2008 United States Presidential Election
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2008 United States Presidential Election

2008 United States presidential election

← 2004 November 4, 2008 2012 →

538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Opinion polls
Turnout58.2%[1]Increase 1.5 pp
  Obama portrait crop.jpg John McCain 2009 Official.jpg
Nominee Barack Obama John McCain
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Illinois Arizona
Running mate Joe Biden Sarah Palin
Electoral vote 365 173
States carried 28 + DC + NE-02 22
Popular vote 69,498,516 59,948,323
Percentage 52.9% 45.7%

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Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Obama/Biden and red denotes those won by McCain/Palin. Numbers indicate electoral votes cast by each state and the District of Columbia.

The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior U.S. Senator from Illinois, and Joe Biden, the senior U.S. Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, and Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American ever to be elected to the presidency as well as being only the third sitting United States Senator elected president, joining Warren G. Harding and John F. Kennedy.

Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating former Governors Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, and other challengers. The Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton. Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary.[nb 1] After a long primary season, Obama secured the Democratic nomination in June 2008.

Early campaigning focused heavily on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama strongly opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, and Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change," while McCain emphasized his experience. The campaign was strongly affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic.[]

Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 (North Carolina) and 1964 (Indiana and Virginia). Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 and was the first Democrat to win an outright majority of the popular vote since Jimmy Carter in 1976. As of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally ever won by a presidential candidate. Obama flipped nine states that had voted Republican in 2004: Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio and Virginia. He also won an additional electoral vote in Nebraska, due to the split allocation between congressional districts in the state.


The incumbent in 2008, George W. Bush. His second term expired at noon on January 20, 2009.

Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and residents of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the political parties, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the president and vice president.

President George W. Bush, a Republican and former Governor of Texas, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to the Twenty-second Amendment; in accordance with Section1 of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at noon eastern standard time on January 20, 2009.

Also ineligible to run for an additional term as president was past two-term president Bill Clinton. While neither of them ran, former presidents Jimmy Carter and George H. W. Bush, each having served only one term, were both eligible to run for a second term as president.


Democratic Party nomination


Democratic Party (United States)
2008 Democratic Party ticket
Barack Obama Joe Biden
for President for Vice President
Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg
Joe Biden official portrait crop.jpg
U.S. Senator from Illinois
U.S. Senator from Delaware
Obama Biden logo.svg

Withdrawn candidates

Candidates in this section are sorted by popular vote from the primaries
Hillary Clinton John Edwards Bill Richardson Joe Biden Chris Dodd Mike Gravel Dennis Kucinich Tom Vilsack
U.S. Senator
from New York
 U.S. Senator
from North Carolina
New Mexico
U.S. Senator
from Delaware
U.S. Senator
from Connecticut
U.S. Senator
from Alaska
U.S. Representative
from Ohio
Governor of Iowa
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: June 7
17,493,836 votes
W: Jan 30
0 votes
W: Jan 10
0 votes
W: Jan 3
0 votes
W: Jan 3
0 votes
W: N/A
0 votes
W: Jan 23
0 votes
W: Feb 23, 2007
0 votes

Before the primaries

Media speculation had begun almost immediately after the results of the 2004 presidential election were released. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats regained majorities in both houses of the U.S. Congress.[4] Early polls taken before anyone had announced a candidacy had shown Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama as the most popular potential Democratic candidates.[5] Nevertheless, the media speculated on several other candidates, including Al Gore, the runner-up in the 2000 election; John Kerry, the runner-up in the 2004 election; John Edwards, Kerry's running mate in 2004; Senator from Delaware Joe Biden; New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson; Iowa Governor Tom Vilsack; and Indiana Senator Evan Bayh.[6]

Edwards was one of the first to formally announce his candidacy for the presidency, on December 28, 2006. This run would be his second attempt at the presidency.[7] Clinton announced intentions to run in the Democratic primaries on January 20, 2007.[8] Obama announced his candidacy on February 10 in his home state of Illinois.[8]

Early primaries and caucuses

Early in the year, the support for Barack Obama started to increase in the polls and he passed Clinton for the top spot in Iowa; he ended up winning the caucus in that state, with John Edwards coming in second and Clinton in third.[9] Obama's win was fueled mostly by first time caucus-goers and Independents and showed voters viewed him as the "candidate of change."[9] Iowa has since been viewed as the state that jump-started Obama's campaign and set him on track to win both the nomination and the presidency.[10] After the Iowa caucus, Joe Biden and Christopher Dodd withdrew from the nomination contest.[9]

Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire, when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his Iowa victory[11] The Clinton campaign was struggling after a huge loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses. According to The Vancouver Sun, campaign strategists had "mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb. 5."[12] In what is considered a turning point for her campaign, Clinton had a strong performance at the Saint Anselm College, ABC, and Facebook debates several days before the New Hampshire primary as well as an emotional interview in a public broadcast live on TV.[13] Clinton won that primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who consistently had her trailing Obama for a few days up to the primary date.[11] Clinton's win was the first time a woman had ever won a major American party's presidential primary for the purposes of delegate selection.[14]

On January 30, 2008, after placing in third in the New Hampshire and South Carolina primaries, Edwards announced that he was suspending his campaign for the presidency, but he did not initially endorse any remaining candidates.[15][16]

Super Tuesday

Super Tuesday Vote Utah.jpg

Super Tuesday was February 5, 2008, when the largest-ever number of simultaneous state primary elections was held.[17] Super Tuesday ended up leaving the Democrats in a virtual tie, with Obama amassing 847 delegates to Clinton's 834 from the 23 states that held Democratic primaries.[18]

California was one of the Super Tuesday states that could provide a large number of delegates to the candidates. Obama trailed in the California polling by an average of 6.0% before the primary; he ended up losing that state by 8.3% of the vote.[19] Some analysts cited a large Latino turnout that voted for Clinton as the deciding factor.[20]

The Louisiana, Nebraska, Hawaii, Wisconsin, U.S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia primaries and the Washington and Maine caucuses all took place after Super Tuesday in February. Obama won all of them, giving him 10 consecutive victories after Super Tuesday.[21][22]

Ohio, Texas, and Pennsylvania

On March 4, Hillary Clinton carried Ohio and Rhode Island in the Democratic primaries; some considered these wins, especially Ohio, a "surprise upset" by 10%,[23][24] although she did lead in the polling averages in both states.[19][25] She also carried the primary in Texas, but Obama won the Texas caucuses held the same day and netted more delegates from the state than Clinton.[26]

Only one state held a primary in April. This was Pennsylvania, on April 22. Although Obama made a strong effort to win Pennsylvania, Hillary Clinton won that primary by nearly 10%, with approximately 55% of the vote.[27] Obama had outspent Clinton three to one in Pennsylvania, but his comment at a San Francisco fundraiser that small-town Americans "cling" to guns and religion drew sharp criticism from the Clinton campaign and may have hurt his chances in the Keystone State.[28] In addition, Clinton had several advantages in Pennsylvania. Throughout the primary process, she relied on the support of older, white, working class voters. Pennsylvania held a closed primary, which means that only registered Democrats could vote, and, according to Ron Elving of NPR, the established Democratic electorate "was older, whiter, more Catholic and more working-class than in most of the primaries to date."[29] After Pennsylvania, Obama had a higher number of delegates and popular votes than Clinton did and was still in a stronger position to win the nomination. Clinton, however, had received the endorsement of more superdelegates than Obama.[27]

Indiana and North Carolina

On May 6, North Carolina and Indiana held their Democratic presidential primaries. Clinton and Obama campaigned aggressively there before the voting took place. Polling had shown Obama a few points ahead in North Carolina and Clinton similarly leading in Indiana.[30][31] In the actual results, Obama outperformed the polls by several points in both states, winning by a significant margin in North Carolina[32] and losing by only 1.1% in Indiana (50.56% to 49.44%).[33] After these primaries, most pundits declared that it had become "increasingly improbable," if not impossible, for Clinton to win the nomination.[34] The small win in Indiana barely kept her campaign alive for the next month.[35] Although she did manage to win the majority of the remaining primaries and delegates, it was not enough to overcome Obama's substantial delegate lead.

