Get 1919 essential facts below. View
join the 1919 discussion
to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or
this resource on social media.
1919 ( MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 919th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
January 2- 22 – Russian Civil War: The Red Army's Caspian-Caucasian Front begins the Northern Caucasus Operation against the White Army, but fails to make progress.
January 3 – The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement is signed by Emir Faisal (representing the Arab Kingdom of Hejaz) and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann, for Arab-Jewish cooperation in the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and an Arab nation in a large part of the Middle East.
January 5 – In Germany:
January 6 – Danone, a well-known dairy brand worldwide, founded in Barcelona, Spain.
January 8 – The funeral of Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, is held at Christ Church Oyster Bay, Long Island; Roosevelt had died in his sleep at the age of 60, two days earlier. 
January 8- 22 – Russian Civil War, Southern Front: The Red Army attacks and defeat the White Don Army under Pyotr Krasnovin the Voronezh-Povorino Operation.
January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin.
January 10- 12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin.
January 12- May 19 – Russian Civil War: On the Southern Front, the Armed Forces of South Russia under General Anton Denikin fight against the Red Army for the possession of the strategic region of the Donbass.
January 13 – Workers' councils in Berlin end the general strike; the Spartacist uprising is over.
January 14 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Tartu from the Red Army.
January 19- 28 – Russian Civil War: The Red Army begin the counter offensive in the Perm area against the White forces.
January 23 – The Khotin Uprising breaks out in Romania and Ukraine.
January 25 – The League of Nations is founded in Paris, France. January 31 – Battle of George Square: The British Army is called in to deal with riots, during negotiations over working hours in Glasgow, Scotland.
A large left-wing demonstration in France leads to a violent confrontation with the police.
May Day Riots break out in Cleveland, Ohio; 2 people are killed, 40 injured, and 116 arrested.
May 2 – Weimar Republic troops and the Freikorps occupy Munich and crush the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
May 3 – Am?null?h Kh?n attacks the British government in India.
May 6 – The Third Anglo-Afghan War begins.
May 8 – Edward George Honey proposes a moment of silence to commemorate the Armistice of World War I.
May 8- 27 – United States Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4, commanded by Albert Cushing Read, makes the first transatlantic flight, from Naval Air Station Rockaway to Lisbon via Trepassey, Newfoundland (departs May 16) and the Azores (arrives May 17). (On May 30- 31 it flies on to Plymouth in England.)
May 9 – In Belgium, a new electoral law introduces universal manhood suffrage and gives the franchise to certain classes of women.
May 14 – The University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, establishes probably the world's first Chair in International Politics, endowed by David Davies and his sisters in honour of Woodrow Wilson, with Alfred Eckhard Zimmern as first professor. 
May 17 – The Committee of One Thousand forms to oppose the Winnipeg general strike.
May 23 – The University of California opens its second campus in Los Angeles. Initially called Southern Branch of the University of California (SBUC), it is eventually renamed the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
May 25 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces capture Pskov from the Red Army, and soon hand it over to the White forces.
May 30 – By agreement with the United Kingdom, later confirmed by the League of Nations, Belgium is given the mandate over part of German East Africa ( Ruanda-Urundi).
June – Earl W. Bascom, rodeo cowboy and artist, along with his father John W. Bascom at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, designs and makes rodeo's first reverse-opening side-delivery bucking chute, now the world standard.
June 2 – 1919 United States anarchist bombings: Eight mail bombs are sent to prominent figures.
June 4 – Women's rights: The United States Congress approves the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which would guarantee suffrage to women, and sends it to the states for ratification.
June 5 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The advancing pro-German initiates war against Baltische Landeswehr Estonia in Northern Latvia.
June 6 – The Hungarian Red Army attacks the Republic of Prekmurje.
June 9 – Russian Civil War: Counteroffensive of Eastern Front: The Reds army recapture the city of Ufa
June 14- 15 – A Vickers Vimy piloted by John Alcock DSC, with navigator Arthur Whitten Brown, makes the first nonstop transatlantic flight, from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland.
June 15 – Pancho Villa attacks Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. When the bullets begin to fly to the American side of the border, two units of the United States 7th Cavalry Regiment cross the border, to push Villa's forces from American territory.
June 17 – Epsom Riot by Canadian troops: English Police Sergeant Thomas Green is killed.
June 18 – The second most popular  football club in Costa Rica, Liga Deportiva Alajuelense, is founded.
June 20- July 1 – Russian Civil War: Perm Operation (1918-19) begins on the Siberian Front: The 2nd and 3rd armies of Soviet Russia recapture the city of Perm.
