2012 Hong Kong Legislative Election
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2012 Hong Kong Legislative Election

2012 Hong Kong legislative election

← 2008 9 September 2012 2016 →

All 70 seats to the Legislative Council
36 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered3,466,201 (GC) Increase2.79%
Turnout1,838,722 (53.05%) Increase7.85pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Tam Yiu-chung Alan Leong Albert Ho
Leader Tam Yiu-chung Alan Leong Albert Ho
Party DAB Civic Democratic
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pan-democracy Pan-democracy
Leader's seat New Territories West Kowloon East District Council (Second)
Last election 10 seats, 22.92% 5 seats, 13.66% 8 seats, 20.63%
Seats won 13 6 6
Seat change Increase3 Increase1 Decrease2
Popular vote 366,140 255,007 247,220
Percentage 20.22% 14.08% 13.65%
Swing Decrease2.70pp Increase0.42pp Decrease6.98pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Lam Shuk-yee Miriam Lau Lee Cheuk-yan
Leader Lam Shuk-yee Miriam Lau Lee Cheuk-yan
Party FTU Liberal Labour
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing Pan-democracy
Leader's seat Did not stand Hong Kong Island
New Territories West
Last election 4 seats, 5.70% 7 seats, 4.33% New party
Seats won 6 5 4
Seat change Increase2 Increase2 Increase1
Popular vote 127,857 48,702 112,140
Percentage 7.06% 2.64% 6.19%
Swing Increase1.36pp Decrease1.64pp N/A

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
  Christopher Lau Andrew Leung Regina Ip
Leader Christopher Lau Andrew Leung
and others
Regina Ip
Party People Power Economic Synergy NPP
Alliance Pan-democracy Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Hong Kong Island
Industrial (First) Hong Kong Island
Last election New party New party New party
Seats won 3 3 2
Seat change Increase1 Decrease1 Increase1
Popular vote 176,250 5,717 68,097
Percentage 9.73% 0.32% 3.76%
Swing N/A N/A N/A

Elected candidates by each constituency

The 2012 Hong Kong Legislative Council election was held on 9 September 2012 for the 5th Legislative Council (LegCo) since the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

The election was for the new total of 70 seats in LegCo, ten more than previously, with 35 members elected in geographical constituencies through direct elections, and 35 members in functional constituencies.[1] Under new arrangements agreed in a contentious LegCo vote in 2010, five District Council (Second) functional constituency seats each represent all 18 District Councils of Hong Kong voted for by all resident voters in Hong Kong (who did not have a vote in any other functional constituency), effectively increasing the number of seats elected with universal suffrage to 40.[2]

The pro-Beijing camp scored a major success, maintaining its dominance in the functional constituencies and winning 17 of the 35, nearly half, of the geographical constituency seats, which were considered to be the stronghold of the pan-democracy camp. The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB), the flagship Beijing-loyalist party, won 13 seats in total, more than double the tally of either the pro-democracy Democratic Party or Civic Party, or of its sister organisation, the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions (FTU), which each won six seats.

The Democratic Party, the flagship pro-democracy party, suffered the worst defeat since its creation in 1994, winning only six seats and lost all its seats in the New Territories West, while the radical democrats League of Social Democrats and the newly formed People Power doubled their total votes. Despite the addition of five new geographical constituency seats, the pan-democrats won one seat fewer than in the 2008 election; infighting within the camp was blamed.[3] The Civic Party failed in their election strategy as two of their incumbents, Audrey Eu and Tanya Chan, placed second on the lists in Hong Kong Island and New Territories West both received over 70,000 votes, far more than other lists, but still unable to get re-elected.[4]

The pro-business Liberal Party's chairwoman Miriam Lau failed to gain a seat in Hong Kong Island, winning the least seat in party history although James Tien regained his seat in New Territories East. Both Miriam Lau from the Liberals and Albert Ho from the Democrats resigned their seats as chairs after the defeat.