Florida and Michigan

During late 2007, the two parties adopted rules against states' moving their primaries to an earlier date in the year. For the Republicans, the penalty for this violation was supposed to be the loss of half the state party's delegates to the convention. The Democratic penalty was the complete exclusion from the national convention of delegates from states that broke these rules. The Democratic Party allowed only four states to hold elections before February 5, 2008. Clinton won a majority of delegates and popular votes from both states (though 40% voted uncommitted in Michigan) and subsequently led a fight to seat all the Florida and Michigan delegates.[36]

There was some speculation that the fight over the delegates could last until the convention in August. On May 31, 2008, the Rules and Bylaws Committee of the Democratic Party reached a compromise on the Florida and Michigan delegate situation. The committee decided to seat delegates from Michigan and Florida at the convention in August, but to only award each a half-vote.[37]

Clinching the nomination

2008 DNC during Stevie Wonder's performance

The major political party nomination process (technically) continues through June of an election year. In previous cycles, the candidates were effectively chosen by the end of the primaries held in March, but, in this cycle, however, Barack Obama did not win enough delegates to secure the nomination until June 3, after a 17-month campaign against Hillary Clinton. He had a wide lead in states won, while Clinton had won majorities in several of the larger states. Now, because a form of proportional representation and popular vote decided Democratic state delegate contests, numbers were close between Clinton and Obama.[38] By May, Clinton claimed to hold a lead in the popular vote, but the Associated Press found that her numbers were "accurate only" in one close scenario.[39]

In June, after the last of the primaries had taken place, Obama secured the Democratic nomination for president, with the help of multiple super delegate endorsements (most of the super delegates had refused to declare their support for either candidate until the primaries were completed).[40] He was the first African American to win the nomination of a major political party in the United States.[41] For several days, Clinton refused to concede the race, although she signaled her presidential campaign was ending in a post-primary speech on June 3 in her home state of New York.[42] She finally conceded the nomination to Obama on June 7. She pledged her full support to the presumptive nominee and vowed to do everything she could to help him get elected.[43]

Republican Party nomination

Not only was the 2008 election the first time since 1952 that neither the incumbent president nor the incumbent vice president was a candidate in the general election, but it was also the first time since the 1928 election that neither sought his party's nomination for president; as Bush was term-limited from seeking another nomination, the unique aspect was Vice President Cheney's decision not to seek the Republican nomination.[44][45] The 2008 election was also the third presidential election since 1896 in which neither the incumbent president, the incumbent vice president, nor a current or former member of the incumbent president's Cabinet won the nomination of either major party the others being 1920 and 1952.[46] With no members of the Bush administration emerging as major contenders for the Republican nomination, the Republican race was as open as the Democratic race.


Republican Party (United States)
2008 Republican Party ticket
John McCain Sarah Palin
for President for Vice President
John McCain official portrait 2009.jpg
Sarah Palin portrait.jpg
U.S. Senator
from Arizona
Governor of Alaska
McCain Palin logo.svg

Withdrawn candidates

Candidates in this section are sorted by popular vote from the primaries
Mitt Romney Mike Huckabee Ron Paul Rudy Giuliani Fred Thompson
Governor of
Governor of
U.S. Representative
from Texas
Mayor of
New York City
U.S. Senator
from Tennessee
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: Feb 7
4,699,788 votes
W: March 4
4,276,046 votes
W: June 12
1,160,403 votes
W: Jan 30
597,518 votes
W: Jan 22
292,752 votes
Alan Keyes Duncan Hunter Tom Tancredo Sam Brownback Jim Gilmore
Assistant Secretary
of State for IOA
U.S. Representative
from California
U.S. Representative
from Colorado
U.S. Senator
from Kansas
Governor of Virginia
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: April 15
59,636 votes
W: Jan 19
39,883 votes
W: Jan 10
8,595 votes
W: Oct 18, 2007
2,838 votes
W: July 14, 2007
0 votes

Before the primaries

Immediately after the 2006 midterm elections, media pundits began speculating, as they did about the Democrats, about potential Republican candidates for president in 2008.[5] In November 2006, former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani led in the polls, followed closely by Arizona Senator John McCain.[47] The media speculated that Giuliani's pro-choice stance on abortion and McCain's age and support of the unpopular Iraq War would be detriments to their candidacies.[5] Giuliani remained the frontrunner in the polls throughout most of 2007, with McCain and former Tennessee Senator Fred Thompson fighting for second place.[48]Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee, Giuliani, Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, and Texas Representative Ron Paul announced their candidacies on January 28, February 5, February 13, and March 12, respectively.[49][50][51][52] McCain officially announced his candidacy on March 1, 2007, after several informal announcements.[53] In the third quarter of 2007, the top four GOP (Republican) fundraisers were Romney, Giuliani, Thompson, and Ron Paul.[54] MSNBC's Chuck Todd christened Giuliani and John McCain the front runners after the second Republican presidential debate in early 2007.[55]

Early primaries/caucuses

Huckabee, winner of Iowa, had little to no money and hoped for at least a third-place finish in New Hampshire. McCain eventually displaced Rudy Giuliani and Romney as the front runner in New Hampshire. McCain staged a turnaround victory,[56] having been written off by the pundits and polling in single digits less than a month before the race.[57]

With the Republicans stripping Michigan and Florida of half their delegates for moving their primaries into January 2008 against party rules, the race for the nomination was based there. McCain meanwhile managed a small victory over Huckabee in South Carolina,[58] setting him up for a larger and more important victory over Romney in Florida, which held a closed primary on January 29.[59] By this time, after several scandals, no success in the early primaries, and a third-place finish in Florida, Giuliani conceded from the nomination race and endorsed John McCain the next day.[60]

Super Tuesday

McCain was also endorsed in February by California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger before the California primary took place on Super Tuesday. This gave him a significant boost in the polls for the state's primary,[61] which awarded the greatest number of delegates of all the states. On Super Tuesday, McCain won his home state of Arizona, taking all 53 delegates. He also won nearly all of California's 173 delegates, the largest of the Super Tuesday prizes. McCain also scored wins in seven other states, picking up 574 delegates.[62] Huckabee was the "surprise performer", winning 5 states and 218 delegates.[62] Romney won 7 states and 231 delegates.[62] Two days later, Romney suspended his presidential campaign, saying that if he stayed in the race, he would "forestall the launch of a national campaign and be making it easier for Senator Clinton or Obama to win".[63] His departure left Huckabee and Paul as McCain's only major challengers in the remaining primaries and caucuses. Romney endorsed McCain on February 14.[64]

Louisiana, the District of Columbia, Kansas, Wisconsin, and Washington held primaries in February after Super Tuesday. Despite McCain picking up big victories, Huckabee won Louisiana and Kansas. McCain narrowly carried the Washington caucuses over Huckabee and Paul, who amassed a large showing.[22] The Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico closed February for the Republicans. After Super Tuesday, John McCain had become the clear front runner, but by the end of February, he still had not acquired enough delegates to secure the nomination. In March, John McCain clinched the Republican nomination after sweeping all four primaries, Texas, Ohio, Vermont, and Rhode Island, putting him over the top of the 1,191 delegates required to win the GOP nomination.[25] Mike Huckabee then conceded the race to McCain, leaving Ron Paul, who had just 16 delegates, as his only remaining opponent.[65] Romney would eventually become the Republican presidential nominee 4 years later, which he then lost to Barack Obama.

Third party and other nominations

Along with the Democratic and Republican parties, three other parties nominated candidates with ballot access in enough states to win the minimum 270 electoral votes needed to win the election. These were the Constitution Party, the Green Party, and the Libertarian Party. In addition, independent candidate Ralph Nader ran his own campaign.

The Constitution Party nominated writer, pastor, and conservative talk show host Chuck Baldwin for president, and attorney Darrell Castle from Tennessee for Vice President.[66][67] While campaigning, Baldwin voiced his opposition to the Iraq War, the Sixteenth Amendment, Roe v. Wade, the IRS, and the Federal Reserve.[68]

The Green Party nominated former Democratic Representative Cynthia McKinney from Georgia for President, and political activist Rosa Clemente from New York for Vice President. McKinney campaigned on a platform that supported single-payer universal health care, the withdrawal of American troops from Iraq and Afghanistan, reparations for African Americans, and the creation of a Department of Peace.[69]

The Libertarian Party nominated former Republican Representative Bob Barr from Georgia for President, and his former rival for the Libertarian nomination Wayne Allyn Root from Nevada, for vice president. During the 2008 presidential campaign, Barr advocated a reworking or abolition of the income tax[70] and opposed the war in Iraq[71] and the Patriot Act.[72]

Candidates gallery

Party conventions

2008 United States presidential election is located in the United States
Saint Paul
Saint Paul
Kansas City
Kansas City
Sites of the 2008 National Party Conventions

General election campaign



The unpopular war in Iraq was a key issue during the campaign before the economic crisis. John McCain supported the war while Barack Obama opposed it (Obama's early and strong opposition to the war helped him stand out against the other Democratic candidates during the primaries, as well as stand out to a war-weary electorate during the general campaign). Though McCain meant it as a peacetime presence like the United States maintained in Germany and Japan after World War II,[73] his statement that the United States could be in Iraq for as much as the next 50 to 100 years would prove costly. Obama used it against him as part of his strategy to tie him to the unpopular President Bush.

John McCain's support for the troop 'surge' employed by General David Petraeus, which was one of several factors credited with improving the security situation in Iraq, may have boosted McCain's stance on the issue in voters' minds. McCain (who supported the invasion) argued that his support for the successful surge showed his superior judgment. However, Obama was quick to remind voters that there would have been no need for a "surge" had there been no war at all, thus questioning McCain's judgment.

