Get 1918 essential facts below. View
join the 1918 discussion
to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or
this resource on social media.
1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1918th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 918th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 18th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1918, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
This year is noted for the end of the
First World War, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as well as for the Spanish flu pandemic that killed 50-100 million people worldwide.
Below, the events of
World War I have the "WWI" prefix.
February 1 - Cattaro Mutiny: Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro (Kotor), led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny. February 5 - The SS is torpedoed off the Irish coast; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk. Tuscania
March 1 - WWI: German submarine sinks U-19 HMS off Calgarian Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland.
March 3 - WWI: The Central Powers and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in the war.
March 8 - WWI: The Battle of Tell 'Asur is launched by units of the British Army's Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences from the Mediterranean Sea, across the Judaean Mountains to the edge of the Jordan Valley; it ends on March 12, with the move of much of the front line north into Ottoman territory.
March 12 - Moscow becomes the capital of Soviet Russia.
March 19 - The United States Congress establishes time zones, and approves daylight saving time (DST goes into effect on March 31).
March 21- July 18 - WWI: The Spring Offensive by the German Army along the Western Front fails to make a breakthrough, despite large losses on each side, including nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day, Operation Michael, on the Somme.
March 21 - WWI: The First Transjordan attack on Amman by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins, with the passage of the Jordan River.
WWI: The giant German cannon, the '
Paris Gun' ( Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz), begins to shell Paris from 114 km (71 mi) away. In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick, where he is supposed to " catch" two separate bullets (but one of them perforates his lung). He dies the following morning in a hospital.
March 26 - Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book in the U.K. Married Love
March 27 - WWI: The First Battle of Amman is launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, during the First Transjordan attack on Amman; it ends with their withdrawal on 31 March, back to the Jordan Valley. March 30 - March Days: Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths.
April 1 - The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service in Britain are merged to form the Royal Air Force, the first autonomous Air Force in the world.
April 5 - S?lote succeeds as Queen of Tonga; she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965.
April 8 - Operations against the Marri and Khetran tribes in Balochistan end with surrender to the British authorities.
April 9 - Union of Bessarabia with Romania: Bessarabia votes to become part of the Kingdom of Romania.
April 21 - WWI: Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron", the war's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River.
April 22 - Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia declare their independence from Russia as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
April 23 - WWI:
April 28 - WWI: Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, dies in Terezin, Austria-Hungary, after three years in prison. April 30 - WWI: The Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt, launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, ends on 4 May, with their withdrawal back to the Jordan Valley.
June- August - The " Spanish 'flu" becomes pandemic. Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months. 
June 1 - WWI: The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.
June 4 - RMS Kenilworth Castle, one of the Union-Castle Line steamships, collides with her escort destroyer HMS while trying to avoid her other escort, the cruiser Rival HMS . Kent
June 5 - The , a confidential cultural organisation, is founded in Afrikaner Broederbond Johannesburg.
June 8 - V603 Aquilae, the brightest nova observed since Kepler's of 1604, is discovered.
June 10 - WWI: The Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS is sunk by two Italian Szent István MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.
Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, thereby becoming the first of the Romanovs to be killed by the Bolsheviks. WWI: The first airplane bombing raid by an American unit in France is carried out.
June 16 - The Declaration to the Seven, a British government response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables, is published.
June 22 - Suspects in the Chicago Restaurant Poisonings are arrested, and more than 100 waiters are taken into custody for poisoning restaurant customers with a lethal powder called Mickey Finn. June 29 - Bronx International Exposition of Science, Arts and Industries opens in New York; Brazil is the only international exhibitor and the exposition closes at the end of the season. 
July 3 - Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War: The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies, to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War.
July 4 - Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V (Re?âd, who has reigned since 1909), himself reigning until the Sultanate is abolished in 1922.
July 9 - Great Train Wreck of 1918: In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.
July 12 - The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship blows up off Kawachi Tokuyama, Yamaguchi, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.
July 13 - The National Czechoslovak Committee is established.
July 14 - The film is released in the United States, featuring The Glorious Adventure Mammy Lou, who becomes one of the oldest people ever to star in a film, at a claimed age of 114. July 15 - WWI: Second Battle of the Marne: The battle begins near the River Marne, with a German attack.
