first Roman Catholic liturgy is celebrated by Archbishop John Ireland at the newly consecrated Cathedral of Saint Paul, in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
May 1 - WWI: General Louis Botha, Prime Minister of South Africa, leads the army in the occupation of German South West Africa.
May 3 - Canadian soldier John McCrae writes the poem " In Flanders Fields".
May 5 - WWI: Forces of the Ottoman Empire begin shelling ANZAC Cove from a new position behind their lines.
May 6 - Baseball player Babe Ruth hits his first career home run (off Jack Warhop), for the Boston Red Sox.
May 7 - WWI: Sinking of the RMS : Lusitania RMS 's main rival, the British Titanic ocean liner RMS , is sunk by Lusitania Imperial German Navy U-boat off the south-west coast of Ireland, killing 1,198 civilians en route from New York City to U-20 Liverpool.
May 9 - WWI - Second Battle of Artois: German and French forces fight to a standstill; German forces defeat the British at the Battle of Aubers Ridge.
May 17 - The last purely Liberal government in the United Kingdom ends, when the prime minister H. H. Asquith forms an all-party coalition government, the Asquith coalition ministry, effective May 25.
May 19 - WWI: The third attack on Anzac Cove by Ottoman forces is repelled, by the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.
May 24 - WWI: Italy joins the Allies, after declaring war on Austria-Hungary.
May 25 - China agrees to the Twenty-One Demands of the Japanese.
May 28 - International Congress of Women meet at the Hague as a major peace initiative.  May 29 - Teófilo Braga becomes president of Portugal.
July - WWI - South West Africa Campaign: The Union of South Africa occupies German South West Africa with assistance from Canada, the United Kingdom, the Portuguese Republic and Portuguese Angola. South Africa will occupy South West Africa until March 1990.
July 1 - WWI: In aerial warfare, German fighter pilot Kurt Wintgens becomes the first person to shoot down another plane, using a machine gun equipped with synchronization gear.
July 9 - WWI: Theodore Seitz, governor of German South West Africa, surrenders to General Louis Botha, between Otavi and Tsumeb.
July 11 - WWI - Battle of Rufiji Delta – German cruiser SMS is forced to Königsberg scuttle in the Rufiji River, German East Africa (present-day Tanzania).
July 14 - The McMahon-Hussein Correspondence between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and the British official Henry McMahon concerning the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire begins; in exchange for assistance against the Ottomans, the British offer bin Ali their recognition of an independent Arab kingdom, although clear terms are never agreed to. 
July 22 - WWI: The " Great Retreat" is ordered on the Eastern Front; Russian forces pull back out of Poland (then part of Russia), taking machinery and equipment with them.
July 24 - The steamer capsizes in central Chicago, with the loss of 844 lives. Eastland July 28 - The American occupation of Haiti (1915-34) begins.
September 5 - The Zimmerwald Conference begins in Switzerland.
September 6 - The prototype military tank is first tested by the British Army.
September 7 - Former cartoonist John B. Gruelle is given a patent for his doll. Raggedy Ann
September 8 - WWI: A Zeppelin raid destroys No. 61 Farringdon Road, London; it is rebuilt in 1917, and called The Zeppelin Building.
September 11 - The Pennsylvania Railroad begins electrified commuter rail service between Paoli and Philadelphia, using overhead AC trolley wires for power. This type of system is later used in long-distance passenger trains between New York City, Washington, D.C., and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
September 12 - French soldiers rescue over 4,000 Armenian Genocide survivors stranded on Musa Dagh, a mountain in the Hatay province of Turkey.
September 25 - October 14 - WWI - Battle of Loos: British forces take the French town of Loos, but with substantial casualties, and are unable to press their advantage. This is the first time the British use poison gas in World War I, and also their first large-scale use of 'New' (or Kitchener's Army) units. September 30 - WWI: Serbian Army private Radoje Ljutovac became the first soldier in history to shoot down an enemy aircraft, with ground-to-air fire.