Bush's unpopularity

George W. Bush had become increasingly unpopular among Americans by late 2005 due in part by the growing unpopularity of the Iraq War domestically and internationally, as well as Bush's handling of the financial crisis of 2007-08. By the time Obama was elected as President of the United States on November 4, 2008 Bush's approval rating was in the low to mid 20s and his disapproval grew increasingly significant, being in the high 60s, and even low 70s in some polls. Polls consistently showed that his approval ratings among American voters had averaged around 30 percent.[74][75][76] In March 2008, Bush endorsed McCain at the White House,[77] but did not make a single appearance for McCain during the campaign. Bush appeared at the 2008 GOP convention only through a live video broadcast. He chose not to appear in person due to disaster events in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of Hurricane Gustav. Although he supported the war in Iraq, McCain made an effort to show that he had disagreed with Bush on many other key issues such as climate change. During the entire general election campaign, Obama countered by pointing out in ads and at numerous campaign rallies that McCain had claimed in an interview that he voted with Bush 90% of the time, and congressional voting records supported this for the years Bush was in office.[78]

Age issue

The Palins and McCains campaigning in Fairfax, Virginia, September 10, 2008, following the Republican National Convention

Similar to Senator Bob Dole's 1996 presidential campaign, one of the more widely leveled charges against McCain was the issue of his age--he turned 72 in August and there was widespread concern about the idea of electing a man who would be 80 years old if he completed two full terms in office (the oldest president, Ronald Reagan, had been a month shy of 78 when he left office in January 1989). In addition, McCain suffered from the ill effects of his captivity in North Vietnam and reportedly had difficulty lifting his arms above his head. His age in particular was considered a liability against the youthful Senator Obama, who was the first Generation Xer to run for president on a major party ticket. McCain for comparison was born before World War II and belonged to the generation preceding the baby boomers. Much like Bob Dole, McCain attempted to counter these charges by releasing all of his medical records, something Obama did not do. McCain's wife Cindy dismissed concerns about his health by arguing that "We went hiking the Grand Canyon last summer and [John] did great and had no trouble keeping up with us." McCain also appeared at several campaign stops with his still-active 95-year-old mother. In a speech on the House floor, Pennsylvania Congressman John Murtha criticized McCain's age by saying "Seven presidents have come and gone since I've been in Congress, and I saw the toll the job took on each one of them." If elected, McCain would have been the first, and only, President born in the decade of the 1930s. McCain ultimately died in 2018, just one year after the completion of Obama's second term.

Like the Clinton campaign in 1996, Obama avoided discussing McCain's age directly, instead preferring to simply call his ideas and message "old" and "old hat". He also made a strong appeal to youth voters and back during his primary contest with Hillary Clinton, had stated "When I watched the feud between the Clintons and [Newt Gingrich] unfold during the 1990s, I was reminded of old quarrels started on college campuses long ago. It's time for a new generation to take over." Obama's active use of a Blackberry and other modern technology also stood in contrast to the Arizona Senator's admission that he did not use a computer or a cell phone. McCain's service in Vietnam, while marketable to baby boomers, was referred to as "unimportant" to younger voters.

Obama campaigning as a symbol of change in Cleveland, Ohio with a "Change We Need" sign

Obama promised "universal health care, full employment, a green America, and an America respected instead of feared by its enemies".[79]

Polls regularly found the general electorate as a whole divided more evenly between 'change' and 'experience' as candidate qualities than the Democratic primary electorate, which split in favor of 'change' by a nearly 2-1 margin.[80] Advantages for McCain and Obama on experience and the ability to bring change, respectively, remained steady through the November 4 election. However, final pre-election polling found that voters considered Obama's inexperience less of an impediment than McCain's association with sitting President George W. Bush,[81] an association which was rhetorically framed by the Obama campaign throughout the election season as "more of the same".

McCain appeared to undercut his line of attack by picking first-term Alaska governor Sarah Palin to be his running mate.[82] Palin had been governor only since 2006, and before that had been a council member and mayor of Wasilla. The choice of Palin was controversial; however, it appeared to solve two pressing concerns--McCain's age and health (since a youthful vice president would succeed him to office if he died or became incapacitated) and appealing to right-wing conservatives, a group that had been comparatively unmoved by McCain. Palin also came off as more down-to-earth and relatable to average Americans than McCain, widely tarbrushed as a "Beltway insider".[83] However, media interviews suggested that Palin lacked knowledge on certain key issues, and they cast doubt among many voters about her qualifications to be vice president or President. In this regard, her inexperience was also a liability when McCain's age and health were factored in--there was a higher-than-normal probability of Palin succeeding to the presidency and many moderates and independents chafed at this idea. "One 72 year old heartbeat away from the presidency" became a popular anti-GOP slogan. Late night TV host David Letterman jokingly referred to Palin as resembling "a slutty flight attendant" and even Obama himself on a September 9 speech referred to the Alaska governor's policies as "the equivalent of putting lipstick on a pig". She also came under attack on everything from her 17-year-old daughter giving birth to a child out of wedlock to actively participating in hunting moose and other animals.[84] Because of Palin's conservative views, there was also concern that she would alienate independents and moderates, two groups that pundits observed McCain would need to win the election.[85]


Polls taken in the last few months of the presidential campaign and exit polls conducted on Election Day showed the economy as the top concern for voters.[86][87] In the fall of 2008, many news sources were reporting that the economy was suffering its most serious downturn since the Great Depression.[88] During this period, John McCain's election prospects fell with several politically costly comments about the economy.

On August 20, John McCain said in an interview with Politico that he was uncertain how many houses he and his wife, Cindy, owned; "I think--I'll have my staff get to you," he told the media outlet.[89] Both on the stump and in Obama's political ad, "Seven", the gaffe was used to portray McCain as somebody unable to relate to the concerns of ordinary Americans. This out-of-touch image was further cultivated when, on September 15, the day of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, at a morning rally in Jacksonville, Florida, McCain declared that "the fundamentals of our economy are strong," despite what he described as "tremendous turmoil in our financial markets and Wall Street."[90] With the perception among voters to the contrary, the comment appeared to cost McCain politically.

On September 24, 2008, after the onset of the 2008 global financial crisis, McCain announced that he was suspending his campaign to return to Washington so he could help craft a $700 billion bailout package for the troubled financial industry, and he stated that he would not debate Obama until Congress passed the bailout bill.[91] Despite this decision, McCain was portrayed as somebody not playing a significant role in the negotiations for the first version of the bill, which fell short of passage in the House. He eventually decided to attend the first presidential debate on September 26, despite Congress' lack of immediate action on the bill. His ineffectiveness in the negotiations and his reversal in decision to attend the debates were seized upon to portray McCain as erratic in his response to the economy. Days later, a second version of the original bailout bill was passed by both the House and Senate, with Obama, his vice presidential running mate Joe Biden, and McCain all voting for the measure (Hillary Clinton would as well).[92]

All the aforementioned remarks and campaign issues hurt McCain's standing with voters. All these also occurred after the onset of the economic crisis and after McCain's poll numbers had started to fall. Although sound bites of all of these "missteps" were played repeatedly on national television, many pundits and analysts say that the actual financial crisis and economic conditions caused McCain's large drop in support in mid-September and severely damaged his campaign.[93][94]

Health care

John McCain's proposals focused on open-market competition rather than government funding or control. At the heart of his plan were tax credits - $2,500 for individuals and $5,000 for families who do not subscribe to or do not have access to health care through their employer. To help people who are denied coverage by insurance companies due to pre-existing conditions, McCain proposed working with states to create what he calls a "Guaranteed Access Plan".[95]

Barack Obama called for universal health care. His health care plan proposed creating a National Health Insurance Exchange that would include both private insurance plans and a Medicare-like government run option. Coverage would be guaranteed regardless of health status, and premiums would not vary based on health status either. It would have required parents to cover their children, but did not require adults to buy insurance.

Critics of McCain's plan argued that it would not significantly reduce the number of uninsured Americans, would increase costs, reduce consumer protections and lead to less generous benefit packages.[96] Critics of Obama's plan argued that it would increase federal regulation of private health insurance without addressing the underlying incentives behind rising health care spending.[97][98] Mark Pauly suggested that a combination of the two approaches would work better than either one alone.[99]

A poll released in early November 2008 found that voters supporting Obama listed health care as their second priority; voters supporting McCain listed it as fourth, tied with the war in Iraq. Affordability was the primary health care priority among both sets of voters. Obama voters were more likely than McCain voters to believe government can do much about health care costs.[100]


The United States presidential election of 2008 was sponsored by the Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD), a bipartisan organization that sponsored four debates that occurred at various locations around the United States (U.S.) in September and October 2008. Three of the debates involved the presidential nominees, and one involved the vice-presidential nominees.