June 20- 25 – Russian Civil War, Southern Front: The White Volunteer Army defeat the exhausted Red forces in the Kharkiv Operation, capturing the industrial city of Kharkiv.
June 23 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence – Battle of C?sis: The Estonian army defeats the pro-German in northern Baltische Landeswehr Latvia, forcing it to retreat towards Riga; the event has been celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia ever since.
June 26 – British Foreign Office official St John Philby and T. E. Lawrence arrive in Cairo for discussions about Arab unrest in Egypt, having been flown by Canadian pilot Harry Yates in a Handley Page bomber which set off from England on June 21. June 28
July 2 – The Syrian National Congress in Damascus: Arab nationalists announce independence.
July 2- 6 – British airship R34 makes the first transatlantic flight by dirigible, and the first westbound flight, from RAF East Fortune, Scotland, to Mineola, New York.
July 3 – Estonian and Latvian Wars of Independence: The pro-German signs a peace treaty with Baltische Landeswehr Estonia and Latvia. The pro-German Prime Minister of Latvia Andrievs Niedra resigns, and Latvian forces take over Riga on July 8.
July 5- 20 – Russian Civil War, Eastern or Siberian Front, Ekaterinburg Operation: The Red Army captures the city of Ekaterinburg in the Ural mountains from the White rule of Admiral Alexander Kolchak.
July 7 – The United States Army sends a convoy across the continental U.S., starting in Washington, D.C., to assess the possibility of crossing North America by road. This crossing takes many months to complete, because the building of the U.S. Highway System has not commenced.
July 11 – The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.
July 19 – The Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is established, by decree of the chancellory for foreign affairs. 
July 21 – Wingfoot Air Express crash: The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed; however, two people parachute to the ground safely. 
July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.
July 28 – The International Astronomical Union is founded in Paris, France. July 31 – British police strikes in London and Liverpool for recognition of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers; over 2,000 strikers are dismissed.
Romanian troops entering Budapest
October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life.
October 7 – The Dutch airline KLM is formed (as of 2019, it is the world's oldest airline still flying under its original name).
October 9 – In Major League Baseball, the Cincinnati Reds win the World Series, five games to three, over the Chicago White Sox, whose players are later found to have lost intentionally.
October 10 – Estonia adopts a radical land reform, nationalizing 97% of agrarian lands, mostly still belonging to Baltic Germans.
October 13 – The Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation is signed, in Paris, France.
October 26 – 1919 Luxembourg general election, the first in the duchy with female suffrage, following constitutional amendments of May 15. October 28 – Prohibition in the United States: The United States Congress passes the Volstead Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Prohibition goes into effect on January 17, 1920, under the provisions of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution.
December 3 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, including two collapses causing 89 deaths, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic.
December 4 – The French Opera House in New Orleans, Louisiana is destroyed by fire.
December 5 – The Turkish Ministry of War releases Greeks, Armenians and Jews from military service.
December 17 – Uruguay becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
December 21 – The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT . Buford
December 23 – Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 becomes law in the United Kingdom.
December 25 – Cliftonhill Stadium in Coatbridge, Scotland, opens as the home of Albion Rovers F.C. They lose the opening match 2-0 to St Mirren. December 26 – American baseball player Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at this time, a deal made public at the beginning of January 1920.