January 2 - John Hope Franklin, African-American historian (d. 2009)
January 11 - Robert Blair Mayne, British soldier, co-founder of the Special Air Service (d. 1955)
January 14 - Mark Goodson, American television game show producer (d. 1992)
January 15 - Leo Mol, Ukrainian-born Canadian artist, sculptor (d. 2009)
January 17 - Sammy Angott, American boxer (d. 1980)
January 18 - Santiago Carrillo, Spanish politician (d. 2012)
January 24 - Robert Motherwell, American painter (d. 1991)
January 25 - Ewan MacColl, English folk singer, songwriter, and poet (d. 1989)
January 28 - Nien Cheng, Chinese-born American writer (d. 2009)
February 5 - Robert Hofstadter, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1990)
February 6 - Danuta Szaflarska, Polish screen, stage actress (d. 2017)
February 10 - Karl Winsch, American professional baseball player, manager (d. 2001)
February 13 - Aung San, Burmese national leader (d. 1947)
February 20 - Danuta Szaflarska Polish screen, stage actress (d. 2017)
February 27 - Dick Crockett, American actor, stunt performer (d. 1979) February 28
March 1 - Elizabeth Peet McIntosh, American spy (d. 2015)
March 5 - Sydney Sturgess, British-Canadian actress (d. 1999)
March 7 - Jacques Chaban-Delmas, French politician, Prime Minister of France (d. 2000)
March 8 - Drue Heinz, American literary publisher (d. 2018)
March 9 - John Edgar "Johnnie" Johnson, English pilot (d. 2001)
March 10 - Harry Bertoia, Italian artist, designer (d. 1978)
March 11 - Vijay Hazare, Indian cricketer (d. 2004)
March 14 - Alexander Brott, Canadian conductor, composer (d. 2005)
March 15 - Carl Emil Schorske, American cultural historian (d. 2015)
March 19 - Patricia Morison, American actress (d. 2018)
March 23 - Vasily Zaytsev, Soviet sniper (d. 1991)
March 27 - Robert Lockwood Jr., American musician (d. 2006)
March 28 - Jeremy Hutchinson, British lawyer, peer (d. 2017)
March 31 - Albert Hourani, English historian (d. 1993)
June 3 - Milton Cato, Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (d. 1997)
June 4 - Modibo Keïta, 1st President of Mali (d. 1977)
June 11 - Buddy Baer, American boxer and actor (d. 1986)
Loke Wan Tho, Singaporean business magnate, ornithologist, and photographer (d. 1964) Zoe Dell Nutter, American dancer, model, promoter, pilot and philanthropist
June 16 - Mariano Rumor, Italian politician and Prime Minister of Italy from 1968 to 1970 and again from 1973 to 1974 (d. 1990)
June 19 - Pat Buttram, American actor (d. 1994)
June 20 - Terence Young, British film director and screenwriter (d. 1994)
Jesús Arango Cano, Colombian economist, diplomat, anthropologist, archaeologist and writer (d. 2015) Karol Miklosz, Polish-Soviet footballer, Soviet referee and Soviet-Ukrainian football administrator (d. 2003)
June 23 - Frances Gabe, American artist and inventor (d. 2016)
June 25 - Floyd Boring, American Secret Service agent (d. 2008)
June 29 - John Charles Cutler, American surgeon (d. 2003) June 30
July 4 - Timmie Rogers, American actor and singer-songwriter (d. 2006)
July 10 - Kevin Barrett, Australian rules footballer (d. 1984)
July 11 - Leonard Goodwin, British protozoologist (d. 2008)
Tex Hill, Korean-American fighter pilot and flying ace (d. 2007) Paul Williams, African American jazz and blues saxophonist, bandleader and songwriter (d. 2002)
July 14 - Harold Pupkewitz, Namibian entrepreneur (d. 2012)
William O. Baker, former president of Bell Labs (d. 2005)
Alicia Zubasnabar de De la Cuadra, Argentine human rights activist (d. 2008)
A. A. Englander, British television cinematographer (d. 2004)
Albert Ghiorso, American nuclear scientist (d. 2010)
Edith Pfau, American painter, sculptor and art educator (d. 2001)
