1964 New York World's Fair
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1964 New York World's Fair

1964/1965 New York
New York World's Fair August 1964.jpeg
1964 view from the observation towers of the New York State Pavilion; the Unisphere is in the center, Shea Stadium at far background left.
Overview
BIE-classUnrecognized exposition
Name1964/1965 New York World's Fair
MottoPeace through Understanding[1]
BuildingUnisphere[1]
Area646 acres (2.61 km2)[2]
Invention(s)140 pavilions,[2]picture phone, CRT light pen
Visitors51,607,307[1]
Organized byRobert Moses
Participant(s)
Countries80[1] (hosted by 37 nations)
Organizations15
BusinessGeneral Electric, Ford, General Motors, Chrysler, Disney, IBM, Bell Telephone, US Steel, Pepsi Cola, Seven Up, Dupont, RCA, Westinghouse
Location
CountryUnited States
CityNew York
VenueFlushing Meadows, New York
Timeline
Bidding1955
Awardednever
Opening
  • April 22, 1964 (1964-04-22)
  • April 21, 1965 (1965-04-21)
Closure
  • October 18, 1964 (1964-10-18)
  • October 17, 1965 (1965-10-17)
Universal
PreviousCentury 21 Exposition in Seattle
NextExpo 67 in Montreal
Internet
Websitewww.nywf64.com

The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair was a world's fair that held over 140 pavilions, 110 restaurants, for 80 nations (hosted by 37), 24 US states, and over 45 corporations to build exhibits or attractions at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in Queens, New York City.[1][2][3] The immense fair covered 646 acres (2.61 km2) on half the park, with numerous pools or fountains, and an amusement park with rides near the lake. However, the fair did not receive official support or approval from the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE).

Hailing itself as a "universal and international" exposition, the fair's theme was "Peace Through Understanding", dedicated to "Man's Achievement on a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding Universe". American companies dominated the exposition as exhibitors. The theme was symbolized by a 12-story-high, stainless-steel model of the earth called the Unisphere, built on the foundation of the Perisphere from the 1939 World's Fair.[4] The fair ran for two six-month seasons, April 22 - October 18, 1964, and April 21 - October 17, 1965. Admission price for adults (13 and older) was $2 in 1964 (equivalent to $16.49 in 2019) but $2.50 (equivalent to $20.28 in 2019) in 1965, and $1 for children (2-12) both years (equivalent to $8.24 in 2019).[5]

The fair is noted as a showcase of mid-20th-century American culture and technology. The nascent Space Age, with its vista of promise, was well represented. More than 51 million people attended the fair, though fewer than the hoped-for 70 million. It remains a touchstone for many American Baby Boomers who visited the optimistic exposition as children, before the turbulent years of the Vietnam War and many cultural changes.

In many ways the fair symbolized a grand consumer show covering many products produced in America at the time for transportation, living, and consumer electronic needs in a way that would never be repeated at future world's fairs in North America. American manufacturers of pens, chemicals, computers, and automobiles had a major presence.[2][1] This fair gave many attendees their first interaction with computer equipment. Corporations demonstrated the use of mainframe computers, computer terminals with keyboards and CRT displays, teletype machines, punch cards, and telephone modems in an era when computer equipment was kept in back offices away from the public, decades before the Internet and home computers were at everyone's disposal.

Site history

The selected site, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in the borough of Queens, was originally a natural wetland straddling the Flushing River.[6]Flushing had been a Dutch settlement, named after the city of Vlissingen (anglicized into "Flushing").[7]:220 The site was then converted into the Corona Ash Dumps,[7]:212 which were featured prominently in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby as the "Valley of Ashes".[6] The site was used for the 1939/1940 New York World's Fair, and at the conclusion of the fair, was used as a park.[8][9]

Preceding these fairs was the 1853-1854 Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, located in the New York Crystal Palace at what is now Bryant Park in the New York City borough of Manhattan.[10]

Beginnings

The 1964/1965 Fair was conceived by a group of New York businessmen who remembered their childhood experiences at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Thoughts of an economic boon to the city as the result of increased tourism was a major reason for holding another fair 25 years after the 1939/1940 extravaganza.[11] Then-New York City mayor, Robert F. Wagner, Jr., commissioned Frederick Pittera, a producer of international fairs and exhibitions, and author of the history of International Fairs & Exhibitions for the Encyclopædia Britannica and Compton's Encyclopedia, to prepare the first feasibility studies for the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair. He was joined by Austrian architect Victor Gruen (creator of the shopping mall) in studies that eventually led the Eisenhower Commission to award the world's fair to New York City in competition with a number of American cities.

Organizers turned to private financing and the sale of bonds to pay the huge costs to stage the event. The organizers hired New York's "Master Builder" Robert Moses, to head the corporation established to run the fair because he was experienced in raising money for vast public projects. Moses had been a formidable figure in the city since coming to power in the 1930s. He was responsible for the construction of much of the city's highway infrastructure and, as parks commissioner for decades, the creation of much of the city's park system.

