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1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1934th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 934th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1930s decade.
March 1 - Manchuria becomes Manchukuo, following an invasion by the Japanese.
March 3 - John Dillinger breaks out of Crown Point County Jail with a wooden gun. He crosses the state line to enter Illinois, allowing the FBI to begin hunting him.
March 12 - Prime Minister in duties of the State Elder Konstantin Päts and General Johan Laidoner stage a coup in Estonia, to neutralize the popular right wing Vaps Movement, starting the Era of Silence. Their actions are initially approved by the Riigikogu.
March 13 - John Dillinger and his gang rob the First National Bank in Mason City, Iowa, stealing $52,000.
March 20 - The Great Hakodate Fire kills at least 2,166 people in southern Hokkaido, Japan. March 24 - The Tydings-McDuffie Act is passed, allowing the Philippines a greater degree of self-government from the United States.
June 9 - The Silly Symphonies animated short, , featuring the debut of The Wise Little Hen Donald Duck, is released.
June 10 - Italy beats Czechoslovakia 2-1 after extra time, to win the 1934 World Cup, staged in Italy.
June 12 - Political parties are banned in Bulgaria.
June 14 - Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini meet for the first time, at the Venice Biennale.
June 18 - The Indian Reorganization Act is enacted.
June 27 - The Emir of Yemen and Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia conclude a peace treaty.
June 30 - July 2 - Night of the Long Knives in Germany: Nazis purge the (SA), the left-wing Sturmabteilung Strasserist faction of the Nazi Party, and prominent conservative anti-Nazis, in a series of political murders. June 30 - The Nazi Party SA camp Oranienburg becomes a national camp, taken over by the (SS). Schutzstaffel
September 5 - 10 - The 6th Nuremberg Rally is staged by the German Nazi Party.
September 8 - Off the New Jersey coast, a fire aboard the passenger liner SS kills 134 people. Morro Castle
September 15 - 1934 Australian federal election: Joseph Lyons' UAP Government is re-elected with a decreased majority, defeating the Labor Party, led by former Prime Minister James Scullin. Consequently, Lyons is forced to resume the Coalition with the Country Party, and include them in his government. Scullin steps down from the Labor leadership shortly after; he is replaced by future Prime Minister John Curtin.
September 21 - The Muroto typhoon in Honsh?, Japan kills 3,036 people, and destroys the temple, schools, and other buildings in Osaka.
September 22 - A gas explosion at Gresford Colliery in Wrexham, north-east Wales, kills 266 miners and rescuers. September 28 - Afghanistan joins the League of Nations.
October 2 - A tornado in Osaka and Kyoto kills 1,660, injures 5,400, and destroys the rice harvest.
October 6 - Events of October the 6th: the President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, declares the Catalan State of the Spanish Federal Republic, but Spanish troops swiftly crush the Catalan forces, and arrest him and the members of the Catalan government. The autonomy of Catalonia is suspended until 1936.
October 9 - King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French foreign minister Louis Barthou are assassinated, during the king's state visit in Marseille.
October 16 - The Long March of the People's Liberation Army of the Communist Party of China begins.
October 17 - Harry Pierpont is executed on the electric chair in Columbus, Ohio, for killing Sheriff Jess Sarber while breaking John Dillinger out of jail in Lima, Ohio.
October 20 - November 3 - Charles Kingsford Smith makes the first eastward crossing of the Pacific Ocean, from his native Brisbane, Australia, to San Francisco, in Lockheed Altair . The November 3 Hawaii-San Francisco leg is the first eastward flight from Hawaii to North America. Lady Southern Cross October 20 - November 5 - The MacRobertson Air Race is flown from RAF Mildenhall in England to Melbourne, Australia, to celebrate the centenary of the state of Victoria. The overall winner is the British de Havilland DH.88 Comet G-ACSS Grosvenor House, flown by C. W. A. Scott and Tom Campbell Black.