Debates among candidates for the 2008 U.S. presidential election
No. Date Time Host City Moderators Participants Viewership


P1 Friday, September 26, 2008 9:00 pm EDT University of Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi Jim Lehrer Senator Barack Obama
Senator John McCain
VP Friday, October 3, 2008 9:00 pm EDT Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri Gwen Ifill Senator Joe Biden
Governor Sarah Palin
P2 Tuesday, October 7, 2008 9:00 pm EDT Belmont University Nashville, Tennessee Tom Brokaw Senator Barack Obama
Senator John McCain
P3 Wednesday, October 15, 2008 9:00 pm EDT Hofstra University Hempstead, New York Bob Schieffer Senator Barack Obama
Senator John McCain


Map of United States showing debate locations
University of Mississippi Oxford, MS
University of Mississippi
Oxford, MS
Belmont University Nashville, TN
Belmont University
Nashville, TN
Washington University St. Louis, MO
Washington University
St. Louis, MO
Hofstra University Hempstead, NY
Hofstra University
Hempstead, NY
Sites of the 2008 general election debates

Another debate was sponsored by the Columbia University political union and took place there on October 19. All candidates who could theoretically win the 270 electoral votes needed to win the election were invited, and Ralph Nader, Cynthia McKinney, and Chuck Baldwin agreed to attend. Amy Goodman, principal host of Democracy Now!, moderated. It was broadcast on cable by C-SPAN and on the Internet by Break-the-Matrix.[104]

Campaign costs

The reported cost of campaigning for president has increased significantly in recent years. One source reported that if the costs for both Democratic and Republican campaigns were added together (for the presidential primary election, general election, and the political conventions), the costs have more than doubled in only eight years ($448.9 million in 1996, $649.5 million in 2000, and $1.01 billion in 2004).[105] In January 2007, Federal Election Commission Chairman Michael E. Toner estimated that the 2008 race would be a $1 billion election, and that to be taken seriously, a candidate would have needed to raise at least $100 million by the end of 2007.[106]

Expense summary

According to required campaign filings as reported by the Federal Election Commission (FEC), 148 candidates for all parties collectively raised $1,644,712,232 and spent $1,601,104,696 for the primary and general campaigns combined through November 24, 2008. The amounts raised and spent by the major candidates, according to the same source, were as follows:

Candidate (party) Amount raised Amount spent Votes Average spent per vote
Barack Obama (D) $778,642,962 $760,370,195 69,498,516 $10.94
John McCain (R) $379,006,485 $346,666,422 59,948,323 $5.78
Ralph Nader (I) $4,496,180 $4,187,628 739,034 $5.67
Bob Barr (L) $1,383,681 $1,345,202 523,715 $2.57
Chuck Baldwin (C) $261,673 $234,309 199,750 $1.17
Cynthia McKinney (G) $240,130 $238,968 161,797 $1.48
Excludes spending by independent expenditure concerns.
Source: Federal Election Commission[107]

Notable expressions and phrases

  • Drill, baby, drill: Republican self-described energy policy
  • Yes We Can: Obama's campaign slogan
  • That one: McCain's reference to Obama during the 2nd debate.
  • Lipstick on a pig: Obama used this phrase to insinuate that any changes that McCain was advocating from the policies of George W. Bush would only be slight modifications of Bush's policies but the underlying policies would be the same, and in Obama's opinion, bad. Some called it sexist, claiming it was a reference to Sarah Palin, who cracked a joke during the Republican convention that the only difference between a hockey mom and a pit bull is lipstick.[108]

Internet campaigns


Howard Dean collected large contributions through the Internet in his 2004 primary run. In 2008, candidates went even further to reach out to Internet users through their own sites and such sites as YouTube, MySpace, and Facebook.[109][110]

On December 16, 2007, Ron Paul collected $6 million, more money on a single day through Internet donations than any presidential candidate in US history.[111][112][113]


Not only did the Internet allow candidates to raise money, but also it gave them a tool to appeal to newer and younger demographics. Political pundits were now evaluating candidates based on their social media following. Senator Barack Obama's victory is credited to his competitive edge in social media and Internet following. Obama had over 2 million American supporters on Facebook and 100,000 followers on Twitter, while McCain attracted only 600,000 Facebook supporters (likes) and 4,600 followers on Twitter. Obama's YouTube channel held 115,000 subscribers and more than 97 million video views. Obama had maintained a similar advantage over Senator Hillary Clinton in the Democratic Primary.[114]

Obama's edge in social media was crucial to the election outcome. According to a study by the Pew Internet and American Life project, 35 percent of Americans relied on online video for election news. Ten percent of Americans used social networking sites to learn about the election.[115] The 2008 election showed huge increases in Internet use.

Another study done after the election gave a lot of insight on young voters. Thirty-seven percent of Americans ages 18-24 got election news from social networking sites. Almost a quarter of Americans saw something about the election in an online video.[116] YouTube and other online video outlets allowed candidates to advertise in ways like never before. The Republican Party in particular was criticized for not adequately using social media and other means to reach young voters.

Anonymous and semi-anonymous smear campaigns, traditionally done with fliers and push calling, also spread to the Internet.[117] Organizations specializing in the production and distribution of viral material, such as Brave New Films, emerged; such organizations have been said to be having a growing influence on American politics.[118]


Voter suppression

Allegations of voter list purges using unlawful criteria caused controversy in at least six swing states: Colorado, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Nevada and North Carolina.[119] On October 5, 2008 the Republican Lt. Governor of Montana, John Bohlinger, accused the Montana Republican Party of vote caging to purge 6,000 voters from three counties which trend Democratic.[120] Allegations arose in Michigan that the Republican Party planned to challenge the eligibility of voters based on lists of foreclosed homes.[121] The campaign of Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama filed a lawsuit challenging this. The House Judiciary Committee wrote to the Department of Justice requesting an investigation.[122]

Libertarian candidate Bob Barr filed a lawsuit in Texas to have Obama and McCain removed from the ballot in that state.[123] His campaign alleged that both the candidates had missed the August 26 deadline to file, and were present on the ballot contrary to Texas election law. Neither Obama, or McCain at the time of the deadline had been confirmed as the candidate for their respective parties. The Texas Supreme Court dismissed the lawsuit without explanation.[124]

In Ohio, identified by both parties as a key state, allegations surfaced from both Republicans and Democrats that individuals from out of state were moving to the state temporarily and attempting to vote despite not meeting the state's requirement of permanent residency for more than 29 days. The Franklin County Board of Elections referred 55 cases of possible voting irregularities to the local prosecutor.[125] Three groups attracted particular notice: 'Vote from Home,' 'Vote Today Ohio,' and 'Drop Everything and Come to Ohio.' Vote from Home attracted the most attention when thirteen of the group's members moved to the same location in eastern Columbus. Members of the group organized by Marc Gustafson, including several Marshall and Rhodes scholars studying at Oxford University, settled with Franklin County Prosecutor Ron O'Brien to have their challenged ballots withdrawn.[126][127] The Obama campaign and others alleged that members of the McCain campaign had also voted without properly establishing residency.[125] Since 1953, only six people in Ohio have gone to prison for illegal voting.[128]

Media bias

Republicans and independents leveled significant criticism at media outlets' coverage of the presidential election season. An October 22, 2008 Pew Research Center poll estimated 70% of registered voters believed journalists wanted Barack Obama to win the election, as opposed to 9% for John McCain.[129] Another Pew survey, conducted after the election, found that 67% of voters thought that the press fairly covered Obama, versus 30% who viewed the coverage as unfair. Regarding McCain, 53% of voters viewed his press coverage as fair versus 44% who characterized it as unfair. Among affiliated Democrats, 83% believed the press fairly covered Obama; just 22% of Republicans thought the press was fair to McCain.[130]

At the February debate, Tim Russert of NBC News was criticized for what some perceived as disproportionately tough questioning of Democratic presidential contender Hillary Clinton.[131] Among the questions, Russert had asked Clinton, but not Obama, to provide the name of the new Russian President (Dmitry Medvedev).[131] This was later parodied on Saturday Night Live. In October 2007, liberal commentators accused Russert of harassing Clinton over the issue of supporting drivers' licenses for illegal immigrants.[132]

On April 16, ABC News hosted a debate in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Moderators Charles Gibson and George Stephanopoulos were criticized by viewers, bloggers and media critics for the poor quality of their questions.[131][132] Many viewers said they considered some of the questions irrelevant when measured against the importance of the faltering economy or the Iraq War. Included in that category were continued questions about Obama's former pastor, Senator Hillary Clinton's assertion that she had to duck sniper fire in Bosnia more than a decade ago, and Senator Obama's not wearing an American flag pin.[131] The moderators focused on campaign gaffes and some believed they focused too much on Obama.[132] Stephanopoulos defended their performance, saying "Senator Obama was the front-runner" and the questions were "not inappropriate or irrelevant at all."[131][132]

In an op-ed published on April 27, 2008 in The New York Times, Elizabeth Edwards wrote that the media covered much more of "the rancor of the campaign" and "amount of money spent" than "the candidates' priorities, policies and principles."[133] Author Erica Jong commented that "our press has become a sea of triviality, meanness and irrelevant chatter."[134] A Gallup poll released on May 29, 2008 also estimated that more Americans felt the media was being harder on Hillary Clinton than they were towards Barack Obama. Time magazine columnist Mark Halperin stated that the media during the 2008 election had a "blind, almost slavish" worship of Obama.[135]

The Project for Excellence in Journalism and Harvard University's Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy conducted a study of 5,374 media narratives and assertions about the presidential candidates from January 1 through March 9, 2008. The study found that Obama received 69% favorable coverage and Clinton received 67%, compared to only 43% favorable media coverage of McCain.[136] Another study by the Center for Media and Public Affairs at George Mason University found the media coverage of Obama to be 72% negative from June 8 to July 21 compared to 57% negative for McCain.[137] An October 29 study found 29% of stories about Obama to be negative, compared to 57% of stories about McCain being negative.[138]


Final poll closing times on Election Day.
  7PM EST [00:00 UTC] (6)
  7:30PM EST [00:30 UTC] (3)
  8PM EST [01:00 UTC] (15+DC)
  8:30PM EST [01:30 UTC] (1)
  9PM EST [02:00 UTC] (15)
  10PM EST [03:00 UTC] (4)
  11PM EST [04:00 UTC] (5)
  1AM EST [06:00 UTC] (1)

Election Day was on November 4, 2008. The majority of states allowed early voting, with all states allowing some form of absentee voting.[139] Voters cast votes for listed presidential candidates but were actually selecting representatives for their state's Electoral College slate.