In the mid-1930s, Moses oversaw the conversion of a vast Queens tidal marsh garbage dump into the fairgrounds that hosted the 1939/1940 World's Fair.[12] Called Flushing Meadows Park, it was Moses' grandest park scheme. He envisioned this vast park, comprising some 1,300 acres (5.3 km2) of land, easily accessible from Manhattan, as a major recreational playground for New Yorkers. When the 1939/1940 World's Fair ended in financial failure, Moses did not have the available funds to complete work on his project. He saw the 1964/1965 Fair as a means to finish what the earlier fair had begun.[13]

To ensure profits to complete the park, fair organizers knew they would have to maximize receipts. An estimated attendance of 70 million people would be needed to turn a profit and, for attendance that large, the fair would need to be held for two years. The World's Fair Corporation also decided to charge site-rental fees to all exhibitors who wished to construct pavilions on the grounds. This decision caused the fair to come into conflict with the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE), as the international body headquartered in Paris that sanctions world's fairs: BIE rules stated that an international exposition could run for one six-month period only, and no rent could be charged to exhibitors. In addition, the rules allowed only one exposition in any given country within a 10-year period, and the Seattle World's Fair had already been sanctioned for 1962, as 2 years prior.[12]

The United States was not a member of the BIE at the time, but fair organizers understood that approval by the BIE would ensure that its nearly 40 member nations would participate in the fair. Moses, undaunted by the rules, journeyed to Paris to seek official approval for the New York fair. When the BIE balked at New York's bid, Moses, used to having his way in New York, angered the BIE delegates by taking his case to the press, publicly stating his disdain for the BIE and its rules.[12] The BIE retaliated by formally requesting its member nations not to participate in the New York fair.[12] The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair is the only significant world's fair since the formation of the BIE to be held without its endorsement.[14]

Architecture

Many of the pavilions were built in a Mid-century modern style that was heavily influenced by "Googie architecture". This was a futurist architectural style influenced by car culture, jet aircraft, the Space Age, and the Atomic Age, which were all on display at the fair. Some pavilions were explicitly shaped like the product they were promoting, such as the US Royal tire-shaped Ferris wheel, or even the corporate logo, such as the Johnson Wax pavilion. Other pavilions were more abstract representations, such as the oblate spheroid-shaped IBM pavilion, or the General Electric circular dome shaped "Carousel of Progress".

The pavilion architectures expressed a new-found freedom of form enabled by modern building materials, such as reinforced concrete, fiberglass, plastic, tempered glass, and stainless steel. The facade or the entire structure of a pavilion served as a giant billboard advertising the country or organization housed inside, flamboyantly competing for the attention of busy and distracted fairgoers.

By contrast, some of the smaller international, US state, and organizational pavilions were built in more traditional styles, such as a Chinese temple or a Swiss chalet. Countries took this opportunity to showcase culinary aspects of their culture as well, with fondue being promoted at the Swiss Pavilion's Alpine restaurant thanks to the Swiss Cheese Union.[15] After the fair's final closing in 1965, some pavilions crafted of wood were carefully disassembled and transported elsewhere for re-use.

Other pavilions were "decorated sheds", a building method later described by Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, using plain structural shells embellished with applied decorations. This allowed designers to simulate a traditional style while bypassing expensive and time-consuming methods of traditional construction. The expedient was considered acceptable for temporary buildings planned to be used for only two years, and then to be demolished.

International participation

View of the Unisphere with world flags
West Berlin Pavilion, by Hans Wehrhahn[16]

The BIE withholding official recognition was a serious handicap for fair promoters. The absence of Canada, Australia, most of the major European nations, and the Soviet Union, all members of the BIE, tarnished the image of the fair.[12] Additionally, New York was forced to compete with both Seattle and Montreal for international participants, with many nations choosing the officially-sanctioned world's fairs of those other North American cities over the New York Fair. The promoters turned to trade and tourism organizations within many countries to sponsor national exhibits in lieu of official government sponsorship of pavilions.

New York City, in the middle of the 20th century, was at a zenith of economic power and world prestige. Unconcerned by BIE rules, nations with smaller economies (as well as private groups in (or relevant to) some BIE members[17][18][19][20][21]) saw it as an honor to host an exhibit at the Fair.[22] Therefore, smaller nations made up the majority of the international participation. Spain,[23]Vatican City,[24]Japan,[25]Mexico,[26]Sweden,[27]Austria,[28]Denmark,[29]Thailand,[30]Philippines,[31]Greece,[32] and Pakistan,[33] and Ireland to name some, hosted national presences at the Fair. Indonesia sponsored a pavilion, but relations deteriorated rapidly between that nation and the USA during 1964, fueled by anti-Western and anti-American rhetoric and policies by Indonesian president Sukarno, which angered US President Lyndon Johnson. Indonesia withdrew from the United Nations in January 1965, and officially from the Fair in March. The Fair Corporation then seized and shut down the Indonesian pavilion, and it remained closed and barricaded for the 1965 season.[34]

One of the fair's most popular exhibits was the Vatican Pavilion, where Michelangelo's Pietà, brought in from St Peter's Basilica with the permission of Pope John XXIII, was displayed; a small plaza, exedra monument, marking the spot (and Pope Paul VI's visit in October 1965) remains there today. A modern replica had been transported beforehand to ensure that the statue could be conveyed without being damaged. This copy is now on view in the Immaculate Conception Seminary in Douglaston, NY.[] The exedra monument is now used with permits since 1975 for prayer Vigils by Our Lady of the Roses relocated from Bayside, New York.