The pan-democracy and pro-Beijing camps both placed three lists in contest of the five new District Council (Second) functional constituency seats. Three of them went to the Democrats Albert Ho and James To and Frederick Fung from the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL). The Beijing-loyalists could only win two seats with FTU's Chan Yuen-han and DAB's Starry Lee each got one seat. Veteran Lau Kong-wah became the only DAB candidate who was placed first on a candidate list but lost in the election.


Right to vote

As at 9 September 2012, a person has the right to vote in a Legislative Council election if he/she fulfils all of the below criteria :[5]

  • Hong Kong permanent resident (regardless of nationality),
  • ordinarily resides in Hong Kong,
  • holds a Hong Kong identity card or another identity document,
  • has registered to vote on or before 16 May 2012,
  • aged 18 or above on 25 July 2012,
  • not a member of any armed forces nor found to be incapable under the Mental Health Ordinance (Cap. 136), by reason of mental incapacity, of managing and administering his/her property and affairs.

Right to stand

To stand as a candidate in a geographical constituency, a person must fulfil all of the below criteria:[6]

  • a Hong Kong permanent resident with Chinese citizenship,
  • does not have any foreign citizenship nor the right of abode in any country outside China,
  • aged 21 or above on the date of nomination,
  • a registered voter on the date of nomination,
  • has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for the 3 years immediately preceding the date of nomination,
  • not a member of any national, regional or municipal legislature, assembly or council of any place outside Hong Kong, other than a people's congress or people's consultative body of the People's Republic of China, whether established at the national or local level,
  • not a member of any armed forces nor found to be incapable under the Mental Health Ordinance (Cap. 136), by reason of mental incapacity, of managing and administering his/her property and affairs,
  • submits a nomination form to the returning officer on or before 31 July 2012.

New structure of the Legislative Council

An electoral advertisement on a tram

Geographical constituencies

Under the constitutional reform package passed in 2010, this election saw LegCo increase its total size from 60 seats to 70 seats, half of which are geographical constituencies (GCs) and half functional constituencies (FCs). The GC seats are returned by universal suffrage, with the Kowloon West constituency once again returning five seats, while the Hong Kong Island, Kowloon East, and New Territories West constituencies each gain one new seat and New Territories East, the second largest constituency, gaining two extra seats.[7] The election uses a system of party-list proportional representation, with seats allocated by the largest remainder method using the Hare quota as the quota for election.

Geographical constituencies No. of seats
2008 2012 Change
Hong Kong Island 6 7 +1
Kowloon West 5 5 ±0
Kowloon East 4 5 +1
New Territories West 8 9 +1
New Territories East 7 9 +2
Total 30 35 +5

Functional constituencies

While the electoral methods in the 30 'traditional' FC seats remain unchanged, the five new seats form a new constituency called the District Council, for which candidates may be nominated by the District councillors and are elected by all registered voters who are not in any 'traditional' FC,[8] creating the largest constituency with a total of more than 3.2 million eligible electors.[9] The vote counting system used is the same as that in the GCs: the party-list proportional representation with the largest remainder method and Hare quota.

Retiring incumbents

Thirteen incumbents chose not to run for re-election. Paul Chan's Accountancy seat was vacant since 29 July 2012 and Chim Pui-chung withdrew his nomination on 27 July 2012.

Pre-election issues

New leadership under Leung Chun-ying

As Leung Chun-ying sworn in on 1 July, he sought a foothold in the Legislative Council against his defeated rival, Henry Tang.[10] The Tang supporter for the Financial Services functional constituency, Chim Pui-chung, decided to withdraw his nomination for re-election on 27 July, while Christopher Cheung Wah-fung, who voted for CY Leung and was also a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, decided to run in the constituency.[11]

Other Leung's supporters including Martin Liao Cheung-kong, Ng Leung-sing and Ma Fung-kwok also ran in other functional constituencies, replacing the original pro-Tang legislators Philip Wong, David Li and Timothy Fok.

On the day CY Leung assumed the Chief Executive, there were about 400,000 participants in the July 1 marches, the biggest anti-government rally in recent history.