January 4 - Rudolf Schuster, 2nd President of Slovakia
January 5 - Eddy Pieters Graafland, Dutch football goalkeeper (d. 2020)
January 9 - Bart Starr, American football player and coach (d. 2019)
January 10 - Leonid Kravchuk, President of Ukraine
January 11 - Jean Chrétien, 20th Prime Minister of Canada 
January 12 - Ebrahim Nafae, Egyptian journalist (d. 2018)
January 16 - Marilyn Horne, American mezzo-soprano 
January 17 - Cedar Walton, American jazz pianist (d. 2013)
January 18 - Raymond Briggs, British writer and illustrator
January 20 - Tom Baker, British actor
January 21 - Ann Wedgeworth, American actress (d. 2017)
January 22 - Bill Bixby, American actor, director (d. 1993)
January 23 - Lou Antonio, American actor, director
January 26 - Bob Uecker, American baseball player, sportscaster, comedian and actor 
January 27 - Édith Cresson, 89th Prime Minister of France
January 29 - Noel Harrison, English singer, actor, and Olympic skier (d. 2013)
January 30 - Tammy Grimes, American actress (d. 2016) January 31 - Eva Mozes Kor, Romanian Holocaust survivor and author (d. 2019)
February 5 - Hank Aaron, African-American baseball player
February 10 - Fleur Adcock, New Zealand poet
February 13 - George Segal, American actor
February 14 - Florence Henderson, American actress, singer and television personality (d. 2016)
February 15 - Niklaus Wirth, Swiss computer scientist
February 20 - Bobby Unser, American race car driver
February 21 - Rue McClanahan, American actress (d. 2010)
February 27 - Ralph Nader, American consumer activist, presidential candidate
March 1 - Joan Hackett, American actress (d. 1983)
March 3 - Bobby Locke, American baseball player (d. 2020)
March 5 - Daniel Kahneman, Israeli economist and Nobel laureate
March 6 - Milton Diamond, American sexologist and professor of anatomy and reproductive biology 
March 7 - Willard Scott, American television weather reporter ( ) The Today Show
March 16 - Ray Hnatyshyn, Canadian statesman, 24th Governor-General of Canada (d. 2002)
March 18 - Charley Pride, African-American country musician
March 20 - David Malouf, Australian writer
March 21 - Al Freeman Jr., African-American actor (d. 2012)
March 23 - Ludvig Faddeev, Russian physicist and mathematician (d. 2017)
March 26 - Alan Arkin, American actor
March 27 - Arthur Mitchell, African-American ballet dancer and choreographer (d. 2018)
March 28 - Lester R. Brown, American environmentalist
March 30 - Hans Hollein, Austrian architect and designer March 31
May 4 - Tatiana Samoilova, Russian actress (d. 2014)
May 10 - Gary Owens, American disc jockey, actor, and radio announcer (d. 2015)
May 23 - Robert Moog, American inventor of the synthesizer (d. 2005)
May 27 - Harlan Ellison, American writer (d. 2018)
May 28 - Betty Shabazz, American educator and activist (d. 1997)
May 29 - Grandma Lee, American stand-up comedian (d. 2020)
May 30 - Alexei Leonov, Russian cosmonaut (d. 2019) May 31 - Bhagwatikumar Sharma, Indian author and journalist (d. 2018)
June 4 - Dame Daphne Sheldrick, Kenyan conservationist and author (d. 2018)
June 5 - Chennupati Vidya, Indian politician, social worker (d. 2018)
June 6 - King Albert II of Belgium
June 7 - Koloa Talake, 7th Prime Minister of Tuvalu (d. 2008)
June 9 - Jackie Wilson, African-American singer (d. 1984) 
June 11 - Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark, French-born consort of the Danish monarch (d. 2018)
June 19 - Désiré Rakotoarijaona, 4th Prime Minister of Madagascar
June 22 - Ray Mantilla, American jazz drummer
June 26 - Dave Grusin, American composer, arranger, producer, and pianist
June 27 - Ed Hobaugh, American Major League Baseball player
June 29 - Susan George, American and French political, social scientist, activist and writer June 30
July 3 - Stefan Abadzhiev, Bulgarian football player
July 4 - Abdul Aziz, Pakistani first-class cricketer
July 5 - Adriana Roel, Mexican actress
July 10 - Jerry Nelson, American puppeteer (d. 2012)
July 14 - Ángel del Pozo, Spanish actor
July 17 - Horst Steinmann, German economist
July 18 - Jean-Michel Sanejouand, French painter and sculptor
July 19 - Francisco de Sá Carneiro, Prime Minister of Portugal (d. 1980)
July 24 - P. S. Soosaithasan, Sri Lankan Tamil politician (d. 2017)
July 28 - Bud Luckey, American voice actor, Pixar animator (d. 2018) July 30 - Bud Selig, American Major League Baseball commissioner
August 2 - Valery Bykovsky, Russian cosmonaut (d. 2019)
August 11 - Viktor Tolmachev, Russian engineer (d. 2018)
August 16 - Angela Buxton, British tennis player (d. 2020) 