A McCain victory quickly became improbable as Obama amassed early wins in his home state of Illinois, the Northeast, and the critical battleground states of Ohio (which no Republican has ever been elected president without winning) and Pennsylvania by 9:30 PM Eastern Standard Time.[140] Obama won the entire Northeast by comfortable margins and the Great Lakes states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota by double digits. McCain held on to traditionally Republican states like North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska (though notably, Obama did win an electoral vote from Nebraska's 2nd congressional district), Kansas, Oklahoma, Montana, Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, and his home state of Arizona. McCain, unlike Bush in 2000 and 2004, failed to win all the southern states: Obama won Florida, North Carolina, and Virginia. Obama also won the hotly contested states of Iowa and New Mexico, which Al Gore had won in 2000 and George W. Bush in 2004. Also, for only the second time since 1936 (1964 being the other), Indiana went Democratic, giving Obama all eight Great Lakes states, the first time a presidential candidate had won all of them since Richard Nixon in 1972.

CNN and Fox News called Virginia for Obama shortly before 11:00 PM, leaving him only 50 electoral votes shy of victory with only six West Coast states (California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, and Hawaii) still voting. All American networks called the election in favor of Obama at 11:00 PM as the polls closed on the West Coast. Obama was immediately declared the winner in California, Oregon, Washington, and Hawaii, McCain won Idaho, and the Electoral College totals were updated to 297 for Obama and 146 for McCain (270 are needed to win). McCain gave a concession speech half an hour later in his hometown of Phoenix, Arizona.[141] Obama appeared just before midnight Eastern Time in Grant Park, Chicago, in front of a crowd of 250,000 people to deliver his victory speech.[142]

Cartogram of the Electoral Votes for 2008 United States presidential election, each square representing one electoral vote. The map shows the impact of winning swing states. Nebraska, being one of two states that are not winner-take-all, for the first time had its votes split, with its second congressional district voting for Obama.

Following Obama's speech, spontaneous street parties broke out in cities across the United States including Philadelphia, Houston, Las Vegas, Miami, Chicago, Columbus, Detroit, Boston, Los Angeles, Portland, Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Denver, Atlanta, Madison, and New York City[143] and around the world in London; Bonn; Berlin; Obama, Japan; Toronto; Rio de Janeiro; Sydney; and Nairobi.[144]

Later on election night, after Obama was named the winner, he picked up several more wins in swing states in which the polls had shown a close race. These included Florida, Indiana, Virginia, and the western states of Colorado and Nevada. All of these states had been carried by Bush in 2004. North Carolina and the bellwether state of Missouri remained undecided for several days. Eventually Obama was declared the winner in North Carolina and McCain in Missouri, with Obama pulling out a rare win in Nebraska's 2nd congressional district. This put the projected electoral vote count at 365 for Obama and 173 for McCain. Obama's victories in the populous swing states of Florida, Ohio, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Virginia contributed to his decisive win. The presidential electors cast their ballots for president and Vice President, and Congress tallied these votes on January 8, 2009.[145]


Obama 2008 campaign sign
An Obama sign displayed at a home in Arlington, VA, on November 1, 2008.

The voter turnout for this election was broadly predicted to be high by American standards,[146][147] and a record number of votes were cast.[148] The final tally of total votes counted was 131.3 million, compared to 122.3 million in 2004 (which also boasted the highest record since 1968, the last presidential election before the voting age was lowered to 18). Expressed as a percentage of eligible voters, 131.2 million votes could reflect a turnout as high as 63.0% of eligible voters, which would be the highest since 1960.[149][150] This 63.0% turnout rate is based on an estimated eligible voter population of 208,323,000.[150] Another estimate puts the eligible voter population at 213,313,508, resulting in a turnout rate of 61.6%, which would be the highest turnout rate since 1968.[151]

Broken down by age group, voters under 35 voted for Obama by a large majority with McCain most popular among voters over 60. Voters between 35 and 59 were nearly split 50/50 between the two candidates.

American University's Center for the Study of the American Electorate released a report on November 6, 2008, two days after the election, which concluded that the anticipated increase in turnout had failed to materialize.[149] That report was the basis for some news articles that indicated voter turnout failed to meet expectations.[152][153] When the remaining votes were counted after the release of the report, the total number of votes cast in the presidential election was raised to 131.2 million, which surpassed the American University report's preliminary estimate of 126.5 to 128.5 million voters by a factor of between 2% and 4%.

The election saw increased participation from African Americans, who made up 11.1% of the electorate in 2004, versus 13.0% in 2008.[154] According to exit polls, over 95% of African Americans voted for Obama. This played a critical role in Southern states such as North Carolina. 74% of North Carolina's registered African American voters turned out, as opposed to 69% of North Carolinians in general, with Obama carrying 100% (with rounding) of African-American females and African Americans age 18 to 29, according to exit polling.[155] This was also the case in Virginia, where much higher turnout among African Americans propelled Obama to victory in the former Republican stronghold.[156] Even in southern states in which Obama was unsuccessful, such as Georgia and Mississippi, due to large African American turnout he was much more competitive than John Kerry in 2004.[157][158]

Ballot access

Presidential ticket Party Ballot access[159] Votes
Obama / Biden Democratic 50+DC 69,498,516
McCain / Palin Republican 50+DC 59,948,323
Nader / Gonzalez Independent 45+DC 739,034
Barr / Root Libertarian 45 523,715
Baldwin / Castle Constitution 37 199,750
McKinney / Clemente Green 32 + DC 161,797
Others--total (see below) 242,685

No other candidate had ballot access in enough states to win 270 electoral votes. All six candidates appeared on the ballot for a majority of the voters, while the 17 other listed candidates were available to no more than 30% of the voters.[160]

The following candidates and parties had ballot listing or write-in status in more than one state:[161]

  • Alan Keyes (America's Independent Party) received 47,746 votes; listed in three states: Colorado and Florida, plus California (listed as American Independent), and also had write-in status in Kentucky, Ohio, Texas, and Utah.
  • Ron Paul received 42,426 votes; listed in Louisiana (Louisiana Taxpayers) and in Montana (Constitution), with write-in status in California.
  • Gloria La Riva (Party for Socialism and Liberation) received 6,808 votes[162] nationally; listed in 12 states: Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin.
  • Brian Moore (Socialist Party, see Brian Moore presidential campaign, 2008) received 6,538 votes; listed in eight states: Colorado, Florida, Iowa, New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin, and Tennessee (independent) and Vermont (Liberty Union). He also filed for write-in status in 17 other states: Alaska, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.
  • Róger Calero (Socialist Workers Party) received 5,151 votes; listed in ten states. He was listed by name in Delaware, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, and Vermont. James Harris was listed as his stand-in in Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, and Washington, and also had write-in status in California.
  • Charles Jay (Boston Tea Party) received 2,422 votes; listed in Colorado and Florida, and in Tennessee (as independent), with write-in status in Arizona, Montana, and Utah.
  • Tom Stevens (Objectivist) received 755 votes; listed in Colorado and Florida.
  • Gene Amondson (Prohibition) received 653 votes; listed in Colorado, Florida, and Louisiana.
  • Jonathan Allen (Heartquake) received 483 votes; listed only in Colorado, with write-in status in Arizona, Georgia, Montana, Texas, and other states.

The following candidates (parties) were listed on the ballot in only one state:

In Nevada, 6,267 votes were cast for "None Of These Candidates".[163] In the three states that officially keep track of "blank" votes for president, 103,193 votes were recorded as "blank".[164] More than 100,000 write-in votes were cast and recorded for a scattering of other candidates, including 62 votes for "Santa Claus" (in ten states) and 11 votes for "Mickey Mouse" (in five states).[165]

According to the Federal Election Commission, an unusually high number of "miscellaneous" write-ins were cast for president in 2008, including 112,597 tallied in the 17 states that record votes for non-listed candidates.[166] There were more presidential candidates on the ballot than at any other time in U. S. history, except for the 1992 election, which also had 23 candidates listed in at least one state.