Moral and National Education controversy

Moral and civic education was one of the four key tasks in the 2001 curriculum reform undertaken by the Education and Manpower Bureau (superseded by the Education Bureau in 2007), and its framework was revised by the Education Bureau in 2008. On 13 October 2010, Chief Executive Donald Tsang stated in the "Policy Address 2010-2011" that moral and national education would replace MCE to "strengthen national education". The government planned to introduce the new subject in primary schools in 2012 and secondary schools in 2013.

In July 2012, the "Civil Alliance Against the National Education" () was formed. On 29 July 2012, 30 organisations protested in a march. According to the organisers, more than 90,000 protesters, including many parents with their children, participated in the march.[12]

Members of the student activist group Scholarism (?) began their occupation of the Hong Kong government headquarters on 30 August 2012. Fifty members occupied the public park beneath the government offices, of which three began a hunger strike. The goal of the protest was, expressly, to force the government to retract its plans to introduce Moral and National Education as a compulsory subject. The initial planned length of the occupation was three days.[13] On 3 September 2012 the Civil Alliance Against National Education announced that they would continue their occupation of the government headquarters indefinitely.[14] On 7 September, up to 120,000 people attended a demonstration outside the government headquarters; police said there were 36,000 attendees at 9:30 pm.[15][16][17]

Following opposition from the public, the government postponed the commencement of the subject by introducing a three-year trial run period, such that the schools were allowed to commence the latest in 2015.[18]

Opinion polling

  People Power


Leaflets of the Hong Kong Island candidates in a mailbox in Central.

The election was marked with the record of 287 candidates. 67 lists with a total of 216 candidates contested the 35 geographical constituencies, while 53 candidates contested in the traditional functional constituencies, in which 16 of them returned to LegCo uncontested.[19]

The largest pro-democracy party, the Democratic Party, suffered the largest defeat since its creation in 1994, while the radical democrats League of Social Democrats and the newly formed People Power doubled their votes. Despite the addition of five new geographical constituency seats, the pan-democrats won one seat fewer than in the 2008 poll; infighting within the camp was blamed.[20]Audrey Eu and Tanya Chan, the incumbent Civic Party legislators, placed second on the lists in Hong Kong Island and New Territories West both received over 70,000 votes, far more than other lists, but still were not re-elected.[21] (see 2012 Hong Kong legislative election in Hong Kong Island and New Territories West)

The Beijing-loyalist Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong remained the largest party, winning 13 seats in total. All the lists in the geographical constituencies were elected as they split their candidates into several lists to avoid wasting votes under the largest remainder method.[22] Christopher Chung revealed the DAB, of which he is a member, had secretly engaged in illegally allocating votes with the FTU based on the results of the party's own exit polling results; he said that both he and Jasper Tsang switched over to campaigning for the Wong Kwok-hing of the FTU at around 6 pm, after the DAB had reached their quota of vote.[23]

Following the election, Albert Ho, resigned as leader of the Democratic Party, citing failure to present a united front for the pan-democratic camp, failure to retain seats from the previous elections, and infighting between pro-democracy parties. Miriam Lau, the leader of the Liberal Party, also resigned as leader, citing her failure to win a seat in this election and a need for new leadership in the party.[24]

Nine of the 16 uncontested functional constituency seats went to the Liberal Party, Economic Synergy and nonpartisan Lam Tai-fai from the "Tang camp", who are mostly the business and commercial sectors.

Leung's supporters took several seats in the functional constituencies. Pro-Leung Lo Wai-kwok defeated incumbent Raymond Ho Chung-tai who nominated Henry Tang in the CE election and pro-democrat Albert Lai in the Engineering sector. In Tourism, Architectural, Surveying and Planning and Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication constituencies, Yiu Si-wing, Tony Tse Wai-chuen and Ma Fung-kwok were also elected. Leung's backers Ng Leung-sing and Martin Liao Cheung-kong won seats unopposed to the finance and Commercial (Second) functional constituencies respectively.

The acting president of the Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union Ip Kin-yuen and Civic Party Dennis Kwok retained their seats in the traditionally pro-democracy Education and Legal sectors. Cheung Kwok-che of the Labour Party and nonpartisan Joseph Lee Kok-long also secured their seats in the Social Welfare and Health Services constituencies. In addition, the pan democrats gained two more seats in Information Technology and Accountancy with newcomers Charles Mok and Kenneth Leung.

