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1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1937th year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 937th year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 37th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1930s decade.
March 10 (dated March 14 ( Passion Sunday)) - The encyclical ("With burning concern") of Mit brennender Sorge Pope Pius XI is published in Germany in the German language. Largely the work of Cardinals von Faulhaber and Pacelli, it condemns breaches of the 1933 Reichskonkordat agreement signed between the Nazi government and the Catholic Church, and criticises Nazism's views on race and other matters incompatible with Catholicism.
March 18 - New London School explosion: In the worst school disaster in American history in terms of lives lost, the New London School in New London, Texas, suffers a catastrophic natural gas explosion, killing in excess of 295 students and teachers. Mother Frances Hospital opens in Tyler, Texas, a day ahead of schedule, in response to the explosion.
March 19 - The encyclical of Divini Redemptoris Pope Pius XI, critical of communism, is published. March 21 - Ponce massacre: A police squad, acting under orders from Governor of Puerto Rico Blanton Winship, opens fire on peaceful demonstrators protesting at the arrest of Puerto Rican Nationalist Party leader Pedro Albizu Campos, killing 17 people and injuring over 200.
May 6 - : In the United States, the German Hindenburg disaster airship bursts into flame when mooring to a mast in Hindenburg Lakehurst, New Jersey. Of the 36 passengers and 61 crew on board, 13 passengers and 22 crew die, as well as one member of the ground crew.
May 7 - Spanish Civil War: The German Condor Legion Fighter Group, equipped with Heinkel He 51 biplanes, arrives in Spain to assist Francisco Franco's forces.
May 8 - Wydad Athletic Club (WAC)(Arabic ?; Berber: Wydad Dar al-Beida; commonly: Wydad al ouma) is established in Casablanca, Morocco; it will be best known for its Casablanca Association football team.
May 12 - The King George VI and Queen Elizabeth are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor and Empress of India at Westminster Abbey, London.
Soviet station becomes the first scientific research settlement to operate on the drift ice of the Arctic Ocean. As one of the reprisals for the attempted assassination of Italian viceroy Rodolfo Graziani, a detachment of Italian troops massacres the entire community of Debre Libanos, killing 297 monks and 23 laymen.
May 27 - In California, US, the Golden Gate Bridge opens to pedestrian traffic.
July 2 - Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappear after taking off from New Guinea, during Earhart's attempt to become the first woman to fly around the world. 
July 9 - 1937 Fox vault fire: The silent film archives of Fox Film Corporation are destroyed
July 20 - The Geibeltbad Pirna is opened in Dresden, Germany.
July 21 - Éamon de Valera is elected President of the Executive Council (prime minister) of the Irish Free State, by the Dáil (parliament).
July 22 - New Deal: The United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.
July 25- 31 - Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Beiping-Tianjin, a series of actions fought around Beiping and Tianjin, result in Japanese victory.
July 29 - Tungchow Mutiny: Units of the East Hopei Army mutiny and kill Japanese troops and civilians in Tongzhou. July 31 - NKVD Operative Order 00447 " ?, ? ? " ("The operation for repression of former kulaks, criminals and other anti-Soviet elements") is approved by the Politburo of the Soviet Union, initially as a 4-month plan for 75,950 people to be executed and an additional 193,000 to be sent to the Gulag.
September 2 - The Great Hong Kong Typhoon kills an estimated 11,000 persons.
September 5 - Spanish Civil War: The city of Llanes falls to the Falangists.
September 7 - CBS broadcasts a two-and-a-half hour memorial concert nationwide on radio in memory of George Gershwin, live from the Hollywood Bowl. Many celebrities appear, including Oscar Levant, Fred Astaire, Otto Klemperer, Lily Pons and members of the original cast of . The concert is recorded and released complete years later in what is excellent sound for its time, on Porgy and Bess CD. The Los Angeles Philharmonic is the featured orchestra.
September 10 - Nine nations meet in the Nyon Conference, led by the United Kingdom and France, to address international piracy in the Mediterranean.
September 17 - Abraham Lincoln's head is dedicated at Mount Rushmore.
September 19 - Swiss professional ice hockey club HC Ambrì-Piotta is founded.