A recreation of a medieval Belgian village proved very popular. Fairgoers were treated to the "Bel-Gem Brussels Waffle"--a combination of waffle, strawberries and whipped cream, sold by a Brussels couple, Maurice Vermersch and his wife.[35]

Fairgoers could also enjoy sampling sandwiches from around the world at the popular 7-Up International Sandwich Garden Pavilion which featured the innovative fiberglass Seven Up Tower.[36][37] In addition to all the 7-Up beverages one could drink, fair-goers were invited to sample varied culinary delights representing sixteen countries. While dining, visitors enjoyed live performances on four circular stages from various instrumentalists which included a five piece musical ensemble, the 7-Up Continental Band. The musical programs included popular show tunes from the Broadway stage in America, as well as musical favorites from both Europe and Latin America. The soloist John Serry Sr. appeared regularly with the orchestra to complement the international flavor of the musical program.[38][39] The dining pods featured furnishings designed by the futuristic Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and were enclosed by twenty-four futuristic fiberglass domes which were topped by a commanding clock tower which soared over 107 feet (33 m) above the entire pavilion.[40][41][42]

Emerging African nations displayed their wares in the Africa Pavilion. Controversy broke out when the Jordanian pavilion displayed a mural emphasizing the plight of the Palestinian people. The Jordanians also donated an ancient column which still remains at the former fair site. The city of West Berlin, a Cold War hot-spot, hosted a popular exhibit.

On April 21, 1965, as part of the opening ceremonies for the second season of the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair, Ethiopian long-distance runners Abebe Bikila and Mamo Wolde participated in an exclusive ceremonial half marathon.[43] They ran from the Arsenal in Central Park at 64th Street & Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to the Singer Bowl at the fair.[44] They carried with them a parchment scroll with greetings from Haile Selassie.[45]

Federal and state exhibits

US Pavilion

The US Pavilion was titled "Challenge to Greatness" and focused on President Lyndon B. Johnson's "Great Society" proposals. The main show in the multimillion-dollar pavilion was a 15-minute ride through a filmed presentation of American history. Visitors seated in moving grandstands rode past movie screens that slid in, out and over the path of the traveling audience.

Elsewhere, there were tributes to President John F. Kennedy, who had broken ground for the pavilion in December 1962 but had been assassinated in November 1963 before the fair opened.

A painting of the Belgian artist Luc-Peter Crombé received the main award of the jury. It is a semi-religious presentation of three young men challenging flames.[46]

United States Space Park

Space Park, as it appeared in December 1963 before its official opening

A 2-acre (0.81 ha) United States Space Park was sponsored by NASA, the Department of Defense and the fair. Exhibits included a full-scale model of the aft skirt and five F-1 engines of the first stage of a Saturn V, a Titan II booster with a Gemini capsule, an Atlas with a Mercury capsule and a Thor-Delta rocket. On display at ground level were Aurora 7, the Mercury capsule flown on the second US manned orbital flight; full-scale models of an X-15 aircraft, an Agena upper stage; a Gemini spacecraft; an Apollo command/service module, and a Lunar Excursion Module. Replicas of unmanned spacecraft included lunar probe Ranger VII; Mariner II and Mariner IV; Syncom, Telstar I, and Echo II communications satellites; Explorer I and Explorer XVI; and Tiros and Nimbus weather satellites.[47]

New York State Pavilion

New York played host to the fair at its six-million-dollar open-air pavilion called the "Tent of Tomorrow." Designed by famed modernist architect Philip Johnson, the 350-foot-by-250-foot (107 × 76 m) pavilion was supported by sixteen 100-foot-(30-metre)-high concrete columns, from which a 50,000-square-foot (4,600 m2) roof of polychrome tiles was suspended. Complementing the pavilion were the fair's three high-spot observation towers, two of which had cafeterias in their in-the-round observation-deck crowns. The pavilion's main floor, used for local art and industry displays including a 26-foot (8-metre) scale reproduction of the New York State Power Authority's St. Lawrence hydroelectric plant, comprised a 9,000-square-foot (800 m2) terrazzo replica of the official Texaco highway map of New York State, displaying the map's cities, towns, routes and Texaco gas stations in 567 mosaic panels.[48] An idea floated after the fair to use the floor for the World Trade Center did not materialize. The Fair was held in New York in honor of the 300th Anniversary of the naming of New York when King Charles II sent an English fleet to claim it from the Dutch in 1664. Prince James, the Duke of York named it New York from New Amsterdam.

Other state pavilions

Wisconsin exhibited the "World's Largest Cheese". Florida brought a dolphin show, flamingos, a talented cockatoo from Miami's Parrot Jungle, and water skiers to New York. Oklahoma gave weary fairgoers a restful park to relax in. Missouri displayed the state's space-related industries. Visitors could dine at Hawaii's "Five Volcanoes" restaurant.

New York City Pavilion

At the New York City pavilion, the Panorama of the City of New York (a huge scale model of the city) was on display, complete with a simulated helicopter ride around the metropolis for easy viewing.[49] Left over from the 1939 Fair, this building had been used partially as a recreational public roller skating rink.[]

Bourbon Street Pavilion

Bourbon Street Pavilion

Louisiana had a pavilion called "Louisiana's Bourbon Street" (later renamed to just "Bourbon Street"), which was inspired by New Orleans' French Quarter. It started off with financial trouble, not being able to complete its construction and subsequently filing for bankruptcy. A private company, called Pavilion Property, bought up the assets and assumed its debts. This prompted Louisiana Governor John McKeithen to sever all ties and withdraw state's sanction, leaving the pavilion completely to private enterprise.

