1991
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1991

1991 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1991
MCMXCI
Ab urbe condita2744
Armenian calendar1440
Assyrian calendar6741
Bahá'í calendar147-148
Balinese saka calendar1912-1913
Bengali calendar1398
Berber calendar2941
British Regnal year39 Eliz. 2 - 40 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2535
Burmese calendar1353
Byzantine calendar7499-7500
Chinese calendar? (Metal Horse)
4687 or 4627
    -- to --
(Metal Goat)
4688 or 4628
Coptic calendar1707-1708
Discordian calendar3157
Ethiopian calendar1983-1984
Hebrew calendar5751-5752
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2047-2048
 - Shaka Samvat1912-1913
 - Kali Yuga5091-5092
Holocene calendar11991
Igbo calendar991-992
Iranian calendar1369-1370
Islamic calendar1411-1412
Japanese calendarHeisei 3
(3?)
Javanese calendar1923-1924
Juche calendar80
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4324
Minguo calendarROC 80
80?
Nanakshahi calendar523
Thai solar calendar2534
Tibetan calendar?
(male Iron-Horse)
2117 or 1736 or 964
    -- to --
?
(female Iron-Goat)
2118 or 1737 or 965
Unix time662688000 - 694223999

1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.

It was the final year of the Cold War that had begun in 1947. During the year, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics fell, leaving fifteen sovereign republics and the CIS in its place. In July 1991, India abandoned its policies of socialism and autarky and began extensive neoliberal changes to its economy. This increased GDP, but also increased economic inequality over the next two decades.[1] A U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations fought against Iraq, which had invaded and annexed Kuwait in the previous year, 1990. The conflict would be called the Gulf War and would mark the beginning of a since-constant American military presence in the Middle East. The clash between Serbia and the other Yugoslav republics would lead into the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars, which ran through the rest of the decade.

The Japanese asset price bubble burst this year, leading to the Lost Years and a permanently stagnated (though still prosperous) Japanese economy.

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

The Warsaw radio mast after its collapse on August 8.
August 19: The coup attempt in Moscow.
Restored flag of Russia.

September

Map of the three Baltic states, in their flag colours.

October

November

December

December 8: The signing of the agreement effectively ending the Soviet regime's existence and the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal.png