The pan-democrats won three out of five seats in the new District Council (Second) functional constituency with Albert Ho and James To from the Democratic Party and Frederick Fung from the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood. The Beijing loyalists could only won two seats with Chan Yuen-han of Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions (FTU) and Starry Lee of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB) each got one seat. Veteran Lau Kong-wah became the only DAB candidate who was placed first on a candidate list but lost in the election (see 2012 Hong Kong legislative election in District Council).

Election results overall

5th Legislative Council of Hong Kong seat composition by party.svg

Before election:

23 37
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing

Change in composition:

27 43
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing

e o d Summary of the 9 September 2012 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Political affiliation
Geographical Constituencies Traditional Functional Constituencies District Council (Second) FC Total
DAB[table 1] 366,140 20.22 Decrease2.70 9 105 0.07 Decrease0.14 3 476,875 29.96 1 13 Increase3
FTU 127,857 7.06 Increase1.36 3 - - - 2 246,196 15.47 1 6 Increase2
Liberal 48,702 2.69 Decrease1.64 1 1,076 0.76 Decrease2.58 4 - - - 5 Increase2
Economic Synergy 5,717 0.32 N/A 0 - - - 3 - - - 3 Decrease1
NPP 68,097 3.76 N/A 2 - - - - - - - 2 Increase1
KWND 34,548 1.91 N/A 1 - - - - - - - 1 Steady0
New Forum[table 2] - - - - 1,106 0.78 N/A 1 - - - 1 Increase1
FLU - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 Steady0
Civil Force[table 1][table 2] 23,988 1.32 N/A 0 - - - - - - - 0 Steady0
Third Force 16,767 0.93 N/A 0 - - - - - - - 0 Steady0
Pro-Beijing Independents 80,671 4.45 - 1 44,529 31.36 N/A 10 61,321 3.85 0 11 Increase2
Total for pro-Beijing camp 772,487 42.66 Increase2.91 17 46,816 32.97 Increase1.91 24 784,392 49.28 2 43 Increase6
Civic 255,007 14.08 Increase0.42 5 4,480 3.15 Decrease4.36 1 - - - 6 Increase1
Democratic 247,220 13.65 Decrease6.98 4 1,464 1.03 Decrease1.80 0 545,308 34.26 2 6 Decrease2
Labour 112,140 6.19 N/A 3 9,078 6.39 N/A 1 - - - 4 Increase1
People Power 176,250 9.73 N/A 3 - - - - - - - 3 Increase1
LSD 87,997 4.86 Decrease5.26 1 - - - - - - - 1 Steady0
NWSC 43,799 2.42 Decrease0.38 1 - - - - - - - 1 Steady0
ADPL 30,634 1.69 Decrease1.10 0 - - - - 262,172 16.47 1 1 Steady0
Neo Democrats 28,621 1.58 N/A 1 - - - - - - - 1 Increase1
PTU - - - - 46,535 32.77 Decrease1.80 1 - - - 1 Steady0
Democratic Alliance 2,896 0.16 N/A 0 - - - - - - - 0 Steady0
Independent democrats 33,988 1.87 - 0 26,892 18.94 N/A 3 - - - 3 -
Total for pan-democrats 1,018,552 56.24 Decrease3.26 18 88,449 62.28 Increase1.66 6 807,480 50.73 3 27 Increase4
Non-aligned others 19,945 1.10 - 0 2,205 1.55 Decrease6.77 0 - - 0 0 -
Total 1,810,984 100.00 35 142,011 100.00 30 1,591,872 100.00 5 70
Valid votes 1,810,984 98.49 Decrease0.93 142,011 93.97 Decrease1.59 1,591,872 95.16
Invalid votes 27,738 1.51 Increase0.93 9,113 6.03 Increase1.59 80,921 4.84
Vote cast / turnout 1,838,722 53.05 Increase7.85 151,124 69.65 Increase9.35 1,672,793 51.95
Registered voters 3,466,201 100.00 Increase2.79 216,979 100.00 Increase2.24 3,219,755 100.00
  1. ^ a b Note: the votes gained by Lau Kong-wah who represents both DAB and Civil Force banner is counted into DAB in this table.
  2. ^ a b Note: the votes gained by Scarlett Pong who represents both Civil Force and New Century Forum is counted into Civil Force in this table.