Special media attention was given to a racially integrated minstrel show, that was intended to be satirical anti-bigotry, called "America, Be Seated", produced by Mike Todd Jr. During the opening of the fair, several civil rights protests were staged by members of the NAACP, who believed that the "minstrel-style" show was demeaning to African-Americans.

The pavilion included ten theater restaurants, which served a variety of Creole food, a Jazz club called "Jazzland" which hosted live jazz artists, miniature Mardi Gras parades, a teenage dancing venue, a voodoo shop, and a doll museum. Due to the presence of the various bars, the pavilion was especially popular at night. Notable go-go dancer Candy Johnson headlined a show at a venue called "Gay New Orleans Nightclub". Near the closure of the fair, the pavilion was reported to have achieved the highest gross income of any single commercial pavilion at the fair. The 26-year-old director of operations, Gordon Novel, was called an "Entrepreneurial Prodigy & Boy Wonder" in Variety for his accomplishments.[50]:77[51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]

American industry

Many of the large US corporations built pavilions to demonstrate their wares, vision, and corporate cultures. These included:

General Motors

Concept car inside the General Motors Pavilion

Industries played a major role at the New York World's Fair of 1939/1940 by hosting huge, elaborate exhibits. Many of them returned to the New York World's Fair of 1964/1965 with even more elaborate versions of the shows that they had presented 25 years earlier. The most notable of these was General Motors Corporation whose Futurama proved to be the fair's most popular exhibit, in which visitors seated in moving chairs glided past elaborately detailed miniature 3D model scenery showing what life might be like in the "near-future". Nearly 26 million people took the journey into the future during the fair's two-year run.

IBM

The IBM Corporation had a popular pavilion, where a giant 500-seat grandstand called the "People Wall" was pushed by hydraulic rams high up into an ellipsoidal theater designed by Eero Saarinen. There, a film by Charles and Ray Eames titled Think was shown on fourteen projectors on nine screens, illuminating the workings of computer logic.[61] At ground level beneath the theater, visitors could explore Mathematica: A World of Numbers... and Beyond (an exhibit of mathematical models and curiosities) and view the Mathematics Peep Show (a series of short films illustrating basic mathematical concepts).[62]

Bell System

The Bell System (prior to its break up into regional companies) hosted a 15-minute ride in moving armchairs depicting the history of communications in dioramas and film. Other Bell exhibits included the Picturephone as well as a demonstration of the computer modem.

Westinghouse

Westinghouse Pavilion

The Westinghouse Corporation planted a second time capsule next to the 1939 one; today both Westinghouse Time Capsules are marked by a monument southwest of the Unisphere which is to be opened in the year 6939.[63] Some of its contents were a World's Fair Guidebook, an electric toothbrush, credit cards (relatively new at the time) and a 50-star United States flag.

Sinclair Oil

The Sinclair Oil Corporation sponsored "Dinoland", featuring life-size replicas of nine different dinosaurs, including the corporation's signature Brontosaurus.[64] The statues were created by Louis Paul Jonas Studios in Hudson, New York.[65][66] They also contained a "space age" gas station with orbiting gas pumps shaped like rockets,[67] and a marine fuel station in the vicinity of the World's Fair Marina.[68]

Ford

The Ford Motor Company introduced the Ford Mustang automobile to the public at its pavilion on April 17, 1964. The Ford pavilion featured the "Ford's Magic Skyway" ride, in which guests rode in Ford convertibles past scenes featuring dinosaurs, cavemen, and a futuristic cityscape.[69] After the Fair, the Audio-Animatronic dinosaurs would move to Disneyland, becoming part of the Santa Fe & Disneyland Railroad's "Primeval World" diorama in 1966.[69][70]

DuPont

DuPont presented a musical review by composer Michael Brown called "The Wonderful World of Chemistry".

Parker Pen

At the Parker Pen Company's exhibit, a computer would make a match to an international penpal.

Chunky Candy

The Chunky Candy Corporation put on a transparent display of candy manufacturing where visitors were able to view "all the steps in a highly automated process".[71] The Pavilion also included an interactive sculpture playground called "Sculpture Continuum," designed by Oliver O'Connor Barrett.

Films

The fair was also a showplace for independent films. One of the most noted was a religious film titled Parable which showed at the Protestant Pavilion. It depicted humanity as a traveling circus and Jesus Christ as a clown.[72] This marked the beginning of a new depiction of Jesus[73] and was the inspiration for the musical Godspell. Parable later went on to be honored at Cannes, as well as the Edinburgh Film Festival and Venice Film Festival.[73] Another religious film was presented by evangelist Billy Graham called Man in the 5th Dimension. It was shot in the 70mm Todd-AO widescreen process for exclusive presentation in a specially designed theater equipped with audio equipment that enabled viewers to listen to the film in Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish.[74] The 13-½ minute film Man's Search for Happiness was made for the Mormon Pavilion.[75]

The surprise hit of the fair was a non-commercial movie short presented by the SC Johnson Wax Company called To Be Alive!. The film celebrated the joy of life found worldwide and in all cultures, and it won a special award from the New York Film Critics Circle[76] and the 1966 Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject).[77]

Disney influence

Fountains and a reflecting pool mark the approach to the Unisphere

The fair is remembered as the venue that Walt Disney used to design and perfect his system of "Audio-Animatronics", in which electromechanical actuators and computers control the movement of lifelike robots to act out scenes.[78]WED Enterprises designed and created four shows at the fair:

  • "Pepsi-Cola Presents Walt Disney's 'It's a Small World'--a Salute to UNICEF and the World's Children" at the Pepsi-Cola pavilion: Animated dolls and animals frolicked in a spirit of international unity accompanying a boat ride around the world. The song was written by the Sherman Brothers.
  • General Electric sponsored "Progressland" where an audience was seated in a revolving auditorium called the "Carousel of Progress", where they viewed an audio-animatronic presentation of the progress of electricity in the home. The Sherman Brothers composed "There's a Great Big Beautiful Tomorrow" for this attraction. The highlight of the exhibit demonstrated a brief plasma "explosion" of controlled nuclear fusion.
  • Ford Motor Company presented "Ford's Magic Skyway", a WED Imagineering-designed pavilion which was the second-most popular exhibit at the fair. It featured 50 motorless convertible Ford vehicles, including Mustangs, in an early prototype of what became the PeopleMover ride system. Audience members entered the vehicles on a main platform as they moved slowly along the track. The ride moved the audience through scenes featuring life-sized, audio-animatronic dinosaurs and cavemen.
  • At the Illinois pavilion, a lifelike President Abraham Lincoln recited his famous speeches in "Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln", voiced by Royal Dano.

WED also created the 120-foot-high (37 m) Tower of the Four Winds which was located at the It's a Small World pavilion. In addition, costumed versions of Walt Disney's famous cartoon characters roamed around the fairgrounds and interacted with guests. After the fair, there was some discussion of The Walt Disney Company retaining these exhibits on-site and converting Flushing Meadows Park into an East Coast version of Disneyland, but this idea was abandoned. Instead, Disney relocated several of the exhibits to Disneyland in Anaheim, California, and subsequently replicated them at other Disney theme parks. Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, which opened with Magic Kingdom in 1971, is essentially the realization of the original concept of an "East Coast Disneyland"; Epcot, which opened in 1982, was designed as a permanent world's fair.[79]

Amusement attractions

The Krofft's "Les Poupées de Paris Pavilion"
Rocket Belt Man graphics

One of the fair's major crowd-attracting and financial shortcomings was the absence of a midway. The fair's organizers were opposed on principle to the honky-tonk atmosphere engendered by midways, and this omission was another thing that had irked the BIE, which insisted that all officially sanctioned fairs have a midway. What amusements the fair actually hosted often failed to attract crowds. The Meadow Lake Amusement Area was not easily accessible, and officials objected to shows being advertised.

Furthermore, although the Amusement Area was supposed to remain open for four hours after the exhibits closed at 10pm, the fair presented a fountain-and-fireworks show every night at 9pm at the Pool of Industry. Fairgoers would see this show and then leave the fair rather than head to the Amusement Area, and few people remained on the fairgrounds by midnight.

The fair's big entertainment spectacles, including the Wonder World at the Meadow Lake Amphitheater, To Broadway with Love in the Texas Pavilion, and Dick Button's Ice-travaganza in the New York City Pavilion, all were closed prematurely with heavy financial losses. It became apparent that fairgoers did not go to the fair for its entertainment value, especially as there was plenty of entertainment in Manhattan.[80]

A notable exception to this situation was Les Poupées de Paris (The Dolls of Paris), an adults-only musical puppet show created, produced and directed by Sid and Marty Krofft. This show, modeled after the Paris revues Lido and Folies Bergère, was heavily attended, and financially successful.[81]

Some spectacles were staged for the newsreel cameras, such as a May 1964 demonstration by Bell Aerosystems where Bill Suitor ("Jetpackman") performed a 16-second flight, hopping over the "Court of the Presidents of the United States", the circular path surrounding the Unisphere fountain.[82]

Controversial ending

The fair ended in controversy over allegations of financial mismanagement. Controversy had plagued it during much of its two-year run. The Fair Corporation had taken in millions of dollars in advance ticket sales for both the 1964 and 1965 seasons. However, the receipts of these sales were booked entirely against the first season of the fair.[12] This made it appear that the fair had plenty of operating cash when, in fact, it was borrowing from the second season's gate to pay the bills. Before and during the 1964 season, the fair spent much money despite attendance that was below expectations. By the end of the 1964 season, Moses and the press began to realize that there would not be enough money to pay the bills and the fair teetered on bankruptcy.[12] In March 1965 a group of bankers and politicians asked showman Billy Rose to take over the fair, which he declined stating: "I'd rather be hit by a baseball bat" and "cancer in its last stages never attracted me very much".[51][83]

While the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair returned 40 cents on the dollar to bond investors, the 1964/1965 fair returned only 19.2 cents on the dollar.[12]

Reuse of site and structures

On-site structures

The Unisphere (2010)

New York City was left with a much-improved Flushing Meadows-Corona Park following the fair, taking possession of the park from the Fair Corporation in June 1967. The paths and their names remain almost unchanged from the days of the fair. An ancient Roman column from Jordan still stands near the Unisphere.[84] A stone bench marking the site of the Vatican pavilion also stands east of the main fountain.[85]

The Unisphere stands at the center of the park as a symbol of "Man's Achievements on a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding Universe". The Unisphere has become the iconic sculptural feature of the park, as well as a symbol of the borough of Queens in general. It stands on the site formerly occupied by the Perisphere during the earlier 1939-1940 Fair.[86][87]:53