September 21 - George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. of London publishes the first edition of J. R. R. Tolkien's . The Hobbit
September 25 - Second Sino-Japanese War - Battle of Pingxingguan: The Communist Chinese Eighth Route Army defeats the Japanese.
September 27 - The last Bali tiger dies.  September 30 - Austrian born actress of Jewish descent, Hedy Lamarr arrives in New York City to flee from her possessive husband Friedrich Mandl who made arms agreements with the Nazis, and to begin her Hollywood career. 
October 2- 8 - Parsley Massacre: Under the orders of President Rafael Trujillo, Dominican troops kill thousands of Haitians living in the Dominican Republic.
October 3 - Second Sino-Japanese War: Japanese troops advance toward Nanking, capital of the Republic of China.
October 5 - Roosevelt gives his famous in Chicago. Quarantine Speech
October 9 - Jimmie Angel lands his plane on top of Devil's Mountain; however, the plane gets damaged, and he has to trek through the rainforest for help.
October 11 - Duke and Duchess of Windsor's 1937 tour of Germany: The Duke and Duchess of Windsor arrive in Berlin to begin a 12-day tour of Nazi Germany, meeting Adolf Hitler on the 22nd.
October 13 - Germany, in a note to Brussels, guarantees the inviolability and integrity of Belgium, so long as the latter abstains from military action against Germany.
October 15 - Ernest Hemingway's novel is first published, in the United States. To Have and Have Not
October 18- October 21 - Spanish Civil War: The whole Spanish northern seaboard falls into the Falangists' hands; Republican forces in Gijón, Spain, set fire to petrol reserves, prior to retreating before the advancing Falangists.
October 23 - 1937 Australian federal election: Joseph Lyons' UAP/ Country Coalition Government is re-elected with a slightly increased majority, defeating the Labor Party led by John Curtin. October 25 - Celâl Bayar forms the new (ninth) government of Turkey.
December 1 - Second Sino-Japanese War: The Battle of Nanking begins.
December 4 - The Dandy comic is first published in Scotland; it continued until 2012 as a physical publication, then online until 2013.
December 11 - Italy withdraws from the League of Nations.
December 13 - Second Sino-Japanese War: The Battle of Nanking ends with the Japanese occupying the city. In the Nanking Massacre which follows, Japanese soldiers kill over 300,000 Chinese in 3 months. A few days previously, the Nationalist government of China had moved its capital to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing).
December 16 - The original production of the musical opens at the Me and My Girl Victoria Palace Theatre, in London's West End. A later revival will win an award.
December 21 - Walt Disney's , the world's first feature-length Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs animated film, premieres at the Carthay Circle Theatre in Los Angeles.
December 25 - At the age of 70, conductor Arturo Toscanini conducts the NBC Symphony Orchestra on radio for the first time, beginning his successful 17-year tenure with that orchestra. This first concert consists of music by Vivaldi (at a time when he is seldom played), Mozart, and Brahms. Millions tune in to listen, including U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. December 29 - The new Constitution of Ireland ( Bunreacht na hÉireann) comes into force. The Irish Free State becomes " Ireland", and Éamon de Valera becomes the first Taoiseach (prime minister) of the new state. A Presidential Commission (made up the Chief Justice, the Speaker of Dáil Éireann, and the President of the High Court) assumes the powers of the new presidency, pending the popular election of the first President of Ireland in June 1938. The new constitution prohibits divorce.
Switzerland begins construction of its
Border Line defences. The
Vibora Luviminda sugar plantation trade unions strike on Maui island, Hawaii. Italian psychiatrist
Amarro Fiamberti is the first to document a transorbital approach to the brain, which becomes the basis for the controversial medical procedure of transorbital lobotomy.
Soviet industry produces about four times as much as it had in 1928. The Allen Organ Company, builder of church, home and theatre organs, is founded in Macungie, Pennsylvania.