RMS (famed for rescuing survivors of the Carpathia RMS ) is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland, by Titanic Imperial German Navy submarine ; 218 of the 223 on board are rescued. U-55  Execution of the Romanov family: By order of the Bolshevik Party, and carried out by the Cheka, former emperor Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House, in Ekaterinburg, Russia. July 21 - WWI: Attack on Orleans – Imperial German submarine surfaces and fires on a small convoy of barges and defending flying boats off the SM U-156 Cape Cod town of Orleans, Massachusetts. 
: Attempted assassination of
, depicted by Vladimir Pchelin
Flag of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
December 4 - President Woodrow Wilson departs by ship to the Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first United States President to travel to Europe while holding office.
December 5 - Estonian War of Independence: The British light cruiser HMS strikes a Cassandra mine and sinks near Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea, killing 11 sailors. 
December 16 - Vincas Mickevi?ius-Kapsukas declares the formation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, a puppet state created by the Russian SFSR to justify the Lithuanian-Soviet War.
December 17 - Darwin Rebellion in Australia: Disaffected workers march on Government House, Darwin, demanding the resignation of the Administrator of the Northern Territory, John A. Gilruth.
December 20 - Tomá? Garrigue Masaryk returns to the Czechoslovak Republic.
December 21 - Estonian War of Independence: The Red Army captures Tartu, Estonia.
December 25 - , is formed in Germany as a Der Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten nationalist veterans' organization.
December 27 - Greater Poland Uprising (1918-19): Poles in Greater Poland (the former Grand Duchy of Posen) rise up against the Germans, ignited by a patriotic speech made in Pozna? by pianist and politician Ignacy Jan Paderewski.
December 28 - Sinn Féin enjoys a landslide victory in Irish seats in the Irish general election (part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election), following the counting of votes, winning 73 of the 105 seats in Ireland. In accordance with their manifesto, Sinn Féin members will not take their seats in the Palace of Westminster but will form the First Dáil in Dublin. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons.  December 31 - A British-brokered ceasefire ends the two weeks of fighting in the Georgian-Armenian War.
January 2 - Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse, German typographer, calligrapher and book-binder (d. 2019)
January 9 - Alma Ziegler, American female professional baseball player (d. 2005)
January 10 - Arthur Chung, 1st President of Guyana (d. 2008)
January 11 - Kassim Al-Rimawi, Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 1982)
January 12 - Mike Laffin, Canadian politician, dentist (d. 2019)
January 14 - Dimitri Tsafendas, South African criminal (d. 1999)
January 22 - Elmer Lach, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2015)
January 23 - Gertrude B. Elion, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1999)
January 24 - Oral Roberts, American neo-Pentecostal televangelist (d. 2009)
January 25 - Ernie Harwell, American baseball sportscaster (d. 2010)
January 30 - Bazilije Pand?i?, Croatian historian, archivist and orientalist (d. 2019) January 31 - Millie Dunn Veasey, African-American civil rights activist (d. 2018)
February 2 - Hella Haasse, Dutch writer (d. 2011)
February 6 - Lothar-Günther Buchheim, German author (d. 2007)
February 7 - Markey Robinson, Irish painter (d. 1999)
February 12 - Julian Schwinger, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994)
February 14 - William L. Snyder, American film producer (d. 1998)
February 16 - Patty Andrews, American singer ( The Andrews Sisters) (d. 2013)
February 17 - William Bronk, American poet (d. 1999)
February 19 - Fay McKenzie, American silent film actress (d. 2019)
February 21 - Robert E. Thacker, American aviator and test pilot (d. 2020)
February 28 - Alfred Burke, English actor (d. 2011)
March 2 - Martin Flannery, British politician (d. 2006)
March 4 - Margaret Osborne duPont, American female tennis player (d. 2012)
March 10 - Günther Rall, German ace fighter pilot (d. 2009)
March 11 - Jack Coe, American evangelist (d. 1956)
March 12 - Elaine de Kooning, American artist (d. 1989)
March 13 - Eddie Pellagrini, American baseball player, coach (d. 2006)