August 17 - Ben Humphreys, Australian politician (d. 2019)
August 19 - Renée Richards, American ophthalmologist and tennis player 
August 20 - Armi Kuusela, Miss Universe 1952 from Finland
August 22 - Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. Army general (d. 2012)
August 24 - Kenny Baker, English actor (d. 2016)
August 26 - Tom Heinsohn, American basketball player, coach, and broadcaster (d. 2020)
August 28 - Zeng Shiqiang, Taiwanese sinologist, scholar, and writer (d. 2018) August 30 - Anatoly Solonitsyn, Russian actor (d. 1982)
September 1 - Léon Mébiame, Gabonese politician (d. 2015)
September 2 - Chuck McCann, American actor and comedian (d. 2018)
Ronald Ludington, American figure skating coach and pair skater (d. 2020)
Clive Granger, Welsh-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2009)
Juraj Herz, Slovak film director, actor, and scenic designer (d. 2018)
Eduard Khil, Russian baritone singer (" Trololo") (d. 2012)
Zaid ibn Shaker, 3-time Prime Minister of Jordan (d. 2002)
Jan ?vankmajer, Czech filmmaker, artist Otto Brandenburg, Danish singer, actor (d. 2007)
September 5 - Bira, Brazilian musician and guitarist (d. 2019)
September 6 - Marshall Rosenberg, American psychologist and writer (d. 2015)
September 8 - Peter Maxwell Davies, English composer (d. 2016)
September 11 - Ian Abercrombie, English-American actor (d. 2012)
September 13 - Zbigniew Zapasiewicz, Polish actor (d. 2009)
September 17 - Maureen Connolly, American tennis player (d. 1969)
September 19 - Brian Epstein, British manager of the Beatles, co-founder of Northern Songs (d. 1967)
September 23 - Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan
September 27 - Wilford Brimley, American actor and singer (d. 2020)
September 28 - Brigitte Bardot, French actress, animal rights activist
September 29 - Idowu Sofola, Nigerian jurist (d. 2018) September 30 - Udo Jürgens, Austrian-Swiss composer, popular music singer (d. 2014)
October 1 - Emilio Botín, Spanish banker (d. 2014)
October 4 - Joe Williams, Cook Islands politician (d. 2020)
October 7 - Amiri Baraka, African-American poet, playwright and activist (d. 2014)
October 12 - Abd Al-Karim Al-Iryani, Prime Minister of Yemen (d. 2015)
October 13 - Nana Mouskouri, Greek singer
October 17 - Rico Rodriguez, Cuban-British musician (d. 2015)
October 18 - Inger Stevens, Swedish actress (d. 1970)
October 28 - Martin van der Borgh, Dutch cyclist (d. 2018)
October 29 - Richard, 6th Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 2017)
October 30 - Frans Brüggen, Dutch musician (d. 2014) October 31 - Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Ambler, Princess of Sweden
November 1 - Umberto Agnelli, Swiss-born automobile executive (d. 2004)
November 2 - Ken Rosewall, Australian tennis champion
November 5 - Kira Muratova, Ukrainian film director, screenwriter and actress (d. 2018)
November 7 - Sunanda Patnaik, Indian classical singer (d. 2020)
November 11 - El?bieta Krzesi?ska, Polish athlete (d. 2015)
November 12 - Charles Manson, American cult leader, criminal (d. 2017)
November 13 - Garry Marshall, American film producer, director and actor (d. 2016)
November 15 - Try Sutrisno, 6th Vice President of Indonesia
November 17 - Jim Inhofe, American politician
November 21 - Carl-Henning Wijkmark, Swedish novelist and translator (d. 2020)
November 23 - Lew Hoad, Australian tennis champion (d. 1994)
November 24 - Alfred Schnittke, Volga German composer (d. 1998) November 30 - Lansana Conté, President of Guinea (d. 2008)
December 1 - Billy Paul, African-American singer (d. 2016)
December 3 - Viktor Gorbatko, Russian cosmonaut (d. 2017)
December 5 - Joan Didion, American novelist
December 7 - Joey Powers, American singer-songwriter (d. 2017)
December 8 - Alisa Freindlich, Soviet and Russian actress
December 10 - Howard Martin Temin, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
December 11 - Radha Viswanathan, Indian vocalist, classical dancer (d. 2018)
December 12 - Miguel de la Madrid, 52nd President of Mexico (d. 2012)
December 13 - Richard D. Zanuck, American producer (d. 2012)
December 14 - Shyam Benegal, Indian film director and screenwriter
December 15 - Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, 6th President of Somalia (d. 2012)
December 16 - Meng Zhizhong, Chinese engineer (d. 2019)
December 17 - Shan Tianfang, Chinese pingshu performer (d. 2018)
December 18 - Boris Volynov, Russian cosmonaut
December 24 - Stjepan Mesi?, 2nd President of Croatia
December 25 - Phan V?n Kh?i, 5th Prime Minister of Vietnam (d. 2018)
December 27- Larisa Latynina, Ukrainian gymnast