Popular vote totals are from the official Federal Election Commission report. The results of the electoral vote were certified by Congress on January 8, 2009.[145]

Electoral results
Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Barack Hussein Obama II Democratic Illinois 69,498,516 52.93% 365 Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. Delaware 365
John Sidney McCain Republican Arizona 59,948,323 45.65% 173 Sarah Louise Palin Alaska 173
Ralph Nader Independent Connecticut 739,034 0.56% 0 Matt Gonzalez California 0
Bob Barr Libertarian Georgia 523,715 0.40% 0 Wayne Allyn Root Nevada 0
Chuck Baldwin Constitution Florida 199,750 0.15% 0 Darrell Castle Tennessee 0
Cynthia McKinney Green Georgia 161,797 0.12% 0 Rosa Clemente North Carolina 0
Alan Keyes America's Independent Party New York 47,941 0.04% 0 Wiley S. Drake, Sr. Colorado 0
Other 242,685 0.18% -- Other --
Total 131,313,820 100% 538 538
Needed to win 270 270
Popular vote
Electoral vote

Results by state

The following table records the official vote tallies for each state for those presidential candidates who were listed on ballots in enough states to have a theoretical chance for a majority in the Electoral College. State popular vote results are from the official Federal Election Commission report. The column labeled "Margin" shows Obama's margin of victory over McCain (the margin is negative for states and districts won by McCain).

States/districts won by Obama/Biden
States/districts won by McCain/Palin
Barack Obama
John McCain
Ralph Nader
Bob Barr
Chuck Baldwin
Cynthia McKinney
Others Margin State Total
State electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % #
Alabama 9 813,479 38.74% - 1,266,546 60.32% 9 6,788 0.32% - 4,991 0.24% - 4,310 0.21% - 0 0.00% - 3,705 0.18% - -453,067 -21.58% 2,099,819 AL
Alaska 3 123,594 37.89% - 193,841 59.42% 3 3,783 1.16% - 1,589 0.49% - 1,660 0.51% - 0 0.00% - 1,730 0.53% - -70,247 -21.54% 326,197 AK
Arizona 10 1,034,707 45.12% - 1,230,111 53.64% 10 11,301 0.49% - 12,555 0.55% - 1,371 0.06% - 3,406 0.15% - 24 0.00% - -195,404 -8.52% 2,293,475 AZ
Arkansas 6 422,310 38.86% - 638,017 58.72% 6 12,882 1.19% - 4,776 0.44% - 4,023 0.37% - 3,470 0.32% - 1,139 0.10% - -215,707 -19.85% 1,086,617 AR
California 55 8,274,473 61.01% 55 5,011,781 36.95% - 108,381 0.80% - 67,582 0.50% - 3,145 0.02% - 38,774 0.29% - 57,764 0.43% - 3,262,692 24.06% 13,561,900 CA
Colorado 9 1,288,633 53.66% 9 1,073,629 44.71% - 13,352 0.56% - 10,898 0.45% - 6,233 0.26% - 2,822 0.12% - 5,895 0.25% - 215,004 8.95% 2,401,462 CO
Connecticut 7 997,772 60.59% 7 629,428 38.22% - 19,162 1.16% - 0 0.00% - 311 0.02% - 90 0.01% - 34 0.00% - 368,344 22.37% 1,646,797 CT
Delaware 3 255,459 61.94% 3 152,374 36.95% - 2,401 0.58% - 1,109 0.27% - 626 0.15% - 385 0.09% - 58 0.01% - 103,085 25.00% 412,412 DE
District of Columbia 3 245,800 92.46% 3 17,367 6.53% - 958 0.36% - 0 0.00% - 0 0.00% - 590 0.22% - 1,138 0.43% - 228,433 85.92% 265,853 DC
Florida 27 4,282,074 51.03% 27 4,045,624 48.22% - 28,124 0.34% - 17,218 0.21% - 7,915 0.09% - 2,887 0.03% - 6,902 0.08% - 236,450 2.82% 8,390,744 FL
Georgia 15 1,844,123 46.99% - 2,048,759 52.20% 15 1,158 0.03% - 28,731 0.73% - 1,402 0.04% - 250 0.01% - 63 0.00% - -204,636 -5.21% 3,924,486 GA
Hawaii 4 325,871 71.85% 4 120,566 26.58% - 3,825 0.84% - 1,314 0.29% - 1,013 0.22% - 979 0.22% - 0 0.00% - 205,305 45.26% 453,568 HI
Idaho 4 236,440 36.09% - 403,012 61.52% 4 7,175 1.10% - 3,658 0.56% - 4,747 0.72% - 39 0.01% - 51 0.01% - -166,572 -25.43% 655,122 ID
Illinois 21 3,419,348 61.92% 21 2,031,179 36.78% - 30,948 0.56% - 19,642 0.36% - 8,256 0.15% - 11,838 0.21% - 1,160 0.02% - 1,388,169 25.14% 5,522,371 IL
Indiana 11 1,374,039 49.95% 11 1,345,648 48.91% - 909 0.03% - 29,257 1.06% - 1,024 0.04% - 87 0.00% - 90 0.00% - 28,391 1.03% 2,751,054 IN
Iowa 7 828,940 53.93% 7 682,379 44.39% - 8,014 0.52% - 4,590 0.30% - 4,445 0.29% - 1,423 0.09% - 7,332 0.48% - 146,561 9.53% 1,537,123 IA
Kansas 6 514,765 41.65% - 699,655 56.61% 6 10,527 0.85% - 6,706 0.54% - 4,148 0.34% - 35 0.00% - 36 0.00% - -184,890 -14.96% 1,235,872 KS
Kentucky 8 751,985 41.17% - 1,048,462 57.40% 8 15,378 0.84% - 5,989 0.33% - 4,694 0.26% - 0 0.00% - 112 0.01% - -296,477 -16.23% 1,826,620 KY
Louisiana 9 782,989 39.93% - 1,148,275 58.56% 9 6,997 0.36% - 0 0.00% - 2,581 0.13% - 9,187 0.47% - 10,732 0.55% - -365,286 -18.63% 1,960,761 LA
Maine? 4 421,923 57.71% 4 295,273 40.38% - 10,636 1.45% - 251 0.03% - 177 0.02% - 2,900 0.40% - 3 0.00% - 126,650 17.32% 731,163 ME
Maryland 10 1,629,467 61.92% 10 959,862 36.47% - 14,713 0.56% - 9,842 0.37% - 3,760 0.14% - 4,747 0.18% - 9,205 0.35% - 669,605 25.44% 2,631,596 MD
Massachusetts 12 1,904,097 61.80% 12 1,108,854 35.99% - 28,841 0.94% - 13,189 0.43% - 4,971 0.16% - 6,550 0.21% - 14,483 0.47% - 795,243 25.81% 3,080,985 MA
Michigan 17 2,872,579 57.43% 17 2,048,639 40.96% - 33,085 0.66% - 23,716 0.47% - 14,685 0.29% - 8,892 0.18% - 170 0.00% - 823,940 16.47% 5,001,766 MI
Minnesota 10 1,573,354 54.06% 10 1,275,409 43.82% - 30,152 1.04% - 9,174 0.32% - 6,787 0.23% - 5,174 0.18% - 10,319 0.35% - 297,945 10.24% 2,910,369 MN
Mississippi 6 554,662 43.00% - 724,597 56.18% 6 4,011 0.31% - 2,529 0.20% - 2,551 0.20% - 1,034 0.08% - 481 0.04% - -169,935 -13.17% 1,289,865 MS
Missouri 11 1,441,911 49.29% - 1,445,814 49.43% 11 17,813 0.61% - 11,386 0.39% - 8,201 0.28% - 80 0.00% - 0 0.00% - -3,903 -0.13% 2,925,205 MO
Montana 3 231,667 47.25% - 242,763 49.51% 3 3,686 0.75% - 1,355 0.28% - 143 0.03% - 23 0.00% - 10,665 2.18% - -11,096 -2.26% 490,302 MT
Nebraska? 5 333,319 41.60% 1 452,979 56.53% 4 5,406 0.67% - 2,740 0.34% - 2,972 0.37% - 1,028 0.13% - 2,837 0.35% - -119,660 -14.93% 801,281 NE
Nevada 5 533,736 55.15% 5 412,827 42.65% - 6,150 0.64% - 4,263 0.44% - 3,194 0.33% - 1,411 0.15% - 6,267 0.65% - 120,909 12.49% 967,848 NV
New Hampshire 4 384,826 54.13% 4 316,534 44.52% - 3,503 0.49% - 2,217 0.31% - 226 0.03% - 40 0.01% - 3,624 0.51% - 68,292 9.61% 710,970 NH
New Jersey 15 2,215,422 57.27% 15 1,613,207 41.70% - 21,298 0.55% - 8,441 0.22% - 3,956 0.10% - 3,636 0.09% - 2,277 0.06% - 602,215 15.57% 3,868,237 NJ
New Mexico 5 472,422 56.91% 5 346,832 41.78% - 5,327 0.64% - 2,428 0.29% - 1,597 0.19% - 1,552 0.19% - 0 0.00% - 125,590 15.13% 830,158 NM
New York 31 4,804,945 62.88% 31 2,752,771 36.03% - 41,249 0.54% - 19,596 0.26% - 634 0.01% - 12,801 0.17% - 8,935 0.12% - 2,052,174 26.86% 7,640,931 NY
North Carolina 15 2,142,651 49.70% 15 2,128,474 49.38% - 1,448 0.03% - 25,722 0.60% - 0 0.00% - 158 0.00% - 12,336 0.29% - 14,177 0.33% 4,310,789 NC
North Dakota 3 141,278 44.62% - 168,601 53.25% 3 4,189 1.32% - 1,354 0.43% - 1,199 0.38% - 0 0.00% - 0 0.00% - -27,323 -8.63% 316,621 ND
Ohio 20 2,940,044 51.50% 20 2,677,820 46.91% - 42,337 0.74% - 19,917 0.35% - 12,565 0.22% - 8,518 0.15% - 7,149 0.13% - 262,224 4.59% 5,708,350 OH
Oklahoma 7 502,496 34.35% - 960,165 65.65% 7 0 0.00% - 0 0.00% - 0 0.00% - 0 0.00% - 0 0.00% - -457,669 -31.29% 1,462,661 OK
Oregon 7 1,037,291 56.75% 7 738,475 40.40% - 18,614 1.02% - 7,635 0.42% - 7,693 0.42% - 4,543 0.25% - 13,613 0.74% - 298,816 16.35% 1,827,864 OR
Pennsylvania 21 3,276,363 54.49% 21 2,655,885 44.17% - 42,977 0.71% - 19,912 0.33% - 1,092 0.02% - 0 0.00% - 17,043 0.28% - 620,478 10.32% 6,013,272 PA
Rhode Island 4 296,571 62.86% 4 165,391 35.06% - 4,829 1.02% - 1,382 0.29% - 675 0.14% - 797 0.17% - 2,121 0.45% - 131,180 27.81% 471,766 RI
South Carolina 8 862,449 44.90% - 1,034,896 53.87% 8 5,053 0.26% - 7,283 0.38% - 6,827 0.36% - 4,461 0.23% - 0 0.00% - -172,447 -8.98% 1,920,969 SC
South Dakota 3 170,924 44.75% - 203,054 53.16% 3 4,267 1.12% - 1,835 0.48% - 1,895 0.50% - 0 0.00% - 0 0.00% - -32,130 -8.41% 381,975 SD
Tennessee 11 1,087,437 41.83% - 1,479,178 56.90% 11 11,560 0.44% - 8,547 0.33% - 8,191 0.32% - 2,499 0.10% - 2,337 0.09% - -391,741 -15.07% 2,599,749 TN
Texas 34 3,528,633 43.68% - 4,479,328 55.45% 34 5,751 0.07% - 56,116 0.69% - 5,708 0.07% - 909 0.01% - 1,350 0.02% - -950,695 -11.77% 8,077,795 TX
Utah 5 327,670 34.41% - 596,030 62.58% 5 8,416 0.88% - 6,966 0.73% - 12,012 1.26% - 982 0.10% - 294 0.03% - -268,360 -28.18% 952,370 UT
Vermont 3 219,262 67.46% 3 98,974 30.45% - 3,339 1.03% - 1,067 0.33% - 500 0.15% - 66 0.02% - 1,838 0.57% - 120,288 37.01% 325,046 VT
Virginia 13 1,959,532 52.63% 13 1,725,005 46.33% - 11,483 0.31% - 11,067 0.30% - 7,474 0.20% - 2,344 0.06% - 6,355 0.17% - 234,527 6.30% 3,723,260 VA
Washington 11 1,750,848 57.65% 11 1,229,216 40.48% - 29,489 0.97% - 12,728 0.42% - 9,432 0.31% - 3,819 0.13% - 1,346 0.04% - 521,632 17.18% 3,036,878 WA
West Virginia 5 303,857 42.59% - 397,466 55.71% 5 7,219 1.01% - 0 0.00% - 2,465 0.35% - 2,355 0.33% - 89 0.01% - -93,609 -13.12% 713,451 WV
Wisconsin 10 1,677,211 56.22% 10 1,262,393 42.31% - 17,605 0.59% - 8,858 0.30% - 5,072 0.17% - 4,216 0.14% - 8,062 0.27% - 414,818 13.90% 2,983,417 WI
Wyoming 3 82,868 32.54% - 164,958 64.78% 3 2,525 0.99% - 1,594 0.63% - 1,192 0.47% - 0 0.00% - 1,521 0.60% - -82,090 -32.24% 254,658 WY
U.S. Total 538 69,498,516 52.93% 365 59,948,323 45.65% 173 739,034 0.56% - 523,715 0.40% - 199,750 0.15% - 161,797 0.12% - 242,685 0.18% - 9,550,193 7.27% 131,313,820 US