March 14 - John McCallum, Australian actor (d. 2010)
March 15 - William McIntyre, Canadian Puisne Justice (d. 2009)
March 16 - Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
March 17 - Viviane Gauthier, Haitian dancer (d. 2017)
March 18 - Bob Broeg, American sports writer (d. 2005)
March 20 - Jack Barry, American television game show host, producer (d. 1984)
March 22 - Cheddi Jagan, 4th President of Guyana (d. 1997)
March 25 - Howard Cosell, American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995)
March 26 - Lloyd McCuiston, American politician
March 28 - Gonzalo Facio Segreda, Costa Rican lawyer, politician, and diplomat (d. 2018) March 29
April 1 - Milt Earnhart, American politician (d. 2020)
April 7 - Bobby Doerr, American baseball player (d. 2017)
April 9 - Jørn Utzon, Danish architect (d. 2008)
April 10 - H. S. Doreswamy, Indian activist, journalist (d. 2021)
April 11 - Jean-Claude Servan-Schreiber, French journalist, politician (d. 2018)
April 14 - Mary Healy, American actress, variety entertainer and singer (d. 2015)
April 15 - Edmund Jones, American politician (d. 2019)
April 24 - Lou Dorfsman, American graphic designer (d. 2008)
April 26 - Fanny Blankers-Koen, Dutch athlete (d. 2004)
April 27 - John Rice, American baseball umpire (d. 2011)
Jack Paar, American television show host ( The Tonight Show) (d. 2004) Li Yaowen, Chinese politician, general and diplomat (d. 2018)
May 3 - Richard Dudman, American reporter, editorial writer ( St. Louis Post-Dispatch) (d. 2017)
May 5 - Egidio Galea, Maltese Roman Catholic priest (d. 2005)
May 11 - Richard Feynman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988)
May 13 - Caesar Anthonio Zeppeli, Italian Hamon user (d. 1939)
May 12 - Julius Rosenberg, American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953)
May 16 - Wilf Mannion, English footballer (d. 2000)
May 19 - Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000)
May 20 - Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
May 27 - Yasuhiro Nakasone, 45th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 2019)
May 31 - Margaret Todd, Canadian female golfer (d. 2019)
June 2 - Kathryn Tucker Windham, American writer, storyteller (d. 2011)
June 8 - Robert Preston, American actor ( The Music Man) (d. 1987)
June 9 - John Hospers, American philosopher (d. 2011)
June 11 - Hugo Scheltema, Dutch diplomat (d. 1996)
June 12 - Jerry A. Moore Jr., American politician (d. 2017)
June 15 - François Tombalbaye, 1st President of Chad (d. 1975)
June 23 - Paul Ashbee, British archaeologist (d. 2009)
June 28 - Marshall Brown, American professional basketball player (d. 2008)
June 30 - Jackie Roberts, Welsh footballer (d. 2001)
July 9 - Jarl Wahlström, Salvation Army general (d. 1999)
July 11 - Venetia Burney, English woman known for being the first person to suggest the name Pluto for the planet in 1930 (d. 2009)
Mary Glen-Haig, British Olympic fencer (d. 2014)
Doris Grumbach, American novelist, memoirist, biographer, literary critic, and essayist
Vivian Mason, American actress (d. 2009)
Paul Stenn, American football offensive tackle (d. 2003) Alice Van-Springsteen, American stuntwoman, jockey (d. 2008)
Paddy Bassett, New Zealand scientist (d. 2019)
Bertram Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
Aubrey Buxton, Baron Buxton of Alsa, British soldier, politician, television executive and writer (d. 2009)
Arthur Dimmock, English writer, journalist and historian (d. 2007) Brenda Milner, Canadian neuropsychologist
July 21 - Elsa Kobberstad, Norwegian schoolteacher, politician (d. 2007)
July 26 - Marjorie Lord, American actress (d. 2015)
July 27 - Leonard Rose, American cellist (d. 1984)
July 28 - Penaia Ganilau, 1st President of Fiji (d. 1993)
August 2 - Dada Vaswani, Indian spiritual leader (d. 2018)
August 4 - Noel Willman, Irish actor (d. 1988)
August 6 - Charles Coulston Gillispie, American historian (d. 2015)
August 11 - Thomas A. Bird, British WWII army officer, architect (d. 2017)
August 12 - Roy C. Bennett, American songwriter (d. 2015)
August 19 - Shankar Dayal Sharma, 9th President of India (d. 1999)
August 20 - Crystal Bennett, British archaeologist, pioneering researcher on Jordan (d. 1987)
August 21 - Bruria Kaufman, American-born Israeli physicist (d. 2010)
August 23 - Bernard Fisher, American surgeon (d. 2019)
August 25 - Leonard Bernstein, American composer, conductor (d. 1990)
August 28 - Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (d. 1996)