February 2 – Carlo D'Angelo, Italian actor and voice actor (d. 1973)
February 4 – Janet Waldo, American actress (d. 2016)
February 7 – Desmond Doss, American combat medic (d. 2006)
February 11 – Eva Gabor, Hungarian actress, best known for her role in (d. Green Acres 1995)
February 13 – Tennessee Ernie Ford, American musician (d. 1991)
February 14 – Miroslav Zikmund, Czech adventurer and film director
February 17 – Kathleen Freeman, American film, television, voice actress, and stage actress (d. 2001)
February 20 – Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani, Iranian Marja
February 22 – Harold Rahm, American-Brazilian Roman Catholic priest (d. 2019)
February 24 – Árpád Bogsch, Hungarian international civil servant (d. 2004)
February 25 – Karl H. Pribram, Austrian-American neuroscientist (d. 2015) February 26 – Rie Mastenbroek, Dutch swimmer (d. 2003)
March 2 – Jennifer Jones, American film actress (d. 2009)
March 5 – Peter Florjan?i?, Slovenian inventor (d. 2020)
March 7 – M. N. Nambiar, Indian film actor (d. 2008)
March 11 – Kira Golovko, Russian actress (d. 2017)
March 14 – Dickey Chapelle, American photojournalist (d. 1965)
March 15 – Lawrence Tierney, American actor (d. 2002)
March 18 – Santiago Álvarez, Cuban filmmaker (d. 1998)
March 19 – Abdullah Tariki, Saudi politician and government official (d. 1997)
March 20 – Gerhard Barkhorn, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1983)
March 21 – Prasert na Nagara, Thai scholar (d. 2019)
March 24 – Lawrence Ferlinghetti, American poet and publisher
March 25 – Jeanne Cagney, American actress (d. 1984) March 26 – B. J. Khatal-Patil, Indian politician (d. 2019)
April 5 – Lester James Peries, Sri Lankan director, screenwriter and producer (d. 2018)
April 8 – Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (1967-79) (d. 2007)
April 12 – Billy Vaughn, American singer, multi-instrumentalist, orchestra leader (d. 1991)
April 15 – Emyr Humphreys, Welsh poet (d. 2020)
April 18 – Esther Afua Ocloo, Ghanaian entrepreneur and pioneer of microlending (d. 2002)
April 19 – Gloria Marín, Mexican actress (d. 1983)
April 22 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001)
April 23 – Osman Nuhu Sharubutu, Ghanaian Islamic cleric April 24
May 3 – Pete Seeger, American folk singer and musician (d. 2014) 
May 5 – Georgios Papadopoulos, President of Greece and Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1999)
May 7 – Eva Perón, wife of Argentine President Juan Perón (d. 1952)
May 8 – Lex Barker, American actor (d. 1973)
May 10 – Atmasthananda, Indian Hindu leader (d. 2017)
May 15 – Eugenia Charles, 3rd Prime Minister of Dominica (d. 2005)
May 16 – Liberace, American pianist, singer and actor (d. 1987)
May 17 – Antonio Aguilar, Mexican singer and actor (d. 2007)
May 18 – Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (d. 1991)
May 20 – Jal Cursetji, Indian navy admiral (d. 1991)
May 21 – Vera Altayskaya, Soviet actress (d. 1978)
May 22 – Paul Vanden Boeynants, twice Prime Minister of Belgium (d. 2001)
May 25 – Raymond Smullyan, American mathematician, logician, and philosopher (d. 2017) 
May 28 – Lim Chong Eu, Malaysian politician (d. 2010) May 30 – René Barrientos , 47th President of Bolivia (d. 1969)
July 3 – Gabriel Valdés, Chilean politician, lawyer and diplomat (d. 2011)
July 4 – Gerd Hagman, Swedish actress (d. 2011)
July 8 – Walter Scheel, President of Germany (d. 2016)
July 10 – Pierre Gamarra, French poet, novelist and literary critic (d. 2009)
July 11 – Donald Zilversmit, Dutch-born U.S. nutritional biochemist, researcher and educator (d. 2010)
July 13 – Grisha Filipov, leading member of the Bulgarian communist party (d. 1994)
July 14 – Lino Ventura, Italian actor (d. 1987)
July 15 – Iris Murdoch, British novelist and philosopher (d. 1999)
July 18 – Lilia Dale, Italian actress
July 19 – Patricia Medina, English-born actress (d. 2012)
July 20 – Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer, conqueror of Mount Everest (d. 2008)
July 26 – James Lovelock, English biologist and chemist July 31
August 4 – Michel Déon, French writer (d. 2016)
August 9 – Joop den Uyl, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1973 to 1977 (d. 1987)
August 11 – Ginette Neveu, French violinist (d. 1949)
August 12 – Margaret Burbidge, English-American astrophysicist and academic (d. 2020)
August 13 – George Shearing, Anglo-American jazz pianist (d. 2011)
August 15 – Dina Wadia, Indian political figure (d. 2017)
August 17 – Georgia Gibbs, American singer (d. 2006)
August 20 – Adamantios Androutsopoulos, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 2000)
August 24 – Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy, 31st President of Ecuador (d. 2004)
August 25 – George Wallace, American politician, 45th Governor of Alabama (d. 1998)
August 28 – Godfrey Hounsfield, English electrical engineer and inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
August 31 – Amrita Pritam, Indian poet and author (d. 2005)
September 2 – Marge Champion, American actress (d. 2020)
September 8 – Maria Lassnig, American painter (d. 2014) 
September 9 – Barbara Fiske Calhoun, American cartoonist in WWII and artist; co-founded Quarry Hill Creative Center, where she taught art for many years (d. 2014). 