The New York Hall of Science, founded during the 1964 World's Fair, was one of the country's first dedicated science museums;[] it still operates in an expanded facility in its original location at the park's northern corner.[88] The Hall of Science anchors a Space Park exhibiting the rockets and vehicles used in America's early space exploration projects. The Space Park eventually deteriorated due to neglect, but in 2004 the surviving rockets were restored and placed back on display.[87]:53

The carousel that was the centerpiece of Carousel Park in the Lake Amusement Area was relocated to the former Transportation Area outside of the Queens Zoo in the northwestern part of the park. It still operates as the Flushing Meadows Carousel, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[89]

Ruins of the New York State Pavilion observatory towers in 2006

The New York State Pavilion, constructed as the state's exhibit hall for the World's Fair, is also a prominent visible structure in the park. However, no new use for the building was found after the Fair, and the building sat derelict and decaying for decades. In 1993,[90] the Queens Theatre in the Park took over the Circarama adjacent to the towers and continues to operate there, using the ruined state pavilion as a storage depot.[90][91] The ruins were featured in the 1997 movie Men in Black.[92] Some conservation and restoration techiques were demonstrated in 2008 by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania.[] The New York State Pavilion was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.[93] In fall 2013, NYC Parks announced plans to restore the pavilion for $73 million,[48] and in 2015, the entire structure was repainted yellow[94][92]

A preexisting structure from the 1939 fair became the temporary headquarters of the United Nations General Assembly then the New York City Pavilion in the 1964 fair. After the 1964 fair, it was subdivided into the Queens Center for Art (now Queens Museum) and an ice-skating rink.[95] The Museum continues to display the scale model Panorama of the City of New York, which is updated occasionally.[49] The building also has a large display of memorabilia from the two world's fairs, as well as an original 3D scale model of the entire 1964 World's Fair site. In April 2011, the Queens Museum started an expansion project that almost doubled its floor space, bringing the total to about 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2).[96] The ice skating rink was removed when the museum's expansion was completed in 2013.[95]

The Pavilion (World's Fair Building / Winston Churchill Tribute)[97] was dismantled after the fair, and reassembled by 1968 on the fairgrounds site as the aviary for the Flushing Meadows Zoo (now the Queens Zoo). The building was a 175-foot (53 m) diameter geodesic dome attributed to either Buckminster Fuller or Thomas C. Howard, and produced by Synergetics of Raleigh, North Carolina.[98] It remains as the aviary of the Queens Zoo, which was closed in 1988 and then reopened in 1992 after a $16 million renovation project.[99]

Other buildings remained for a while after the 1964 Fair's conclusion in hopes that a new use for them could be found, but were subsequently demolished. This included the Travel and Transportation Pavilion, destroyed in 1967 after a failed conversion to a fire station, and the Federal Pavilion, demolished in 1977 after great deterioration.[50]:55, 67[100]

Pavilions and major exhibits elsewhere

Aerial view of some remaining structures in Flushing Meadows in 2004, including the ruins of the New York State Pavilion in the foreground.
The carillon was moved to Stone Mountain in Georgia.
One of the General Mills arches was moved to Rocky Point State Park in Rhode Island.

Like its predecessor, the 1964 World's Fair lost money. It was unable to repay its financial backers their investment, and it became embroiled in legal disputes with its creditors until 1970, when the books were finally closed and the Fair Corporation was dissolved. Most of the pavilions constructed for the fair were demolished within six months following the fair's close. While only a handful of pavilions and exhibits survived, some of them traveled great distances and found new homes following the fair:

In media

Contents of the 1964 Westinghouse Time Capsule
The observation towers of the interactive dark ride Men in Black: Alien Attack are cleaned-up smaller replicas of the original structures