August 30 - Ted Williams, American baseball player (d. 2002) August 31
September 3 - Helen Wagner, American soap opera actress (d. 2010)
September 8 - Derek Barton, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
September 9 - Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, 9th President of Italy (d. 2012)
September 14 - James George, Canadian diplomat (d. 2020)
September 15 - Nipsey Russell, American comedian, poet, and dancer (d. 2005)
September 16 - Ismail Mohd Ali, Malaysian politician (d. 1998)
September 17 - Chaim Herzog, 6th President of Israel 1983-1993 (d. 1997)
September 19 - Joseph Zeller, American politician (d. 2018)
September 21 - John Gofman, American Manhattan Project scientist, advocate (d. 2007)
September 22 - Henryk Szeryng, Polish-born violinist (d. 1988)
September 24 - Emerante Morse, Haitian singer, dancer and folklorist (d. 2018)
October 4 - Kenichi Fukui, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
October 6 - Goh Keng Swee, former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (d. 2010)
October 8 - Jens Christian Skou, Danish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2018)
October 14 - Thelma Coyne Long, Australian tennis player (d. 2015)
October 17 - Rita Hayworth, American actress (d. 1987)
October 19 - Robert S. Strauss, American politician, Democratic National Committee Chairman (d. 2014)
October 23 - Augusta Dabney, American actress (d. 2008)
October 26 - Marc Hodler, Swiss lawyer (d. 2006)
October 29 - Diana Serra Cary, American actress (d. 2020) October 31 - Ian Stevenson, American parapsychologist (d. 2007)
November 2 - Raimon Panikkar, Spanish theologian (d. 2010)
November 11 - Louise Tobin, American singer
November 14 - John Bromwich, Australian tennis player (d. 1999)
November 15 - Vittore Bocchetta, Italian sculptor, painter and academic (d. 2021)
November 18 - Nicolás Kingman Riofrío, Ecuadorian journalist, writer and politician (d. 2018)
November 21 - Dorothy Maguire Chapman, American professional baseball player (d. 1981)
November 26 - Patricio Aylwin, 32nd President of Chile (d. 2016)
November 27 - Borys Paton, Ukrainian scientist (d. 2020)
November 28 - Jack H. Harris, American film producer, distributor and actor (d. 2017)
November 29 - Madeleine L'Engle, American author (d. 2007) November 30 - Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., American actor ( ) (d. The FBI 2014)
December 3 - Abdul Haris Nasution, Indonesian general (d. 2000)
December 8 - Gérard Souzay, French baritone (d. 2004)
December 12 - Joe Williams, American jazz singer (d. 1999)
December 14 - B. K. S. Iyengar, Indian yoga teacher (d. 2014)
December 15 - Jeff Chandler, American actor (d. 1961)
December 18 - Joyce Reynolds, English author
December 19 - Georgina Cookson, British actress (d. 2011)
December 20 - Joseph Payne Brennan, American poet, author (d. 1990)
December 24 - Dave Bartholomew, American musician, songwriter and music producer (d. 2019)
December 29 - Leo J. Dulacki, American general (d. 2019)
December 30 - W. Eugene Smith, American photojournalist (d. 1978) December 31
February 2 - John L. Sullivan, American boxer, World Heavyweight Champion (b. 1858)
February 5 - Leonard Monteagle Barlow, British fighter pilot (accident) (b. 1898)
February 6 - Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter (b. 1862), Spanish flu
February 8 - Louis Renault, French jurist, educator and Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1843)
February 11 - Alexey Kaledin, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1861)
February 14 - Sir Cecil Spring Rice, British diplomat (b. 1859)
February 15 - Vernon Castle, American dancer (b. 1887)
February 16 - Károly Khuen-Héderváry, 2-time Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1849) February 23
May 14 - James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American newspaper publisher (b. 1841)
May 17 - William Drew Robeson I, African-American minister, father of singer and actor Paul Robeson (b. 1844)
May 18 - Maria Magdalena Merten, German Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1883)
May 23 - Mariano Ponce, Filipino diplomat, politician and writer (b. 1863)
May 24 - József Kiss, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1896) May 30 - Georgi Plekhanov, Russian revolutionary, philosopher (b. 1856)
June 1 - Roderic Dallas, Australian fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1891)
June 3 - Count Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling, Austrian noble, statesman and former Prime Minister (b. 1863)