Judith Révész, Hungarian-Dutch potter and sculptor (d. 2018)
Kashmir Singh Katoch, Indian military advisor (d. 2007)
David Tree, English actor (d. 2009) Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulg?r, Moldovan activist (d. 2003)
July 16 - Elaine Barrie, American actress (d. 2003)
July 17 - Fred Ball, American movie studio executive, actor, and brother of comedian Lucille Ball (d. 2007)
July 22 - Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah, Pakistani female politician, diplomat and author (d. 2000)
July 24 - Enrique Fernando, Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court (d. 2004)
July 26 - K. Pattabhi Jois, Indian yogi (d. 2009) July 28
August 4 - William Keene, American actor (d. 1992)
August 9 - George W. BonDurant, American preacher (d. 2017)
August 13 - Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo, Pakistani teacher, writer, scholar, and Sindhi nationalist (d. 2017)
August 18 - Joseph Arthur Ankrah, 2nd President of Ghana (d. 1992)
August 19 - Ring Lardner Jr., American film screenwriter (d. 2000)
August 21 - Arnold Goodman, Baron Goodman, British lawyer, political adviser (d. 1995)
August 22 - Hugh Paddick, British actor (d. 2000)
August 25 - Walter Trampler, American violist (d. 1997)
August 27 - Norman F. Ramsey, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
August 31 - Víctor Pey, Spanish-Chilean engineer (d. 2018)
September 2 - Meinhardt Raabe, American actor (d. 2010)
September 6 - Franz Josef Strauss, German politician (d. 1988)
September 7 - Richard E. Cole, American air force officer (d. 2019)
September 9 - Richard Webb, American actor (d. 1993)
September 11 - Raúl Alberto Lastiri, 39th President of Argentina (d. 1978)
September 16 - Eddie Filgate, Irish politician (d. 2017)
September 19 - Duffy Ayers, English portrait painter (d. 2017)
September 20 - Malik Meraj Khalid, Prime Minister of Pakistan (d. 2003)
September 21 - Gertrude Poe, American journalist (d. 2017)
September 22 - Bernardino Piñera, Chilean Roman Catholic bishop
September 24 - Joseph Montoya, American politician (d. 1978)
September 27 - Ira Colitz, American politician (d. 1998)
October 2 - Chuck Williams, American businessman (d. 2015)
October 6 - Neus Català, Spanish political activist (d. 2019)
October 7 - Walter Keane, American plagiarist (d. 2000)
October 11 - T. Llew Jones, Welsh author, poet (d. 2009)
October 14 - Loris Francesco Capovilla, Italian Roman Catholic prelate (d. 2016)
October 18 - Thomas Round, English opera singer, actor (d. 2016)
October 19 - Andreas Peter Cornelius Sol, Dutch prelate (d. 2016)
October 21 - Aleksandr Ezhevsky, Soviet engineer, statesman (d. 2017)
October 22 - Yitzhak Shamir, Israeli politician (d. 2012)
October 23 - Shin Hyun-joon, South Korean general (d. 2007)
October 24 - Bob Kane, American comic book artist/writer, creator of Batman (d. 1998)
October 27 - Harry Saltzman, Canadian theatre, film producer (d. 1994)
October 28 - Dody Goodman, American actress, dancer (d. 2008) October 29 - William Berenberg, American physician (d. 2005)
November 2 - Kay Armen, American Armenian singer (d. 2011)
November 8 - Richard Luyt, 1st Governor General of Guyana (d. 1994)
November 12 - Roland Barthes, French philosopher, literary critic (d. 1980)
November 13 - Clara Marangoni, Italian gymnast (d. 2018)
November 16 - Jean Fritz, American children's writer (d. 2017)
November 17 - Albert Malbois, French prelate (d. 2017)
November 18 - James Whittico Jr., American physician (d. 2018)
November 19 - Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr., American physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
November 20 - Bill Daniel, American politician (d. 2006)