September 14 – Kay Medford, American character actress and comedian (d. 1980)
September 17 – Helmut Ashley, Austrian cinematographer
September 18 – Pál Losonczi, Hungarian politician (d. 2005)
September 23 – T?ta Kaneko, Japanese writer (d. 2018)
September 26 – Matilde Camus, Spanish poet and researcher (d. 2012)
September 29 – Margot Hielscher, German singer and film actress (d. 2017)
October 3 – James M. Buchanan, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
October 5 – Donald Pleasence, English actor (d. 1995)
October 6 – Siad Barre, President of Somalia (d. 1995)
October 7 – Zelman Cowen, Governor-General of Australia (d. 2011)
October 8 – Kiichi Miyazawa, 49th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 2007)
October 11 – Art Blakey, American jazz drummer (d. 1990)
October 14 – Edward L. Feightner, United States Navy officer (d. 2020) 
October 16 – Kathleen Winsor, American writer (d. 2003)
October 23 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist (d. 1992)
October 30 – Stane Kav?i?, Prime Minister of Slovenia (d. 1987) October 31 – Tong Siv Eng, Cambodian politician (d. 2001)
December 2 – Norma Miller, African-American dancer, choreographer, actress, author and comedian (d. 2019)
December 4 – I. K. Gujral, Indian politician, Prime Minister of India (d. 2012)
December 6 – Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983)
December 8 – Mieczys?aw Weinberg, Polish composer (d. 1996)
December 9 – William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2011)
December 11 – Paavo Aaltonen, Finnish gymnast (d. 1962)
December 13 – Hans-Joachim Marseille, German World War II fighter ace (d. 1942) December 24 – Pierre Soulages, French artist
January 4 – Georg von Hertling, 7th Chancellor of Germany (b. 1843)
January 10 – Wallace Clement Sabine, American physicist (b. 1868)
January 12 – Sir Charles Wyndham, British actor and theatrical manager (b. 1837), Spanish flu 
January 16 – Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, Brazilian politician, 5th President of Brazil (b. 1848), Spanish flu
January 21 – Gojong, first Emperor of Korea (b. 1852)
January 22 – Carl Larsson, Swedish painter (b. 1853)
January 24 – Ismail Qemali, Albanian politician, 1st Prime Minister of Albania and 1st President of Albania (b. 1844)
January 31 – Nat Goodwin, American actor and comedian (b. 1857)
May 2 – Gustav Landauer, German anarchist (b. 1870; assassinated)
May 4 – Milan Rastislav ?tefánik, Slovak general, politician, and astronomer (b. 1880)
May 6 – L. Frank Baum, American author, poet, playwright, actor and independent filmmaker ( The Wizard of Oz) (b. 1856)
May 9 – Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra, Dominican political figure, 2-time President of the Dominican Republic (b. 1846)
May 12 – D. M. Canright, American Seventh-day Adventist minister and author, later one of the church's severest critics (b. 1840)
May 14 – Henry J. Heinz, American entrepreneur (b. 1844)
May 15 – Aaron Aaronsohn, Romanian-born Israeli botanist (b. 1876)
May 21 – Victor Segalen, French naval doctor, ethnographer, archeologist, writer, poet, explorer, art-theorist, linguist and literary critic (b. 1878) May 28 – Hermann von Spaun, Austro-Hungarian admiral (b. 1833)
October 1 – Princess Charlotte of Prussia, German royal (b. 1850)
October 2 – Victorino de la Plaza, Argentinian politician, 18th President of Argentina, leader (b. 1840)
October 6 – Ricardo Palma, Peruvian writer (b. 1833)
October 7 – Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1856)
October 13 – Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1857)
October 18 – William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor, American financier and statesman (b. 1848) October 22 – John Cyril Porte, Irish-born British flying boat pioneer (b. 1884)
Lacika, Ján (2000). Bratislava. Visiting Slovakia (1st ed.). Bratislava: Dajama. p. 42. ISBN . 978-80-88975-16-8
"Sinking of HMY Iolaire - list of all on board at time of grounding". Across Two Seas. December 17, 2008 . Retrieved 2017.
. S. Viswanathan. 2003. Industrial Economist
Cloake, J. A. (March 20, 1997). . Oxford University Press. p. 9. Germany 1918-1945 ISBN . 978-0-19-913277-5
Hébert, John Raymond (1972). . Georgetown University. p. 116. The tragic week of January, 1919, in Buenos Aires: background, events, aftermath
"Card of admission to Theodore Roosevelt's funeral". Theodore Roosevelt Centre . Retrieved 2019.
Patricia Harris; David Lyon (2001). . Fodor's Travel Publications. p. 120. Boston ISBN . 978-0-676-90132-0
"Peace Conference Opens: Memorable Ceremony at the Quai d'Orsay". (38539). London. January 18, 1919. p. 1. The Globe
^ a b
MacMillan, Margaret (2002). . Random House. Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World
^ a b
Douglas L. Wheeler (August 1998). . Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 197. Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910-1926 ISBN . 978-0-299-07454-8
Tibenský, Ján; et al. (1971). Slovensko: Dejiny. Bratislava: Obzor.