Election results by Geographical Constituency

Constituency Elected members
Hong Kong Island                  
Kowloon West                  
Kowloon East                  
New Territories West                  
New Territories East                  

Votes gained by each party by districts

Votes summary

Ring charts of the election results showing popular vote against seats won, coloured in green (Pro-democracy camp) and red (Pro-Beijing camp) on the left and the party colours on the right. Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).
Popular vote
People Power
New Dynamic
Neo Democrats
Civil Force
Third Force
Econ Synergy

Seats summary

The election results were announced in the AsiaWorld-Expo.
People Power
Econ Synergy
New Dynamic
Neo Democrats

Incumbents defeated

Twelve incumbents were not re-elected.

Candidates lists and results

Geographical Constituencies (35 seats)

Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

Results of the Geographical Constituencies
Hong Kong Island ()
List No Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Nonpartisan Hui Ching-on 2,980 0.90
2 Democratic Sin Chung-kai Yeung Sum, Chai Man-hon, Cheng Lai-king, Leung Suk-ching, Hui Chi-fung 40,558 12.26
3 Independent Lo Wing-lok 16,900 5.11
4 People Power Christopher Lau Gar-hung, Shiu Yeuk-yuen, Jeff Au Yeung Ying-kit 18,667 5.64
5 DAB Christopher Chung Shu-kun Eddie Ting Kong-ho, Jennifer Chow Kit-bing, Kung Pak-cheung, Ngan Chun-lim, Kenny Lee Kwun-yee, Cheng Chi-sing 33,901 10.25
6 Independent Ng Wing-chun 422 0.13
7 Labour Cyd Ho Sau-lan Cheng Sze-lut, Chung Chung-fai 31,523 9.53
8 NPP Regina Ip Lau Suk-yee Wong Chor-fung, Tse Tsz-kei 30,289 9.16
9 FTU Wong Kwok-hing Pan Pey-chyou, Chu Ting-lok, Stanley Ho Ngai-kam, Chan Chi-hang 27,336 8.26
10 Civic Chan Ka-lok Tanya Chan 70,475 21.31
11 Nonpartisan Ho Kar-tai 343 0.10
12 DAB Jasper Tsang Yok-sing 36,517 11.04
13 Liberal Miriam Lau Kin-yee, Shiu Ka-fai, "Micheal" Lee Chun-keung 17,686 5.35
14 LSD Avery Ng Man-yuen 3,169 0.96
TOTAL (Quota: 47,252 votes, 14.29%) 330,766 100.0
Kowloon West ()
List No Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Independent Wong Yee-him 3,746 1.61
2 Democratic "Helena" Wong Pik-wan Cheung Man-kwong, Li Yiu-kee, Yuen Hoi-man, "Michelle" Chong Miu-sheung 36,029 15.52
3 ADPL Tam Kwok-kiu, Liu Sing-lee, Rosanda Mok Ka-han,Wong Chi-yung, Austen Ng Po-shan 30,364 13.2
4 Independent democrat Wong Yat-yuk 2,399 1.03
5 DAB "Ann" Chiang Lai-wan Chris Ip Ngo-tung, Vincent Cheng Wing-shun, Chan Wai-ming, "Sam" Lam Sum-lim 47,363 20.41
6 People Power Wong Yuk-man Yim Tat-ming, Chau Tsun-kiu, Lau Tit-wai 38,578 16.62
7 Awakening Association Lam Yi-lai, Simon Ho Ka-kuen, Au Wing-ho, Lee Ka-wai 859 0.37
8 KWND Leung Mei-fun Yang Wing-kit, Wai Hoi-yinh, Leung Man-kwong 34,548 14.89
9 Civic Claudia Mo Man-ching Joe Wong Tak-chuen 37,925 16.34
TOTAL (Quota: 46,416 votes, 20.00%) 232,081 100.0
Kowloon East ()
List No Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Civic Alan Leong Kah-kit Jeremy Jansen Tam Man-ho 41,669 14.63
2 FTU Wong Kwok-kin Kan Ming-tung, Mok Kin-wing, Ho Kai-ming 40,824 14.34
3 LSD Andrew To Kwan-hang 27,253 9.57
4 Nonpartisan Kay Yim Fung-chi, Chan Heung-yin 3,263 1.15
5 Democratic Wu Chi-wai Mok Kin-shing, Hon Ka-ming 43,764 15.37
6 DAB Chan Kam-lam Joe Lai Wing-ho, Hung Kam-in, Wilson Or Chong-shing 47,415 16.65
