1943 Gibraltar B-24 Crash
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1943 Gibraltar B-24 Crash

1943 Gibraltar B-24 crash
SikorskiPlane 1943.jpg
Sikorski's Liberator, lying on its back in the sea just off Gibraltar following the crash
Accident
Date4 July 1943 (1943-07-04)
SummaryCrashed on take-off due to control jam
SiteGibraltar Airport
36°48?N 5°13?W / 36.8°N 5.21°W / 36.8; -5.21Coordinates: 36°48?N 5°13?W / 36.8°N 5.21°W / 36.8; -5.21
Aircraft
Aircraft typeConsolidated B-24 Liberator
OperatorRoyal Air Force 511 Squadron
RegistrationAL523
Last stopoverGibraltar
DestinationLondon
Occupants17 (est.)
Passengers11 (est.)
Crew6
Fatalities16 (est.)
Injuries1
Survivors1

The 1943 Gibraltar B-24 crash was an aircraft crash that resulted in the death of General W?adys?aw Sikorski, the commander-in-chief of the Polish Army and Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile. Sikorski's Liberator II crashed off Gibraltar almost immediately after takeoff on 4 July 1943. An estimated sixteen people died, including many other senior Polish military leaders. The plane's pilot was the only survivor.

The crash was ruled to have been an accident, but several conspiracy theories continue to persist. The crash marked a turning point for Polish influence on their Anglo-American allies in World War II.

Background

The relationship between the Soviet Union and Poland was tenuous at best during World War II for a variety of reasons, and became more so, after the 1940 Katyn massacre of over 20,000 Polish servicemen by the Soviets came to light. However, pragmatic general W?adys?aw Sikorski was still open to some form of normalisation of Polish-Soviet relations, while general W?adys?aw Anders was vehemently opposed.[1] To boost morale, Sikorski began a tour of inspection of the Polish forces stationed in the Middle East in May 1943, tending to political affairs where necessary.[1]

Accident

On 4 July 1943, while Sikorski was returning to London from an inspection of Polish forces deployed in the Middle East, his aircraft, a Royal Air Force (RAF) Consolidated Liberator, serial number AL523, crashed into the sea 16 seconds after taking off from Gibraltar Airport at 23:07 hours.[1][2][3]

This Liberator C II was purchased and converted by the RAF for use as a transport and operated by No. 511 Squadron of RAF Transport Command on long range flights between the UK and Gibraltar.

In 1972, the pilot, Flight Lieutenant Eduard Prchal, described the events: "I received the green light from the tower and we began our take-off run. I pulled the stick back and the aircraft started to climb. When I was at 150ft I pushed the controls of the aircraft forward to gain speed. Suddenly I discovered I was not able to pull the stick back. The steering mechanism was jammed or locked." The aircraft then lost height rapidly. Prchal closed the four throttles and warned the others through the intercom "Attention, crash". The aircraft crashed into the sea.[4]

Sikorski, his daughter, Tadeusz Klimecki (his Chief of Staff), and eight other passengers were killed. While the official death toll included 11 fatalities, the exact number of passengers was not known. Of the six crew members on board, only Prchal survived.[1][5]

Prchal was later interviewed several times about the crash.

Passengers and crew

The only survivor of the accident was the pilot Flight Lieutenant Eduard Prchal, one of six crew on the aircraft.[1] Among the 11 passengers killed were:

Aftermath

Sikorski's body was collected by the Polish Navy destroyer ORP Orkan and transported to Britain.[2] He was subsequently buried in a brick-lined grave at the Polish War Cemetery in Newark-on-Trent, England, on 16 July that year.[1]Winston Churchill delivered a eulogy at his funeral.[3] The bodies of Sikorski's daughter and four other passengers and crew were not found.[11]

Sikorski's death marked a turning point for Polish influence amongst the Anglo-American allies. He had been the most prestigious leader of the Polish exiles and it was a severe setback for the Polish cause, for no Pole after him would have much sway with the Allied politicians.[12]

Incident investigation and controversy

A British Court of Inquiry convened on 7 July 1943 to investigate the crash, following the order by Air Marshal Sir John Slessor of 5 July 1943.[13] On 25 July 1943 the Court concluded that the accident was caused by the "jamming of elevator controls" which led to the aircraft being uncontrollable after take-off.[14] The report noted that "it has not been possible to determine how the jamming occurred" although it ruled out sabotage.[15] Slessor was not satisfied with the report and on 28 July ordered the Court to continue its investigation to find out whether the controls were indeed jammed or not, and if they were, then for what reason. Despite further investigation the Court was unable to resolve Slessor's doubts.[16] The Polish government refused to endorse this report because of the contradictions cited therein, and the lack of conclusive findings.[17]