June 4 - Charles W. Fairbanks, 26th Vice President of the United States (b. 1852)
June 10 - Arrigo Boito, Italian poet, composer (b. 1842)
June 13 - Grand Duke Michael Romanov (assassinated) (b. 1878)
June 15 - Frank Miles Day, American architect (b. 1861)
June 16 - Bazil Assan, Romanian engineer and explorer (b. 1860)
June 19 - Francesco Baracca, Italian fighter pilot (air crash) (b. 1888)
June 25 - Jake Beckley, American baseball player, MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1867)
June 26 - Kyrion II of Georgia, Georgian Orthodox religious leader, saint (b. 1855) June 27 - Joséphin Péladan, French occultist (b. 1858)
Mudbir al-Far'un, Arab chieftain, leader of 1913 Euphrates rebellion
September 2 - Sir John Forrest, Australian explorer and politician, 1st Premier of Western Australia (b. 1847)
September 5 - Nikolay Maklakov, Russian politician, former minister of the Interior (b. 1871)
September 6 - Elizabeth Yates, New Zealand politician (b. 1845)
September 12 - Sir George Reid, 4th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845)
September 13 - Eduard, Duke of Anhalt (b. 1861)
September 16 - Maurice Boyau, French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1888)
September 20 - Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland (b. 1889), Spanish flu
September 27 - Fritz Rumey, German World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1891)
September 29 - Frank Luke, American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1897)
October 4 - Nikolai Skrydlov, Russian admiral (b. 1844)
October 6 - Arthur O'Hara Wood, Australian tennis champion and fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1890)
October 7 - Sir Hubert Parry, British composer (b. 1848), Spanish flu
October 8 - Mikhail Alekseyev, Russian general (b. 1857)
October 9 - Raymond Duchamp-Villon, French sculptor (b. 1876)
October 11 - Wallace Lloyd Algie, Canadian soldier (b. 1891)
October 14 - Nikolai Skrydlov, Russian admiral (executed) (b. 1844)
October 15 - Sai Baba of Shirdi, Indian guru, yogi and National saint of India (b. 1838)
October 16 - Felix Arndt, American pianist, composer (b. 1889), Spanish flu
October 22 - Myrtle Gonzalez, American actress (b. 1891), Spanish flu
October 25 - Amadeo de Souza Cardoso, Portuguese painter (b. 1887), Spanish flu
October 28 - Michel Coiffard, French World War I fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1892)
October 29 - Rudolf Tobias, Estonian composer (b. 1873) October 31
November 1 - Vladimir Vasilyevich Smirnov, Russian general (executed) (b. 1849)
November 2 - Hugh Cairns, Canadian soldier (b. 1896)
November 6 - Alan Arnett McLeod, Canadian soldier (b. 1899), Spanish flu
November 12 - Aleksei Evert, Russian general (executed) (b. 1857; may have died in 1926)
November 15 - Sir Robert Anderson, British police officer (b. 1841), Spanish flu
November 19 - Joseph F. Smith, 6th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (b. 1838)
November 20 - John Bauer, Swedish painter (b. 1882)
November 22 - Rose Cleveland, de facto First Lady of the United States (b. 1846), Spanish flu
November 23 - Fritz von Below, German general (b. 1853) November 30 - Karl Petrovich Jessen, Russian admiral (b. 1852)
December 2 - Edmond Rostand, French writer (b. 1868), Spanish flu
December 4 - Princess Teriivaetua of Tahiti (b. 1869), Spanish flu
December 5 - Schalk Willem Burger, Boer military leader, lawyer, politician, statesman, and acting President of the South African Republic (1900-1902) (b. 1852)
December 9 - Samuel Swett Green, American library pioneer (b. 1837)
December 11 - Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (b. 1876), Spanish flu
December 14 - Sidónio Pais, Portuguese politician, general, diplomat, 66th Prime Minister of Portugal and 4th President of Portugal (b. 1872), assassinated
December 16 - Frederic W. Tilton, American educator and 7th Principal of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts (b. 1839)
December 20 - Sultan Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar (b. 1884)
December 21 - Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Austrian statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1863) December 28 - Olavo Bilac, Brazilian poet (b. 1865)
Barry, John M. (2005). . New York: Penguin Books. The Great Influenza; The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History ISBN . 978-0143036494
"Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans". World Digital Library. February 10, 2014 . Retrieved 2014.
Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN . 0-14-102715-0
Shores, Christopher (1969). Finnish Air Force, 1918-1968. Reading, Berkshire, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd. p. 3. ISBN . 978-0668021210
"1918 - Corporate History - History - About Us - Panasonic Global". www.panasonic.com.
Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 355-356. ISBN . 0-7126-5616-2
^ Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138.
"2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014.
^ The first was from Allahabad to Naini Junction in India on
18 February 1911, and the second from London to Windsor Castle on 22 June 1911.
"Women's Right to Vote in Canada". lop.parl.ca . Retrieved 2018.
"La Grippe Espagnole de 1918". Institut Pasteur. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011 . Retrieved 2011.
"CROWDS SEE OPENING OF TRADE EXPOSITION; Police Commissioner Enright Receives Keys for City at Formal Opening. PERMANENT SHOW PLANNED Borough President Bruckner Thanks Promoters for Choosing Site in the Bronx". . June 30, 1918. The New York Times ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 2019.
"Carpathia Sunk; 5 of Crew Killed" (PDF). . July 20, 1918. p. 4. The New York Times
Klim, Jake (2014). Attack on Orleans: The World War I submarine raid on Cape Cod. The History Press. ISBN . 9781625850348 OCLC 883673275.
"Warilda". Uboat.net . Retrieved 2012.
Lichfield, John (July 7, 2014). "A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: The 'blackest day' of the German army". . London The Independent . Retrieved 2014.
Werth, Nicolas; Bartosek, Karel; Panne, Jean-Louis; Margolin, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; Courtois, Stephane (1999). . Cambridge, MA: The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression Harvard University Press. p. 74. ISBN . 0-674-07608-7
Pitt, Barrie (2003). 1918: The Last Act. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN . 0-85052-974-3
Massie, Robert K. (2004). . New York: Ballantine Books. Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea ISBN . 0-345-40878-0
Biger, Gideon (2004). . London: Routledge. pp. 55, 164. The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840-1947 ISBN 978-0-7146-5654-0 . Retrieved 2009.
^ a b
"Serbia ends union with Montenegro". The Irish Times. June 5, 2006 . Retrieved 2021.
Wainwright, Martin (August 23, 2010). "British warships sunk 90 years ago found off Estonian coast". . London The Guardian . Retrieved 2010.
Ward, Margaret (1983). Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish nationalism. London: Pluto Press. p. 137. ISBN . 0-86104-700-1
^ [On the life and work of Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918)]
"These Nobel Prize Winners Weren't Always Noble". National Geographic News. October 6, 2015 . Retrieved 2021.
Chandra, Siddharth, Julia Christensen, and Shimon Likhtman. "Connectivity and seasonality: the 1918 influenza and COVID-19 pandemics in global perspective."
Journal of Global History 15.3 (2020): 408-420. Phillips, Howard. "'17,'18,'19: religion and science in three pandemics, 1817, 1918, and 2019."
Journal of Global History 15.3 (2020): 434-443. Williams, John. The Other Battleground The Home Fronts: Britain, France and Germany 1914-1918 (1972) pp 243-92.
Primary sources and year books