?Maine and Nebraska each allow for their electoral votes to be split between candidates. In both states, two electoral votes are awarded to the winner of the statewide race and one electoral vote is awarded to the winner of each congressional district. The following table records the official presidential vote tallies for Maine and Nebraska's congressional districts.[167][168]

District Electors Obama % McCain % Nader % Barr % Baldwin % McKinney % Other % Margin % Total
Maine's 1st congressional district 1 232,145 60.51% 144,604 37.69% 5,263 1.37% 1,362 0.36% 252 0.07% 87,541 22.82% 383,626
Maine's 2nd congressional district 1 189,778 54.61% 150,669 43.35% 5,373 1.55% 1,538 0.44% 179 0.05% 39,109 11.25% 347,537
Nebraska's 1st congressional district 1 121,411 44.33% 148,179 54.10% 1,963 0.72% 922 0.34% 1,024 0.37% 394 0.14% -26,768 -9.77% 273,893
Nebraska's 2nd congressional district 1 138,809 49.97% 135,439 48.75% 1,628 0.59% 1,014 0.36% 599 0.22% 320 0.12% 3,370 1.21% 277,809
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district 1 73,099 29.63% 169,361 68.64% 1,815 0.74% 804 0.33% 1,349 0.55% 314 0.13% -96,262 -39.01% 246,742

Close states/districts

States/districts in the 2008 United States Presidential election in which the margin of victory was less than 5%. Blue states/districts went for Obama, red for McCain. Yellow states were won by either candidate by 5% or more. Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico, Virginia and Iowa were won by Bush in 2004 but were won by Obama by a margin of more than 5% in 2008.

Red font color denotes states won by Republican John McCain; blue denotes those won by Democrat Barack Obama.

States in which the margin of victory was under 1% (26 electoral votes):

  1. Missouri 0.13%
  2. North Carolina 0.33%

States/districts in which the margin of victory was under 5% (62 electoral votes):

  1. Indiana 1.03%
  2. Nebraska's 2nd congressional district 1.21%
  3. Montana 2.26%
  4. Florida 2.82%
  5. Ohio 4.59%

States/districts in which margin of victory was more than 5% but less than 10% (73 electoral votes):

  1. Georgia 5.21%
  2. Virginia 6.30%
  3. South Dakota 8.41%
  4. Arizona 8.52%
  5. North Dakota 8.63%
  6. Colorado 8.95% (tipping point state for an Obama victory)
  7. South Carolina 8.98%
  8. Iowa 9.53% (tipping point state for a McCain victory)
  9. New Hampshire 9.61%
  10. Nebraska's 1st congressional district 9.77%

International reaction

The American presidential election was followed closely internationally.[170] When it was clear that Obama was victorious, many world leaders sent congratulations and well wishes to the President-elect.[171]