"Conclusions

a) Liberator AL 523, total all up weight 54,608 lbs, took off from Gibraltar at 23.07 hours on 4 July 1943 bound for UK. The weather was fine, wind light, no cloud, visibility 10 miles. The aircraft was airborne after a run of approximately 1100 yards, climbed to about 150 feet in a perfectly normal manner and then gradually lost height, striking the sea on an even keel approximately 1200 yards after leaving the ground. The evidence suggests that the pilot had throttled back a moment before impact and that his engines had been running normally up to that time. The pilot was recovered by the Station rescue dinghy within six minutes of the crash and was the sole survivor.

b) The cause of the accident was, in the opinion of the Court, due to the aircraft becoming uncontrollable for reasons which cannot be established. The pilot, having eased the control column forward to build up speed after take-off, found that he was unable to move it back at all, the elevator controls being virtually jammed somewhere in the system. It is impossible, from the evidence available and examination of the wreckage, to offer any concrete reason as to why the elevator system should have become jammed."

"... The findings of the Court and the observations of the officers whose duty it is to review and comment on those findings have been considered and it is apparent that the accident was due to the jamming of the elevator controls shortly after take-off with the result that the aircraft became uncontrollable.

After most careful examination of all the available evidence, including that of the pilot, it has not been possible to determine how the jamming occurred but it has been established that there was no sabotage.

It is also clear that the captain of the aircraft who is a pilot of great experience and exceptional ability was in no way to blame.

An officer of the Polish Air Force attended throughout the proceedings."

The political context of the event, coupled with a variety of curious circumstances, immediately gave rise to speculation that Sikorski's death had not been an accident, and might have been the direct result of a Soviet, British, or even Polish conspiracy.[1][12][18][19][20] Some modern sources still note that the accident was not fully explained; for example Jerzy Jan Lerski in his Historical Dictionary of Poland (1996), entry on the "Gibraltar, Catastrophe of", noted that "there are several theories explaining the event, but the mystery was never fully solved."[21] However, as Roman Wapi?ski noted in his biographical entry on Sikorski in the Polish Biographical Dictionary in 1997, no conclusive evidence of any wrongdoing had been found, and Sikorski's official cause of death was listed as an accident.[1]

In 2008, Sikorski was exhumed and his remains were examined by Polish scientists, who concluded in 2009 that he died of injuries consistent with an air crash, and that there was no evidence that Sikorski was murdered, thus ruling out theories that he was shot or strangled before the incident. However, they did not rule out the possibility of sabotage, which is still being investigated by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance.[22][23][24] The investigation is ongoing as of 2012.[25][needs update]

In 2012, Jerzy Zi?borak revisited the evidence gathered by the Court of Inquiry in 1943 as well as other material that has been made available to date. His conclusion was that the accident resulted from the combination of factors. Firstly, the aircraft was overloaded and its centre of gravity was displaced beyond the permissible limit. Secondly, the aircraft speed at take-off was too low due to the excessive weight. Finally, the autopilot was switched on just after the take-off - contrary to the flight manual - and that caused an effect similar to the controls' jamming as seen by the second pilot. Evidence has been found that the surviving pilot Eduard Prchal did perform the second pilot's duties during the take-off, which he did not reveal at the time of the investigation.[26] Zi?borak rejects General Nöel Mason-MacFarlane's opinion that Prchal's mental state during the take-off was the reason for the accident.[27] He then compares Prchal's article written ten years after the accident with the relevant documents from the accident. Not only did Prchal write an untrue description of the accident, but he omitted some details he had earlier mentioned during his meetings with pilots. The differences included details of his injuries mentioned in the article and those reported in the medical examination after the accident. The author considered whether it was possible that Prchal had completely forgotten such details of the accident as for example the number of victims. The reason for these differences, i.e. whether Prchal lied deliberately in his article or suffered from a type of partial amnesia as a result of his injury is not discussed.[28] However, Zi?borak thinks that Prchal lied on purpose about the Mae West lifejacket.[29] Despite the deficiencies of the report, the results of the Court's investigations were finally accepted. The author concluded that this was a convenient solution for both the British and Polish government, as the details of VIPs' flight procedure could not be published in the Court's report during the war.[30]