7 Independent Paul Tse Wai-chun 38,546 13.54
8 People Power Wong Yeung-tat, Chan Sau-wai 36,608 12.85
9 Independent Tam Heung-man 5,440 1.91
TOTAL (Quota: 56,956 votes, 20.00%) 284,782 100.0
New Territories West ()
List No Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 DAB Leung Che-cheung Tsang Hin-keung, Lui Kin, Christina Maisenne Lee, Wong Wai-ling, Chui Kwan-siu 33,777 6.79
2 FTU Alice Mak Mei-kuen "Michael" Luk Chung-hung, Manwell Chan, Kot Siu-yuen, Tang Cheuk-him 35,239 7.07
3 Democratic Josephine Chan Shu-ying, Zachary Wong Wai-yin, Li Hung-por, Catherine Wong Lai-sheung, Ho Hang-mui 25,892 5.20
4 People Power Albert Chan Wai-yip Jacqueline Chan So-ling, Raymond Lai, Tong Wing-chi 44,355 8.91
5 Democratic Alliance Mak Ip-sing 2,896 0.58
6 LSD Tsang Kin-shing 9,280 1.86
7 Civic Kwok Ka-ki Audrey Eu Yuet-mee 72,185 14.49
8 NPP Michael Tien Puk-sun Clarice Cheung Wai-ching, "Legward" Wong Cheuk-kin, Ho Kin-cheong 37,808 7.58
9 Nonpartisan "Junius" Ho Kwan-yiu 10,805 2.17
10 Independent Chan Yut-wah 11,997 2.41
11 NWSC Leung Yiu-chung Wong Yun-tat 42,799 8.78
12 DAB/NTAS Chan Han-pan Poon Chi-shing, Nixie Lam Lam, Chan Chun-chung, Law Kwan, Leung Kar-ming, Tsang Tai 36,555 7.33
13 Third Force Chan Keung, Ting Yin-wah, So Ka-man, Chow Ping-tim, Tang Ka-leung, Nancy Poon Siu-ping, Raju Gurung 16,767 3.37
14 Democratic Lee Wing-tat, Lam Lap-chi, Lai King-wai 32,792 6.58
15 Labour Lee Cheuk-yan Tam Chun-yin 40,967 8.22
16 DAB Tam Yiu-chung Lung Shui-hing, Yip Man-pan, Mo Shing-fung 43,496 8.72
TOTAL (Quota: 55,401 votes, 11.11%) 498,610 100.0
New Territories East ()
List No Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 LSD Leung Kwok-hung 48,295 10.39
2 FTU Ip Wai-ming, Wong Wang-to, Ching Ngon-lai, Kan Siu-kei, Kent Tsang King-chung, Cheung Kwok-wo 24,458 5.26
3 Democratic Emily Lau Wai-hing Ricky Or Yiu-lam, Frankie Lam Siu-ching, Lam Wing-yin 37,039 7.97
4 Independent Angel Leung On-kay 1,077 0.23
5 Civil Force/New Forum Scarlett Pong Oi-lan, Lanny Tam, Law Kwong-keung, Chan Kwok-tim, So Chun-man, Lam Chung-yan, Victor Leung Ka-fai, Chan Man-kuen, Tang Wing-cheong 23,988 5.16
6 DAB Elizabeth Quat Chong Yuen-tung, Li Sai-wing, Philip Li Ka-leung, Tung Kin-lei, Ki Lai-mei, Wong Ping-fan 46,139 9.93
7 People Power/Frontier Ray Chan Chi-chuen Erica Yuen Mi-ming 38,042 8.19
8 Economic Synergy Yau Wing-kwong, Tong Po-chun, Chan Cho-leung, Pang Shu-wan, Lau Wai-lun, Shing Kwok-chu, Man Chen-fai, Tang Kwong-wing, Lok Shui-sang 5,717 1.23
9 DAB Chan Hak-kan Lau Kwok-fan, Wong Pik-kiu,Larm Wai-leung, Clement Woo Kin-man, Yiu Ming 40,997 8.82
10 Labour Cheung Chiu-hung Kwok Wing-kin 39,650 8.53
11 Democratic Richard Tsoi Yiu-cheong, Au Chun-wah, Mak Yun-pui, Kwong Mei-na 10,028 2.16
12 Neo Democrats Gary Fan Kwok-wai Yam Kai-bong, Leung Li, Leung Wing-hung, Kwan Wing-yip, Yau Man-chun, Cheung Kam-lun, Cheung Kwok-keung, Michael Yung Ming-chau 28,621 6.16
13 Liberal James Tien Pei-chun Selina Chow Liang Shuk-yee, Leung Chi-wai, Liu Kwok-wah 31,016 6.67
14 Democratic Wong Sing-chi, Law Sai-yan 21,118 4.54
15 Civic Ronny Tong Ka-wah Alvin Yeung Ngok-kiu 32,753 7.05
16 Independent Raymond Ho Man-kit 2,875 0.62
17 Nonpartisan Pong Yat-ming 6,031 1.30
18 Independent Christine Fong Kwok-shan 24,594 5.29
19 Nonpartisan Chan Kwok-keung 2,327 0.50
TOTAL (Quota: 51,638 votes, 11.11%) 464,745 100.0