Voter demographics

The 2008 presidential vote by demographic subgroup
Demographic subgroup Obama McCain Other % of
total vote
Total vote 53 46 1 100
Liberals 89 10 1 22
Moderates 60 39 1 44
Conservatives 20 78 2 34
Democrats 89 10 1 39
Republicans 9 90 1 32
Independents 52 44 4 29
Men 49 48 3 47
Women 56 43 1 53
Marital status
Married 47 52 1 66
Non-married 65 33 2 34
White 43 55 2 74
Black 95 4 1 13
Asian 62 35 3 2
Other 66 31 3 2
Hispanic 67 31 2 9
Protestant 45 54 1 54
Catholic 54 45 1 27
Jewish 78 21 1 2
Other 73 22 5 6
None 75 23 2 12
Religious service attendance
More than weekly 43 55 2 12
Weekly 43 55 2 27
Monthly 53 46 1 15
A few times a year 59 39 2 28
Never 67 30 3 16
White evangelical or born-again Christian?
White evangelical or born-again Christian 24 74 2 26
Everyone else 62 36 2 74
18-24 years old 66 32 2 10
25-29 years old 66 31 3 8
30-39 years old 54 44 2 18
40-49 years old 49 49 2 21
50-64 years old 50 49 1 27
65 and older 45 53 2 16
Age by race
Whites 18-29 years old 54 44 2 11
Whites 30-44 years old 41 57 2 20
Whites 45-64 years old 42 56 2 30
Whites 65 and older 40 58 2 13
Blacks 18-29 years old 95 4 1 3
Blacks 30-44 years old 96 4 n/a 4
Blacks 45-64 years old 96 3 1 4
Blacks 65 and older 94 6 n/a 1
Latinos 18-29 years old 76 19 5 3
Latinos 30-44 years old 63 36 1 3
Latinos 45-64 years old 58 40 2 2
Latinos 65 and older 68 30 2 1
Others 64 33 3 5
First time voter?
First time voter 69 30 1 11
Everyone else 50 48 2 89
Sexual orientation
Gay, lesbian, or bisexual 70 27 3 4
Heterosexual 53 45 2 96
Not a high school graduate 63 35 2 4
High school graduate 52 46 2 20
Some college education 51 47 2 31
College graduate 50 48 2 28
Postgraduate education 58 40 2 17
Education by race/ethnicity
White college graduates 47 51 2 35
White no college degree 40 58 2 39
Non-white college graduates 75 22 3 9
Non-white no college degree 83 16 1 16
Family income
Under $15,000 73 25 2 6
$15,000-30,000 60 37 3 12
$30,000-50,000 55 43 2 19
$50,000-75,000 48 49 3 21
$75,000-100,000 51 48 1 15
$100,000-150,000 48 51 1 14
$150,000-200,000 48 50 1 6
Over $200,000 52 46 2 6
Union households
Union 59 39 2 21
Non-union 51 47 2 79
Military service
Veterans 44 54 2 15
Non-veterans 54 44 2 85
Northeast 59 40 1 21
Midwest 54 44 2 24
South 45 54 1 32
West 57 40 3 23
Community size
Urban 63 35 2 30
Suburban 50 48 2 49
Rural 45 53 2 21

Source: Exit polls conducted by Edison Research of Somerville, New Jersey, for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, Associated Press, CBS News, CNN, Fox News, and NBC News.[172]


Obama, having a Caucasian mother and Kenyan father of the Luo ethnic group,[173] became the first African American as well as the first bi-racial president.[174] Although he may have been the first black president to win an election, Obama was not the first African American to run for president. Shirley Chisolm, Jesse Jackson, Lenora Fulani, Carol Moseley Braun, Alan Keyes, and Al Sharpton all at some point were in the process for presidential nomination.[175] The Obama-Biden ticket was also the first winning ticket in American history on which neither candidate was a White Anglo-Saxon Protestant; Biden is Roman Catholic and is the first Roman Catholic to be elected vice president; all other tickets with Catholic vice presidential candidates had been defeated (1964, 1972, 1984).[176] Obama and Biden were the first President and Vice President elected from the Senate since 1960 (John F. Kennedy/Lyndon B. Johnson) (in the previous election cycle (2004) Democrats also nominated two sitting Senators, John Kerry of Massachusetts and John Edwards of North Carolina, but they lost to incumbents Bush and Cheney), Obama became the first Northern Democratic president since Kennedy, and the Obama-Biden ticket was the first winning Democratic ticket to feature two Northerners since 1940 (Franklin D. Roosevelt/Henry A. Wallace). Also, Obama became the first Democratic candidate to win a majority of the popular vote since Jimmy Carter in 1976, the first to win a majority of both votes and states since Lyndon Johnson in 1964, and the first Northern Democrat to win a majority of both votes and states since Franklin Roosevelt in 1944. This was the first presidential election since 1952 in which neither of the major party candidates was either the incumbent president or Vice-President.

Swing by state. States are listed by (increasing) percentage of Democratic votes, showing how the share of the vote changed between 2004 and 2008. Excluding the candidates' home states, only five states trended more Republican: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and West Virginia.

Prior to the election, commentators discussed whether Senator Obama would be able to redraw the electoral map by winning states that had been voting for Republican candidates in recent decades.[177] In many ways, he was successful. He won every region of the country by double digits except the South, which John McCain won by nine percent. Obama won Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, North Carolina, Florida, and Virginia in the South (region as defined by the US Census Bureau). McCain won most of the Deep South, where white voters had generally supported Republican candidates by increasingly large margins in the previous few decades.[178] Obama also defied political bellwethers, becoming the first person to win the presidency while losing Missouri since 1956 (as well as the first Democrat ever to do so) and while losing Kentucky and Tennessee since 1960. He was the first Democrat to win without Arkansas since that state joined the Union in 1836 and the first Democrat to win the presidency without winning West Virginia since 1916. Because one West Virginia elector voted for the Democrat in 1916, Obama was the first Democrat to win without any electors from the state since its founding in 1863. Indiana and Virginia voted for the Democratic nominee for the first time since 1964. Although Obama did not win other normally Republican states such as Georgia and Montana (which were won by Bill Clinton in 1992), he nonetheless was competitive in both. He lost Montana by just under 3% and Georgia by slightly more than 5%. Also notably, Barack Obama won all of the 2004 swing states (states that either Kerry or Bush won by less than 5%) by a margin of 8.5 percent or more except for Ohio, which the Democrat carried by 4.5 percent.

Obama was the first presidential candidate to split the electoral votes from Nebraska. Together with Maine, which would not split its votes until 2016, Nebraska is one of two states that split their electoral votes, two going to the statewide popular vote winner and the rest going to the winner of each respective congressional district (Nebraska has three, and Maine has two). Obama won the electoral vote from Nebraska's 2nd congressional district, which contains the city of Omaha. Nebraska's other four electoral votes went to John McCain.

As of 2016, this election is the last time that Indiana, Nebraska's 2nd Congressional District and North Carolina voted Democratic, and (as of 2019) that one of the nominees died following the election.

This election exhibited the continuation of some of the polarization trends evident in the 2000 and 2004 elections.[179] McCain won whites 55-43 percent, while Obama won blacks 95-4 percent,[180] Hispanics 67-31 percent, and Asians 62-35 percent. Voters aged 18-29 voted for Obama by 66-32 percent while elderly voters backed McCain 53-45 percent.[181] The 25-year age gap between McCain and Obama was the widest in U.S. presidential election history among the top two candidates.[182]

See also

Opinion polling


  1. ^ Shirley Chisholm had previously won a contest in New Jersey in 1972 that was a no-delegate-awarding, presidential preference ballot in which the major candidates were not listed; the actual delegate selection vote went to George McGovern.[2][3]


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Further reading

  • Plouffe, David. The Audacity to Win. 2009
  • Balz, Dan, and Haynes Johnson. The Battle for America 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary Election (2009), by leading reporters with inside information
  • Crotty, William. "Policy and Politics: The Bush Administration and the 2008 Presidential Election," Polity, July 2009, Vol. 41 Issue 3, pp 282-311 online
  • Curtis, Mark. Age of Obama: A Reporter's Journey With Clinton, McCain and Obama in the Making of the President in 2008 (2009)
  • Gidlow, Liette. Obama, Clinton, Palin: Making History in Election 2000 (2012)
  • Nelson, Michael. The Elections of 2008 (2009), factual summary except and text search
  • Sussman, Glen. "Choosing a New Direction: The Presidential Election of 2008," White House Studies, 2009, Vol. 9 Issue 1, pp 1-20
  • Wolffe, Richard. Renegade: The Making of a President (2010) excerpt and text search, narrative


  • Abramson, Paul R., John H. Aldrich, and David W. Rohde. Change and Continuity in the 2008 Elections (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Corwin E. Smidt and others. The Disappearing God Gap? Religion in the 2008 Presidential Election (Oxford University Press; 2010) 278 pages. Finds that the gap between church-attending traditionalists and other voters is not closing, as has been claimed, but is changing in significant ways; draws on survey data from voters who were interviewed in the spring of 2008 and then again after the election.
  • Crespino, Joseph. "The U.S. South and the 2008 Election," Southern Spaces (2008) online
  • Jessee, Stephen A. "Voter Ideology and Candidate Positioning in the 2008 Presidential Election," American Politics Research, March 2010, Vol. 38 Issue 2, pp 195-210
  • Kenski, Kate, Bruce W. Hardy, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. The Obama Victory: How Media, Money, and Message Shaped the 2008 Election (Oxford University Press; 2010) 378 pages. Draws on interviews with key campaign advisors as well as the National Annenberg Election Survey. excerpt and text search
  • Sabato, Larry. The Year of Obama: How Barack Obama Won the White House (2009)
  • Stempel III, Guido H. and Thomas K. Hargrove, eds. The 21st-Century Voter: Who Votes, How They Vote, and Why They Vote (2 vol. 2015).
  • Todd, Chuck, and Sheldon Gawiser. How Barack Obama Won: A State-by-State Guide to the Historic 2008 Presidential Election (2009) excerpt and text search

External links

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