References

  1. ^ "India's economy: One more push - The Economist". The Economist.
  2. ^ Greenhouse, Steven (January 1, 1991). "Czechs Begin Shift to a Free Market". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ Frank Wilkins. "The Death of Rebecca Schaeffer". Reel Reviews.
  4. ^ Reuters (January 3, 1991). "U.S. Copter Reported Shot Down by Salvadoran Rebels, Killing 3". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ Baker, Bruce (December 2006). "Cape Verde: The Most Democratic Nation in Africa?". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 44 (4): 495. doi:10.1017/S0022278X06002060.
  6. ^ name=cnnstats Edwin E. Moïse. "Limited War : The Stereotypes". Clemson University. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ Operation Desert Storm globalsecurity.com
  8. ^ Rostker, Bernard (2000). "Information Paper: Iraq's Scud Ballistic Missiles". Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control from 2000 to 2006. Retrieved 2009.
  9. ^ "The Gulf War". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
  10. ^ Fetter, Steve; Lewis, George N.; Gronlund, Lisbeth (January 28, 1993). "Why were Casualties so low?" (PDF). Nature. London: Nature Publishing Group. 361 (6410): 293-296. doi:10.1038/361293a0. hdl:1903/4282. S2CID 4343235.
  11. ^ Kifner, John (January 23, 1991). "WAR IN THE GULF: TEL AVIV; 3 DIE 96 ARE HURT IN ISRAELI SUBURB". The New York Times.
  12. ^ Atkinson, Rick; Balz, Dan (January 23, 1991). "Scud Hits Tel Aviv, Leaving 3 Dead, 96 Hurt". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013.
  13. ^ "The Day After Eastern Folds: Many Passengers Are Left Up in the Air : Travel: Some connect with other carriers, several are left on standby status. The 62-year-old airline finally succumbed to a number of infirmities". Los Angeles Times. January 20, 1991. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ Airways (December 4, 2016). "December 4, 1991: The Last 'Clipper' Flight". Airways Magazine. Retrieved 2020.
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  16. ^ Woodbury 2015, p. 7.
  17. ^ AirLand Reversal – Airforcemag.com, February 2014
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  19. ^ Joseph Whitaker (1994). An Almanack for the Year of Our Lord ... J. Whitaker. p. 900.
  20. ^ Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (1997). Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization: yearbook. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 90-411-0439-9.
  21. ^ RFE/RL Research Report. RFE/RL, Incorporated. 1993. p. 19.
  22. ^ Anatol Lieven (1994). The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence. Yale University Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-300-06078-2.
  23. ^ "DOD: Information Paper- Iraq's Scud Ballistic Missiles". Iraqwatch.org. Retrieved 2010.
  24. ^ Bethlehem, D. Daniel L.; Weller, Marc (1997). The 'Yugoslav' Crisis in International Law: General Issues. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. XXVI. ISBN 9780521463041. Retrieved 2013.
  25. ^ Canada (1993). Transboundary Air Pollution: Agreement Between the United States of America and Canada, Signed at Ottawa March 13, 1991 with Annexes. Department of State. p. 18.
  26. ^ Albania: Elections held in 1991 Inter-Parliamentary Union
  27. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p137 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  28. ^ "1st Soviet Troops Leave Poland". Chicago Tribune. April 10, 1991.
  29. ^ Edward Carpenter (January 1, 1997). Cantuar: The Archbishops in Their Office. A&C Black. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-264-67449-0.
  30. ^ United States. Central Intelligence Agency (1989). The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. p. 134.
  31. ^ United Nations. Dept. of Public Information (December 24, 1992). Yearbook of the United Nations. 45.1991(1992). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 416. ISBN 0-7923-1970-2.
  32. ^ Wald, Matthew (June 6, 1991). "Severe Sun Storm Threatens Utilities". New York Times: 16. Retrieved 2016.
  33. ^ "Large Solar Flares Since 1976". Space Weather Services. Retrieved 2016.
  34. ^ Paul G. Lewis; Professor Paul Lewis (2001). Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe: The First Decade. Psychology Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-7146-5155-2.
  35. ^ "Who is the greatest ever?". October 12, 2003. Retrieved 2020.
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  38. ^ Signals Intelligence in the Post-cold War Era p. 24
  39. ^ "Witness Seized "Last Chance" to Escape Vukovar Massacre". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. March 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  40. ^ "Hawke and Keating: a masterclass in political killing". www.abc.net.au. December 19, 2011.
  41. ^ "NATO Update - Summary 1991". www.nato.int. Retrieved 2020.
  42. ^ "Drya Klishina profile". World Athletics. Retrieved 2020.
  43. ^ "Steve Birnbaum Stats, News, Bio". ESPN.
  44. ^ "Aleksandar Katai | MLSsoccer.com".
  45. ^ Editors of Chase's (September 24, 2019). Chase's Calendar of Events 2020: The Ultimate Go-to Guide for Special Days, Weeks and Months. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-64143-316-7.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  46. ^ "Joueur - Antoine Griezmann". French Football Federation (in French). Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ "N'Golo Kante". Chelsea FC. Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ "Barça : Gai Assulin, le nouveau Messi s'est perdu en chemin". January 23, 2019.
  49. ^ James Magnussen at Swimming Australia at the Wayback Machine (archived 3 October 2016)
  50. ^ "Erika Umeda profile" (in Japanese). Brand-New Music. Retrieved 2017.
  51. ^ Diep, Eric (May 31, 2013). "Today in Hip-Hop: Azealia Banks Celebrates 22nd Birthday". XXL. Retrieved 2013.
  52. ^ "Zazie Beetz". Empire Online. Retrieved 2020.
  53. ^ "Fashion Model Directory". Fashion Model Directory. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ Caputo, Denise (July 24, 2018). "Happy Birthday, Emily Bett Rickards". FanFest News. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved 2019.
  55. ^ "Gabriella Cilmi". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 2020.
  56. ^ "Shailene Diann Woodley, Born 11/15/1991". California Birth Index. Retrieved 2015.
  57. ^ "Almaz Ayana profile". World Athletics. Retrieved 2020.
  58. ^ "Becky James - rider profile". Cycling Weekly. December 17, 2010. Retrieved 2020.
  59. ^ "Chloe Dufour-Lapointe". International Ski Federation. Retrieved 2020.
  60. ^ "Camila Giorgi". Women's Tennis Association. Retrieved 2020.
  61. ^ Oliviu Felecan; Daiana Felecan (October 2, 2014). Unconventional Anthroponyms: Formation Patterns and Discursive Function. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-4438-6862-4.
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  63. ^ [2]

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1991
 



 



 
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