Libel case

In 1967, Rolf Hochhuth, a German playwright, included one theory of the 1943 crash in his play Soldiers: An Obituary for Geneva. Here it was an 'accident' initiated by Winston Churchill who had instructed the British Secret Service to make the necessary arrangements. Unaware that Prchal was still alive, Hochhuth accused the pilot of participating in this plot. A libel case resulted and a court in London found in favour of Prchal and awarded him substantial damages and costs (£50,000). Hochhuth moved to Switzerland and avoided the payments. The London theatre staging the play agreed to out-of-court compensation.[]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Roman Wapi?ski (1997). "W?adys?aw Sikorski". Polski S?ownik Biograficzny, zeszyt 154 (T. XXXVII/3). p. 475.
  2. ^ a b c d e Tadeusz A. Kisielewski (January 2005). Zamach: Tropem zabójców Genera?a Sikorskiego (in Polish). Rebis. pp. 169-170. ISBN 978-83-7301-767-2.
  3. ^ a b Michael Alfred Peszke (2005). The Polish Underground Army, The Western Allies, And The Failure of Strategic Unity in World War II. McFarland. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-7864-2009-4.
  4. ^ "Pilot of General Sikorski's aircraft claims libel damages from German playwright." Times [London, England] 3 May 1972: 3. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 18 August 2013
  5. ^ "o Komu zaszkodzi ekshumacja genera?a" (in Polish). Focus.pl. 1 July 2008. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  6. ^ a b "Commemorative ceremonies in Gibraltar marking the 70th of the tragic death of Gen Wladyslaw Sikorski and members his entourage in the Gibraltar air crash". Office of War Veterans and Victims of Oppression. July 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  7. ^ "Komisja Historyczna do spraw Opracowania Dokumentacji na temat ?mierci Gen. W?adys?awa Sikorskiego - Inne organy doradcze powo?ane do rozpatrywania okre?lonej sprawy lub grupy spraw - BIP Rady Ministrów i Kancelarii Prezesa Rady Ministrów". Bip.kprm.gov.pl. 25 September 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ Józef Szczypek (1984). W?adys?aw Sikorski: fakty i legendy (in Polish). Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza. p. 231. ISBN 978-83-03-00671-4.
  9. ^ Piotr ?aro?; W?adys?aw Sikorski (1996). Armia Andersa. Wydawn. Adam Marsza?ek. p. 202. ISBN 978-83-86229-54-3. Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ 'Brig. J. P. Whiteley, M. P.' (obituary) in The Times dated 7 July 1943, p. 7
  11. ^ John Coates. "Sikorski: Was It Murder?" Times [London, England] 4 July 2003: 10[S]. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 18 August 2013.
  12. ^ a b Stanczyk, Zbigniew L. (7 December 2002). "Tajemnica gen. Sikorskiego" (in Polish). Przegl?d Polski Online". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 2005.
  13. ^ Zi?borak (2012) p. 49
  14. ^ Michael Alfred Peszke (2005). The Polish Underground Army, The Western Allies, And The Failure of Strategic Unity in World War II. McFarland. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7864-2009-4.
  15. ^ "General Sikorski's Death." Times [London, England] 21 September 1943: 2. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 18 August 2013.
  16. ^ Zi?borak (2012) pp. 120-124
  17. ^ Michael Alfred Peszke (2005). The Polish Underground Army, The Western Allies, And The Failure of Strategic Unity in World War II. McFarland. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7864-2009-4.
  18. ^ Thom Burnett (November 2006). Conspiracy Encyclopedia. Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-84340-381-4.
  19. ^ Nicholas Atkin; Michael Biddiss; Frank Tallett (8 March 2011). The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789. John Wiley & Sons. p. 389. ISBN 978-1-4051-8922-4.
  20. ^ Davies, Norman (26 August 2008). No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939-1945. Penguin. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-14-311409-3.
  21. ^ Jerzy Jan Lerski (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0.
  22. ^ "No evidence Polish hero murdered" BBC News, 29 January 2009
  23. ^ "IPN ujawni? jak zgin Sikorski" (in Polish). Tvn24.pl. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 2012.
  24. ^ "?ledztwo ws. ?mierci gen. Sikorskiego przeniesione z Katowic do Warszawy" (in Polish). Wiadomosci.gazeta.pl. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  25. ^ Polskapresse Sp. z o.o. (12 February 2012). "Prze?om w sprawie tajemniczej ?mierci gen. W?adys?awa Sikorskiego?" (in Polish). Wiadomosci24.pl. Retrieved 2012.
  26. ^ Zi?borak (2012) pp. 54-59, 84-87, 91-101, 140-141, 270-273, 310-344
  27. ^ Zi?borak (2012) p. 291
  28. ^ Zi?borak (2012) pp. 146-150
  29. ^ Zi?borak (2012) p. 272
  30. ^ Zi?borak (2012) p. 344
Bibliography

Further reading


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