January 1 – Philip Akot Akok Kiir, South Sudanese pastor, former educator and politician 
January 8 - Dame Shirley Bassey, Welsh singer
January 13 - Ati George Sokomanu, President of Vanuatu
January 15 - Margaret O'Brien, American child actress
January 16 - Francis George, American cardinal (d. 2015)
January 19 - Princess Birgitta of Sweden
January 21 - Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, heir to the Bavarian Royal House
January 22 - Joseph Wambaugh, American author
January 25 - Ange-Félix Patassé, 5th President of Central African Republic (d. 2011)
March 2 - Abdelaziz Bouteflika, President of Algeria (d. 2021)
March 3 - Bobby Driscoll, American child actor and voice actor (d. 1968)
March 5 - Olusegun Obasanjo, President of Nigeria
March 6 - Valentina Tereshkova, Russian cosmonaut, first woman in space
March 8 - Juvénal Habyarimana, 3rd President of Rwanda (d. 1994)
March 14 - Benny Paret, Cuban welterweight boxer (d. 1962)
March 15 - Valentin Rasputin, Russian writer (d. 2015)
March 23 - Tony Burton, American actor (d. 2016)
March 24 - Lloyd Erskine Sandiford, 4th Prime Minister of Barbados
March 30 - Warren Beatty, American actor and director
April 1 - Mohammad Hamid Ansari, Indian politician, 12th Vice President of India
April 4 - Obed Dlamini, 6th Prime Minister of Swaziland (d. 2017)
April 10 - Bella Akhmadulina, Russian poet (d. 2010)
April 17 - Ferdinand Piëch, Austrian engineer, business magnate (d. 2019)
April 20 - George Takei, Japanese-American actor, director and author ( ) Star Trek
April 22 - Jack Nicholson, American film actor and director
April 26 - Jean-Pierre Beltoise, French racing driver (d. 2015)
April 27 - Sandy Dennis, American actress (d. 1992) April 28 - Saddam Hussein, 5th President of Iraq (d. 2006)
May 2 - Lorenzo Music, American actor, voice actor, writer, producer and musician (d. 2001)
May 4 - Dick Dale, American guitarist (d. 2019)
May 6 - Rubin "Hurricane" Carter, African-American boxer (d. 2014)
May 9 - Rafael Moneo, Spanish architect
May 11 - Ildikó Újlaky-Rejt?, Hungarian Olympic and world champion foil fencer
May 12 - George Carlin, American stand-up comedian (d. 2008)
May 13 - Roger Zelazny, American writer (d. 1995)
May 18 - Jacques Santer, Luxembourg politician, 20th Prime Minister of Luxembourg
May 22 - Facundo Cabral, Argentine singer (d. 2011)
June 7 - Neeme Järvi, Estonian conductor
June 8 - Bruce McCandless II, American astronaut (d. 2017)
June 11 - Robin Warren, Australian pathologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
June 12 - Vladimir Arnold, Soviet-Russian mathematician (d. 2010)
June 13 - Raj Reddy, Indian computer scientist
June 15 - Waylon Jennings, American country singer (d. 2002)
June 19 - André Glucksmann, French philosopher, author (d. 2015)
June 23 - Martti Ahtisaari, 10th President of Finland
June 26 - Robert Coleman Richardson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
July 2 - Richard Petty, American stock car racer, 7-time NASCAR Winston Cup champion
July 3 - Tom Stoppard, Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter
July 4 - Queen Sonja of Norway
July 5 - Jo de Roo, Dutch road racing cyclist
July 9 - David Hockney, English-born artist
July 14 - Yoshir? Mori, 55th Prime Minister of Japan
July 17 - Jaberi Bidandi Ssali, Ugandan politician, businessman
July 24 - Manoj Kumar, Indian actor and director
July 27 - Mirko Marjanovi?, 63rd Prime Minister of Serbia (d. 2006) July 29
August 2 - María Duval, Mexican actress and singer
August 3 - Andrés Gimeno, Spanish tennis player (d. 2019)
August 5 - Manuel Pinto da Costa, Santoméan politician, 1st President of São Tomé and Príncipe
August 6 - Charlie Haden, American jazz bassist (d. 2014)
August 8 - Dustin Hoffman, American actor, director ( ) The Graduate