Gallery

See also

References

Bibliography

  • World's Fair Legacies William P. Young.[119]
  • Flushing Meadows-Corona Park Today William P. Young.[120]
  • International Participation in the New York World's Fair 1964-1965 Sharyn Elise Jackson.[121]
  • Editors, Time-Life Books Official Guide: 1964-1965 New York World's Fair . Book Sales: 1963-1965.
  • Third Supplemental Report on New York World's Fair 1964-1965 Corporation Covering Operations from Inception to December 31, 1966. October 26, 1967.[122]
  • Cotter, Bill; Young, Bill (July 21, 2008). The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair: Creation and Legacy (Images of America). Arcadia Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-0738557458.[123]
  • Samuel, Lawrence R. (August 30, 2007). The End of the Innocence: The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair (First ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-0815608905.
  • New York Public Library archives of '64-'65 World's Fair. Manuscripts & Archives Division of Fair Administration, Construction, Maintenance, Participation, and Public Relations.[124]
  • Gordon, John Steele, "The World's Fair: It was a disaster from the beginning," American Heritage Magazine, October 2006, Volume 57, Issue 5.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Flushing Meadows Corona Park: World's Fair Playground". nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d "IBM Pavilion NY World's Fair". EamesOffice.com. 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Archdiocese History Archived November 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Archdiocese of New York. Retrieved November 5, 2007.
  4. ^ Gordon, John Steele (October 2006). ""The World's Fair: It was a disaster from the beginning". American Heritage.
  5. ^ Arnold, Martin (January 13, 1965). "FAIR INCREASING ADMISSION TO $2.50; 50-Cent Raise Does Not Apply to Children's Rates -- Longer Run Possible". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Appendix: The History of Flushing Meadows Corona Park" (PDF). New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. p. 52. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ a b Steinberg, Ted (July 21, 2015). Gotham Unbound: The Ecological History of Greater New York. Simon and Schuster. pp. 209-225. ISBN 978-1-4767-4128-4.
  8. ^ "Ready to Turn Fair Into Park; Moses Tells Mayor His Plans Are Set" (PDF). The Sun (New York). Fultonhistory.com. August 15, 1940. p. 14. Retrieved 2017.
  9. ^ "Flushing Meadow" (PDF). Long Island Star-Journal. Fultonhistory.com. July 13, 1949. p. 4. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ "Guide to the New York Crystal Palace Records". The New York Historical Society. Retrieved 2011.
  11. ^ Freeman, Ira Henry (August 10, 1959). "World's Fair Planned Here in '64 at Half Billion Cost". The New York Times.Reprint This articles includes a full list of the original members of the Fair committee, mostly corporate and union leaders.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Caro, Robert (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-48076-3. OCLC 834874.
  13. ^ Benjamin, Philip (August 12, 1959). "Moses Lists Work Required for Fair; Sees 85 Millions as Needed to Prepare Subway and Roads in Flushing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  14. ^ "Endorsement". nysl.nysed.gov. October 13, 2017.
  15. ^ Lawrence R. Samuel, End of the Innocence: The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair, p. 153[verification needed]
  16. ^ "West Berlin Pavilion by Hans Wehrhahn".
  17. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Pavilion of Paris - Page One". Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  18. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Berlin - Page One". Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  19. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Belgian Village - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  20. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Switzerland - Page Two". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  21. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Fiesta - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  22. ^ "Small Nations". seanmunger.com. October 13, 2017.
  23. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Spain - Page One". Nywf64.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  24. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Vatican - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  25. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Japan - Page One". Nywf64.com. August 16, 1964. Retrieved 2010.
  26. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Mexico - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  27. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Sweden - Page One". Nywf64.com. August 30, 1964. Retrieved 2010.
  28. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Austria - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  29. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Denmark - Page One". Nywf64.com. May 9, 1965. Retrieved 2010.
  30. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Thailand - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  31. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Philippines - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  32. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Greece - Page One". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
  33. ^ "Pavilions & Attractions - Pakistan - Page One". Nywf64.com. August 15, 1965. Retrieved 2010.
  34. ^ "The Indonesia Controversy at the New York World's Fair 1964-1965". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2019.
  35. ^ see photo at http://www.worldsfairphotos.com/nywf64/aerial-ride.htm for the "Bel-Gem" Brussels Waffle sign
  36. ^ The New York Times. September 29, 1964. p. 21.
  37. ^ The New York Times. May 31, 1964. p. R1.
  38. ^ The New York Times. September 12, 1964. p. 21.
  39. ^ The New York Times. October 16, 1964. p. 31.
  40. ^ "Seven-Up". www.worldsfairphotos.com.
  41. ^ "1964 New York World's Fair 1965 - Attractions - Seven Up - Page Five". www.nywf64.com.
  42. ^ "1964 World's Fair - Seven-Up". www.westland.net.
  43. ^ Phillips, Mccandlish (April 22, 1965). "Lo, a Magic City Awakens and Wizard Rejoices...". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017.
  44. ^ Alden, Robert (April 4, 1965). "The Fair Resumes Today With Many New Exhibits...". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017.
  45. ^ Jones, Theodore (April 4, 1965). "Ethiopia Marathon Star Here for Fair". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017.
  46. ^ "Luc Crombé op W.T. te New York bekroond" [Luc Crombé awarded on W.T. in New York]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). Belgium. June 8, 1964.
  47. ^ Stanton, Jeffrey (2006). "Showcasing Technology at the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair".
  48. ^ a b "Long-Shuttered N.Y. State Pavilion In Queens To Reopen For 3 Hours Next Month". March 25, 2014.