November 26 - Emilio D'Amore, Italian writer, journalist, and politician (d. 2017)
November 28 - Evald Okas, Estonian painter (d. 2011)
November 29 - Eugene Polley, American engineer (d. 2012) November 30
December 4 - Virginia deGravelles, American politician (d. 2017)
December 5 - Ren Xinmin, Chinese aerospace engineer (d. 2017)
December 7 - Eli Wallach, American actor (d. 2014)
December 8 - Ernest Lehman, American screenwriter (d. 2005)
December 9 - Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, German-born soprano (d. 2006)
December 14 - Dan Dailey, American actor, dancer (d. 1978)
December 17 - Robert A. Dahl, American political scientist (d. 2014)
December 18 - Bill Zuckert, American actor (d. 1997)
December 21 - Werner von Trapp, member of the Austrian Trapp Family Singers (d. 2007)
December 22 - Barbara Billingsley, American actress (d. 2010)
December 31 - Davuldena Gnanissara Thero, Sri Lankan Buddhist monk (d. 2017)
October 4 - Karl Staaff, 11th Prime Minister of Sweden (b. 1860)
October 12 - Edith Cavell, British nurse, war heroine (shot) (b. 1865)
October 13 - Charles Sorley, British poet (killed in action) (b. 1895)
October 15 - Theodor Boveri, German biologist (b. 1862)
October 16 - Zde?ka Wiedermannová-Moty?ková, Moravian pioneer of female education (heart attack) (b. 1868)
October 22 - Wilhelm Windelband, German philosopher (b. 1848)
October 23 - W. G. Grace, English cricketer (b. 1848)
October 26 - August Bungert, German composer, poet (b. 1845) October 30 - Sir Charles Tupper, 6th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1821)
"The Great Escape". . Season 4. Episode 28. May 9, 2011. History. Pawn Stars
"No Jacket Can Hold Him", , accessed May 9, 2011. Life
Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN . 0-14-102715-0
Heller, Charles E. (September 1984). "Chemical Warfare in World War I: The American Experience, 1917-1918". Leaveanworth Papers, 10. Combat Studies Institute . Retrieved 2012.
Johnston, Willie (March 12, 2015). "Centenary of HMS Bayano disaster off the Galloway coast". BBC News . Retrieved 2015.
^ Paull, John (2018)
The Women Who Tried to Stop the Great War: The International Congress of Women at The Hague 1915, In A. H. Campbell (Ed.), Global Leadership Initiatives for Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding (pp. 249-266). (Chapter 12) Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Simon, Hyacinthe (1991). Mardine la ville héroïque. Jounieh-Lebanon: Maison Naaman pour la culture.
Jonasson, Stefan. "100 years of women's suffrage in Iceland". Lögberg Heimskringla . Retrieved 2019.
Shlaim, Avi (2008). Lion of Jordan. London: Penguin Books. p. 2. ISBN . 978-0-141-01728-0
. Die Weißen Blätter
^ "Washington, Oct. 25."
, October 26, 1915. The New York Times
Shackleton, Ernest (1983). South. London: Century Publishing. p. 98. ISBN . 0-7126-0111-2
"Ernest Shackleton, Endurance Voyage, Time Line and Map". CoolAntarctica.com. 2001. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012 . Retrieved 2012.
Einstein, Albert (November 25, 1915). "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation". Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin: 844-847 . Retrieved 2018.
"Biography of Porfirio Diaz, Ruler of Mexico for 35 Years". ThoughtCo . Retrieved 2019.
Further reading Williams, John. The Other Battleground The Home Fronts: Britain, France and Germany 1914-1918 (1972) pp 43-108.
Primary sources and year books
, Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 791pp New International Year Book 1915 Hazell's Annual for 1916 (1916), worldwide events of 1915; 640pp online; worldwide coverage of 1915 events; emphasis on Great Britain