Jankovics, Marcel, Húsz esztend? Pozsonyban (in Hungarian), pp. 65-67
Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). . All-Nations Publishing Co. The Philippines: A Unique Nation ISBN . 978-971-642-071-5
Nicholson, G. W. L. (1962). Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919: Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
Gerges, Fawaz A. (2013). . Cambridge University Press. p. 67. The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World ISBN 9781107470576 . Retrieved 2015.
"QosFC: Club History". www.qosfc.com.
"WWI and the First Czechoslovak Republic". Visit Bratislava. City of Bratislava. 2005. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007 . Retrieved 2013.
Kaba, John (1919). . United States: American Relief Administration. p. 14. Politico-economic Review of Basarabia
Elaine S. Hochman (1997). . Fromm International. p. 80. Bauhaus: Crucible of Modernism ISBN . 978-0-88064-175-3
Manning Clark (1987). . Melbourne University Press. p. 119. A History of Australia ISBN . 978-0-522-84353-8
"The Legacy of One Man's Vision". Aberystwyth University, Department of International Politics . Retrieved 2015.
Beadle, Jeremy; Harrison, Ian (2007). "Last time the British army used scaling ladders". Military. Firsts, Lasts & Onlys. London: Robson. p. 112. ISBN . 9781905798063
Dyson, F. W.; Eddington, A. S.; Davidson, C. R. (1920). "A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919". . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 220 (571-581): 291-333. Bibcode: 1920RSPTA.220..291D. doi: . 10.1098/rsta.1920.0009
"History". ALAJUELENSE SPORTS LEAGUE.
"Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry official: result of overcoming obstacles by first Azerbaijani diplomats was international recognition in Versailles". Today.az. July 3, 2009 . Retrieved 2012.
"1919, July 21: Dirigible (Balloon) Crash". Chicago Public Library Archive. 1996. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007 . Retrieved 2012.
Jan-Bart Gewald (1999). . Ohio State University Press. p. 242. Herero Heroes: A Socio-political History of the Herero of Namibia, 1890-1923 ISBN . 978-0-85255-749-5
"The white press has a history of endangering black lives going back a century". The Washington Post. 2020.
Krug, Teresa (August 18, 2019). "A rural town confronts its buried history of mass killings of black Americans". The Guardian . Retrieved 2019.
^ a b Royal Canadian Legion Branch # 138.
"2-Minute Wave of Silence" Revives a Time-honoured Tradition. Accessed on 5 June 2014.
Sykes, Christopher (1984). Nancy: the Life of Lady Astor. Academy Chicago Publishers. ISBN . 978-0-89733-098-5 The first elected was Constance Markievicz in 1918.
Tonge, Stephen. "Weimar Germany 1919-1933". European History . Retrieved 2012.
Gino Moliterno, ed. (2000). . Routledge. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture ISBN . 9781134758760
Giancarlo Colombo (2006). . Who's Who in Italy. p. 479. Who's Who in Spain ISBN . 978-88-85246-60-7
Gian Luigi Rondi (1966). . Hill and Wang. p. 146. Italian Cinema Today, 1952-1965
Editors of Chase's (September 30, 2018). . Rowman & Littlefield. p. 97. Chase's Calendar of Events 2019: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months ISBN . 978-1-64143-264-1 CS1 maint: extra text: authors list ( link)
Will Schmid (1991). . R&L Education. p. 28. A Tribute to Woody Guthrie & Leadbelly: Student Text ISBN . 978-0-940796-84-3
J J O'Connor and E F Robertson (April 2002). "Smullyan biography". School of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, University of St Andrews . Retrieved 2010.
"Edward Lewis Feightner Obituary". Yates Funeral Home. Hayden Lake, Idaho . Retrieved 2020.
Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford 1912-1921, pp. 597-98
Ray Eldon Hiebert; Roselyn Hiebert (1971). . U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information. p. 33. Atomic Pioneers
"Andrew Carnegie: Biography on Undiscovered Scotland". www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk . Retrieved 2020.
Alice Stone Blackwell (1919). . Leslie Woman Suffrage Commission. p. 617. The Woman Citizen
Sources Phelan, Paula (2007), 1919: Misfortune's End, ZAPmedia
Klingaman, William K.
1919, The Year Our World Began (1987) world perspective based on primary sources by a scholar. , Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 744pp New International Year Book 1919 (1920)