August 11 - Dieter Kemper, German cyclist (d. 2018)
August 15 - Bounnhang Vorachith, 14th Prime Minister, 6th President of Laos
August 18 - Jean Alingué Bawoyeu, Chadian politician, former Prime Minister
August 26 - Gennady Yanayev, former Soviet leader (d. 2010)
August 27 - Alice Coltrane, African-American jazz harpist, organist, pianist and composer (d. 2007) August 30 - Bruce McLaren, New Zealand founder of McLaren Racing (d. 1970) 
September 1 - Francisco Pinto Balsemão, Portuguese politician, 111th Prime Minister of Portugal
September 4 - Dawn Fraser, Australian swimmer
September 5 - Antonio Angelillo, Italian-Argentine footballer (d. 2018)
September 6 - Jo Anne Worley, American Actress, Comedienne and singer
September 7 - John Phillip Law, American actor (d. 2008)
September 9 – Alí Rodríguez Araque, Venezuelan politician, lawyer and diplomat (d. 2018)
September 10 – Jared Diamond, American geographer, anthropologist, and author
September 11 - Paola Ruffo di Calabria, Italian-born Queen of the Belgians
September 20 - Monica Zetterlund, Swedish singer and actress (d. 2005)
September 26 - Jerry Weintraub, American film producer and talent agent (d. 2015)
September 28 - Bob Schul, American Olympic athlete September 30 - Daniel Filho, Brazilian film producer, director, actor, and screenwriter
October 2 - Johnnie Cochran, African-American attorney (d. 2005)
October 11 - Bobby Charlton, English footballer
October 19 - Teresa Ciep?y, Polish Olympic athlete (d. 2006)
October 20 - Wanda Jackson, American singer, songwriter, pianist and guitarist
October 21 - Édith Scob, French film and theatre actress (d. 2019)
October 22 - Kader Khan, Afghan-born Indian-Canadian film actor, screenwriter, comedian, and director (d. 2018)
October 28 - Lenny Wilkens, American basketball player and coach 
October 30 - Ashaari Mohammad, Malaysian spiritual leader (d. 2010) October 31 - Tom Paxton, American folk singer, songwriter
November 4 - Loretta Swit, American actress ( ) M*A*S*H
November 5 - Chan Sek Keong, third Chief Justice of Singapore
November 8 - Dragoslav ?ekularac, Serbian footballer and manager (d. 2019)
November 15 - Little Willie John, African-American R&B singer (d. 1968)
November 17 - Peter Cook, English comedian, writer and actor (d. 1995)
November 20 - Eero Mäntyranta, Finnish Olympic cross-country skier (d. 2013)
November 25 - Serikbolsyn Abdildin, Kazakh economist and politician (d. 2019)
November 26 - Boris Yegorov, Russian cosmonaut (d. 1994) November 30 - Ridley Scott, British film director, producer
December 1 - Vaira Ve-Freiberga, President of Latvia 
December 3 - Francisco Xavier do Amaral, 1st President of East Timor (d. 2012)
December 6 - Ramon Torrents, Spanish artist
December 17 - Sergio Jiménez, Mexican actor (d. 2007)
December 18 - Sami-ul-Haq, Pakistani cleric, politician (d. 2018)
December 21 - Jane Fonda, American actress and activist 
December 26 - John Horton Conway, English-born mathematician (d. 2020)
December 28 - Ratan Tata, Indian industrialist
December 29 - Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, President of the Maldives (1978-2008)
December 30 - Gordon Banks, English footballer (d. 2019) December 31
March 6 - John Ellis Martineau, American politician (b. 1873)
March 7 - Concepción Cabrera de Armida, Mexican Roman Catholic mystic and blessed (b. 1862)
March 9 - Paul Elmer More, American critic, essayist (b. 1864)
March 11 - Joseph S. Cullinan, American oil industrialist, founder of (b. Texaco 1860)
March 13 - Elihu Thomson, English-American engineer and inventor, co-founder of General Electric (b. 1853)
March 15 - H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (b. 1890)
March 16 - Sir Austen Chamberlain, British statesman, Nobel Peace Prize recipient (b. 1863)