  49. ^ a b Leuthner, Stuart. "Small World". American Heritage. American Heritage Publishing Company. Retrieved 2012.
  50. ^ a b c Cotter, Bill; Young, Bill (January 20, 2014). The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4396-4214-6. Retrieved 2017.
  51. ^ a b Samuel, Lawrence R. (August 1, 2010). The End of the Innocence: The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair. Syracuse University Press. pp. 27, 34, 48, 74, 130, 164. ISBN 978-0-8156-0956-8. Retrieved 2012.
  52. ^ Lisanti, Tom (March 2003). Drive-In Dream Girls: A Galaxy of B-Movie Starlets of the Sixties. Mcfarland & Co Inc Pub. pp. 40, 270. ISBN 978-0-7864-1575-5. Retrieved 2012.
  53. ^ Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. June 1964. p. 170. Retrieved 2012.
  54. ^ Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. May 28, 1964. p. 56. Retrieved 2012.
  55. ^ Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. May 7, 1964. p. 15. Retrieved 2012.
  56. ^ "America Be Seated out of World Fair". Washington Afro-American. May 12, 1964. Retrieved 2012.
  57. ^ "Have You Seen 'America, Be Seated'". The Morning Record. April 10, 1964. Retrieved 2012.
  58. ^ "Jazz Club at World's Fair". Billboard. March 21, 1964. Retrieved 2012.
  59. ^ "Louisiana". Retrieved 2012.
  60. ^ "Bourbon Street ... at nywf64.com". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2012.
  61. ^ http://blog.barbican.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/eamesibm_gall2.jpg
  62. ^ IBM Labs (April 5, 2012). "Free iPad App from IBM Reinvents Iconic '60s Era Exhibit on History of Mathematics". IBM Research. IBM Corporation. Retrieved 2013.
  63. ^ "Flushing Meadows Corona Park Monuments - Time Capsule II Marker : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2019.
  64. ^ "Sinclair ... at nywf64.com". nywf64.com. Retrieved 2014.
  65. ^ "Sinclair's New York World's Fair (1964-65) "Dinoland" Pavilion". Sinclair Oil Corporation. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  66. ^ a b (1) "Sinclair at the New York World's Fair". 1960s. Sinclair Oil Corporation. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
    (2) "Dinosaur Fever - Sinclair's Icon". Petroleum History Almanac. Washington, D.C.: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. 2016. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
    (3) "Sinclair Dinoland: New York World's Fair 1964-65". Science Leads the Way. Frank J. Leskovitz. 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  67. ^ "Midweek Matinee: Sinclair at the World's Fair, 1965," by Ed Heys (Hemmings Motor News; June 15th, 2016)
  68. ^ Sinclair created a floating service station at the marina at the New York World's Fair (RetroFootage; Dissolve)
  69. ^ a b "Ford Meets Disney at the Magic Skyway - Blog - The Henry Ford". blog.thehenryford.org.
  70. ^ "They Haven't Gone to Yesterland". www.yesterland.com.
  71. ^ "1964 New York World's Fair 1965 - Attractions - Chunky Candy - Page One". www.nywf64.com.
  72. ^ Parable (1964) - IMDb
  73. ^ a b "The films of Rolf Forsberg". Arts and Faith. Retrieved 2010.
  74. ^ "Man in the 5th Dimension" Archived May 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. The 70mm Newsletter.
  75. ^ "Legacy of the Mormon Pavilion - Ensign October 1989". churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  76. ^ "Awards - New York Film Critics Circle - NYFCC". www.nyfcc.com.
  77. ^ "The 38th Academy Awards (1966) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2016.
  78. ^ "The History of Disney's Audio Animatronics". July 8, 2008.
  79. ^ Morison, Elting E. (December 1983). "What Went Wrong with Disney's Worlds Fair". American Heritage. American Heritage Publishing Company. Retrieved 2012.
  80. ^ "But Where's the Fun? Lost in a $7 Million Fiasco" Life. August 7, 1964. pp. 85-87.
  81. ^ "Adults Only" Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Time
  82. ^ "Rocket Belt Man - (1964) at the New York World's Fair showing off the PERSONAL JETPACK !!!". Youtube. Retrieved 2020.
  83. ^ Alden, Robert (March 16, 1965). "Ford Fair Exhibit to Add Entrance; Will Let Visitors in Product Area but Not on Ride". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012.
  84. ^ Boys, Bowery (June 26, 2014). "The religious controversy behind a lonely Roman column just standing around by itself in Flushing Meadows Park". The Bowery Boys: New York City History. Retrieved 2019.
  85. ^ "Flushing Meadows Corona Park Monuments - Vatican Shrine : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2019.
  86. ^ "Unisphere" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. May 16, 1995. pp. 1-3. Retrieved 2017.
  87. ^ a b Quennell Rothschild & Partners; Smith-Miller + Hawkinson Architects. "Appendix: The History of Flushing Meadows Corona Park". Flushing Meadows Corona Park Strategic Framework Plan (PDF). New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. pp. 49-72. Retrieved 2017.
  88. ^ Walter Sullivan (September 22, 1966). "Hopeful Future Museum; But City's Hall of Science Still Retains Aura Reminiscent of the World's Fair". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2008.
  89. ^ "You Spin Me Right Round, Baby, Right Round Like a Carousel ..." WNET. March 7, 2012. Retrieved 2017.
  90. ^ a b Ruiz, Albor (July 21, 1997). "Swing Thru Latin America Via Fest". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017.
  91. ^ "Flushing Meadows Corona Park" New York Magazine, December 11, 2015
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  93. ^ "National Register of Historic Places". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. June 25, 2010.
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  95. ^ a b Cotter, Holland (November 7, 2013). "A Local Place for a Global Neighborhood". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015.
  96. ^ "The Queens Museum - New York City Building". Queens Museum. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
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  102. ^ Patton, Phil (April 11, 2014). "When Cars Ruled the World's Fair". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2014.
  103. ^ O'Neil, Tim (June 17, 2012). "A Look Back o Spanish Pavilion, toast of New York, flops in St. Louis but endures as hotel lobby". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 2017.
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  106. ^ "Mathematica". New York Hall of Science. Retrieved 2016.
  107. ^ QST, September 2009, pp. 92-3, "Vintage Radio: Displaying Your Collection"
  108. ^ "1964 World's Fair Sky Ride at Great Adventure".
  109. ^ a b Collins, Kate Irish (August 12, 2016). "South Portland's Maine Mall area to get another hotel". The Forecaster. Retrieved 2017.
  110. ^ "Traveler's Insurance Pavilion". westland.net. Jeffrey Stanton. Retrieved 2012.
  111. ^ "Virtual TRIUMPH OF MAN". mindspring.com. Tom Luthman. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved 2012.
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  121. ^ [1]
  122. ^ "Farewell to the Fair - Page Six". Nywf64.com. Retrieved 2010.
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