December 29 - Ed Flanders, American actor (d. 1995) December 30
January 1 - Jakob Wassermann, German writer (b. 1873)
January 6 - Herbert Chapman, English football manager (b. 1878)
January 7 - Augustin Dubail, French general (b. 1851)
January 8 - Andrei Bely, Russian writer (b. 1880)
January 10 - Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch communist accused of setting fire to the Reichstag (executed) (b. 1909)
January 11 - Helen Zimmern, German-born British writer and translator (b. 1846)
January 15 - Hermann Bahr, Austrian writer and playwright (b. 1863)
January 16 - Henry Walter Barnett, Australian photographer and filmmaker (b. 1862)
January 21 - Aref Qazvini, Iranian poet, lyricist and musician (b. 1882)
January 22 - Robert Brady, American criminal (b. 1904)
January 23 - Charles McLaren, 1st Baron Aberconway, Scottish politician and jurist (b. 1850) January 29 - Fritz Haber, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1868)
May 3 - William Woodin, American politician (b. 1868)
May 12 - Gertrude Abbott (Mother Abbott), founder of the former St Margaret's Hospital in Sydney, Australia (b. 1846)
May 17 - Cass Gilbert, American architect (b. 1859)
May 19 - Edward William Nelson, American naturalist (b. 1855)
May 21 - James Durkin, Canadian-born American actor (b. 1879)
May 24 - Brand Whitlock, American journalist and politician (b. 1869)
May 25 - Gustav Holst, British composer (b. 1874)
May 26 - Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta (b. 1841)
May 28 - Bela Barabas, Hungarian politician (b. 1855)
May 31 - Lew Cody, American actor (b. 1884)
July 5 - Ahmad Zaki Pasha, Egyptian philologist (b. 1867)
July 8 - Benjamin Baillaud, French astronomer (b. 1848)
July 16 - Carlo Bergamini, Italian sculptor (b. 1868)
July 18 - Sy Sanborn, American sportswriter (b. 1866)
July 20 - Padre Cicero, Brazilian Roman Catholic priest and reverend (b. 1844)
July 21 - Hubert Lyautey, Marshal of France (b. 1854)
July 22 - John Dillinger, American gangster (b. 1903)
July 23 - María Pilar López de Maturana Ortiz de Zárate, Spanish Roman Catholic religious blessed and blessed (b. 1884)
July 24 - Hans Hahn, Austrian mathematician (b. 1879)
July 26 - Winsor McCay, American comic creator and animator (b. 1869)
July 27 - Hubert Lyautey, French general and colonoal administrator. (b. 1854)
July 30 - Sir Henry Norris, British politician and businessman (b. 1865)
August 2 - Paul von Hindenburg, German general and politician, 2nd President of Germany (b. 1847)
August 7 – Hermann Kusmanek von Burgneustädten, Austro-Hungarian general (b. 1860)
August 8 - Wilbert Robinson, American baseball manager and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1863)
August 9 - Alfred Steux, Belgian road racing cyclist (b. 1892)
August 10 - George Hill, American director (b. 1895)
August 13 - Mary Hunter Austin, American writer of fiction and non-fiction (b. 1868)
August 14 - Raymond Hood, American architect (b. 1881)
August 23 - Homer Van Meter, American criminal and bank robber (b. 1905)
August 27 - Linda Agostini, British-born Australian homicide victim (b. 1905) August 28 - Sir Edgeworth David, British-born Australian geologist and explorer (b. 1858)
October 5 - Jean Vigo, French film director (b. 1905)
October 12 - Willy Clarkson, British costume designer and wigmaker (b. 1861)
October 15 - Raymond Poincaré, 58th Prime Minister of France and 10th President of France, Leaders of World War I (b. 1860)
October 17 - Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spanish histologist and neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1852)
October 19 - Alexander von Kluck, German general (b. 1846)
October 22 - Pretty Boy Floyd, American bank robber (b. 1904)
October 24 - Giacomo Montalto, Italian socialist leader and politician (b. 1864) October 29 - Lou Tellegen, Dutch actor (b. 1881)
November 2 - Edmond James de Rothschild, French philanthropist (b. 1845)
November 3 - Sir Robert McAlpine, Scottish builder (b. 1847)
November 8 - James Mark Baldwin, American philosopher and psychologist (b. 1861)
November 10 - Ion Farris, American politician, former Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives (b. 1878)
November 20 - Willem de Sitter, Dutch mathematician, physicist and astronomer (b. 1872)
November 22 - Harry Steppe, American vaudeville performer (b. 1888)
November 24 - Jir? Tamon, Japanese general (b. 1878)
November 27 - Baby Face Nelson, American gangster (b. 1908) November 30 - Hélène Boucher, French aviator (b. 1908)
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