March 25 - John Drinkwater, British poet, dramatist (b. 1882)
March 27 - Victor Gustav Bloede, Swedish chemist (b. 1849)
March 28 - Josef Kli?ka, Czechoslovak organist, violinist and composer (b. 1855)
March 31 - Ahmed Izzet Pasha, Turkish general (b. 1864)
April 2 - Nathan Birnbaum, Austrian writer, journalist (b. 1864)
April 5 - Jose Benlliure y Gil, Spanish painter (b. 1858)
April 6 - Gyula Juhász, Hungarian poet (b. 1883)
April 7 - Helen Burgess, American actress (b. 1916)
April 8 - Billy Bassett, English association footballer (b. 1869)
April 14 - Ned Hanlon, American baseball manager, MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1857)
April 16 - Jay Johnson Morrow, American military engineer, politician and 3rd Governor of the Panama Canal Zone (b. 1870)
April 21 - Saima Harmaja, Finnish poet (b. 1913)
April 22 - Arthur Edmund Carewe, Armenian-American actor (b. 1884)
April 23 - Caroline Harris, American actress (b. 1867)
April 24 - Lucy Beaumont, British actress (b. 1869)
April 25 - Micha? Drzyma?a, Polish rebel (b. 1857)
April 27 - Antonio Gramsci, Italian Communist writer, politician (b. 1891) April 29
May 2 - Takuji Iwasaki, Japanese meteorologist (b. 1869)
May 4 - Noel Rosa, Brazilian songwriter (b. 1910)
May 7 - Ernst A. Lehmann, German captain of the (b. Hindenburg 1886) 
May 10 - Sir James Blindell, British politician (b. 1884)
May 15 - Percy Lee Gassaway, American politician (b. 1885)
May 23 - John D. Rockefeller, American industrialist, philanthropist (b. 1839)
May 25 - Henry Ossawa Tanner, American artist (b. 1859)
May 26 - Bertha May Crawford, Canadian opera singer (b. 1886)
May 28 - Alfred Adler, Austrian psychologist (b. 1870) May 29 – Lizardo García, 17th President of Ecuador (b. 1844)
June 2 - Louis Vierne, French composer (b. 1870)
June 7 - Jean Harlow, American actress (b. 1911)
June 12 - Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Soviet Army officer, Red Army commander-in-chief (executed) (b. 1893)
June 16 - Alexander Chervyakov, Leader of the Soviet Union (b. 1892)
June 19 - J. M. Barrie, British novelist, dramatist (b. 1860)
June 20 - Andreu Nin Pérez, Spanish politician (b. 1892)
June 26 - Minoru Murata, Japanese actor, director and screenwriter (b. 1894)
June 27 - Sandro Akhmeteli, Soviet director (b. 1866) June 28 - Max Adler, Austrian Marxist theorist (b. 1873)
July 2 - Amelia Earhart, American aviator (missing on this date) (b. 1897)
July 3 - Boris Gorbachyov, Soviet general (b. 1892)
July 7 - Åke Hammarskjöld, Swedish diplomat, lawyer (b. 1893)
July 8 - Diana Abgar, Armenian diplomat (b. 1859)
July 9 - Oliver Law, American labor organizer, Army officer (killed in Spanish Civil War) (b. 1899)
July 10 - Arthur Edmund Seaman, American professor and museum curator (b. 1858)
July 12 - Hugo Charteris, 11th Earl of Wemyss, British politician, public servant (b. 1857)
July 15 - Walter Gay, American painter (b. 1856)
July 16 - Vladimir Kirillov, Soviet poet (b. 1889)
July 20 - Guglielmo Marconi, Italian-born American inventor (b. 1874)
July 23 - Varnava, Serbian Patriarch (b. 1880) July 31 - Noë Bloch, Soviet producer (b. 1875)
September 3 - François Guiguet, French painter (b. 1860)
September 5 - David Hendricks Bergey, American bacteriologist (b. 1860)
September 6 - Harry Charles Purvis Bell, British civil servant, commissioner (b. 1851)
September 8 - Frank Alexander, American actor (b. 1879)
September 11 - Nazmi Ziya Güran, Turkish painter (b. 1881)
September 13 - Ellis Parker Butler, American humorist (b. 1869)
September 14 - Tomá? Garrigue Masaryk, Czechoslovakian politician, sociologist, philosopher and 1st President of Czechoslovakia (b. 1850)
September 21 - Osgood Perkins, American actor (b. 1892)
September 23 - Cleto González Víquez, 18th and 26th President of Costa Rica (b. 1858)
September 22 - Ruth Roland, American actress (b. 1892)
September 27 - Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Kazakh statesman, politician, publicist, teacher, writer and Prime Minister of Alash Autonomy (b. 1866) September 29 - Ray Ewry, American Olympic athlete (b. 1873)
October 1 - Prince Kuni Taka of Japan (b. 1875)
October 6 - Angelo Musco, Italian actor (b. 1872)
October 10 - Peter of Krutitsy, Soviet Orthodox priest, martyr and metropolitan (b. 1862)
October 11 - Emma E. Bower, American physician, club-woman, and newspaperwoman (b. 1852)
October 13 - Kazimierz Nowak, Polish traveller (b. 1897)
October 14 - Salvatore Micalizzi, Italian Roman Catholic priest and venerable (b. 1856)
October 15 - James Marcus, American actor (b. 1867)
October 23 - Nikolai Klyuev, Russian poet (b. 1884)
October 26 - Józef Dowbor-Mu?nicki, Polish general (b. 1867)
October 29 - Kazimierz Cichowski, Polish-born Soviet politician (b. 1887) October 30
November 1 - Ivar Bauck, Norwegian general (b. 1863)
November 2 - Félix Gaffiot, French philologist (b. 1870)
November 5 - Naoe Kinoshita, Japanese Christian socialist (b. 1869)
November 6 - Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson, British stage actor (b. 1853)
November 9 - Ramsay MacDonald, British statesman, 2-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1866)
November 10 - Nikolai Batalov, Soviet actor (b. 1899)
November 11 - Ury? Sotokichi, Japanese admiral (b. 1857)
November 13 - Mrs. Leslie Carter (Caroline Louise Dudley), American actress (b. 1857)
November 15 - Eero Järnefelt, Finnish realist painter (b. 1863)
November 17 - Jack Worrall, Australian cricketer, coach (b. 1860)
November 20 - Metropolitan Joseph (Petrovykh) of the Soviet Union (b. 1872)
November 26 - Peljidiin Genden, Mongolian political figure, 9th Prime Minister of Mongolia and 2nd President of Mongolia (b. 1892)
November 28 - Magnús Guðmundsson, Icelandic politician, 3rd Prime Minister of Iceland (b. 1879)
December 1 - Rao Guohua, Chinese general of the National Revolutionary Army (b. 1894)
December 2 - Josep Comas i Solà, Andorran astronomer (b. 1868)
December 10 - Robert Bolder, British actor (b. 1859)
December 12 - Alfred Abel, German actor (b. 1879)
December 14 - Fabián de la Rosa, Filipino painter (b. 1869)
December 16 - Giorgi Mazniashvili, Soviet general (b. 1870)
December 17 - Dimitrie C?lug?reanu, Romanian physician, naturalist and physiologist (b. 1868)
December 18 - Robert Worth Bingham, American politician (b. 1871)
December 20 - Erich Ludendorff, German general (b. 1865)
December 22 - Joseph Darby, British jumper (b. 1861)
December 23 - Osman Nuri Had?i?, Bosnian writer (b. 1869)
December 25 - Newton D. Baker, 37th Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, United States Secretary of War (b. 1871)
December 27 - Sir Coote Hedley, British army officer and sportsman (b. 1865)
December 30 - Hans Niels Andersen, Danish businessman, founder of the East Asiatic Company (b. 1852) December 31 - Dezs? Czigány, Hungarian painter (b. 1883)
"Fact Sheet: Ohio River Floods". Western Kentucky University. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008 . Retrieved 2015.
Thomas, Hugh (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. p. 480.
"Linear Condensation Polymers", filed July 1931, issued February 1937 U.S. Patent 2,071,250
Golley, John (1997). Genesis of the Jet: Frank Whittle and the Invention of the Jet Engine. Crowood Press. pp. 86-91. ISBN . 1-85310-860-X
George Steer's report to (London) connects Germany with the attack. The Times
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Ricardo Alarcón, powerful Cuban foreign minister, dies at 84
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