District Council (Second) Functional Constituency (5 seats)

Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

District Council (Second) Functional Constituency (()?)
List No Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) won Not elected Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
801 Democratic "Albert" Ho Chun-yan Kwong Chun-yu, Lam Siu-fai 228,840 14.38
802 Democratic James To Kun-sun Andrew Chiu Ka-yin, Au Nok-hin 316,468 19.88
803 Independent Pamela Peck Wan-kam 61,321 3.85
804 DAB/Civil Force Lau Kong-wah 199,732 12.55
805 ADPL Frederick Fung Kin-kee Hui Kam-shing 262,172 16.47
806 DAB Starry Lee Wai-king Hung Lin-cham, Chan Hok-fung, Chu Lap-wai, Ngan Man-yu 277,143 17.41
807 FTU Chan Yuen-han Dennis Leung Tsz-wing, Wong Yun-cheong 246,196 15.47
TOTAL (Quota: 318,374 votes, 20%) 1,591,872 100.0

Other Functional Constituencies (30 seats)

Voting systems: Different voting systems apply to different functional constituencies, namely for the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance and Transport, the preferential elimination system of voting; and for the remaining 24 FCs used the first-past-the-post voting system.[25]

Results of the Functional Constituencies (excluding District Council (Second))
Constituency Incumbent Result Candidate(s)
Heung Yee Kuk Lau Wong-fat
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent hold Lau Wong-fat (Economic Synergy)
Agriculture and Fisheries Wong Yung-kan
Incumbent retired
DAB hold
Steven Ho Chun-yin (DAB) 85.37%
Chan Mei-tak 14.63%
Insurance Chan Kin-por Incumbent hold Chan Kin-por
Transport Miriam Lau Kin-yee
Incumbent ran for HKI GC
Liberal hold
Frankie Yick Chi-ming (Liberal)
Education Cheung Man-kwong
Incumbent ran for KLW GC
PTU hold
Ip Kin-yuen (PTU) 75.42%
Ho Hon-kuen 24.58%
Legal Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee
Incumbent retired
Civic hold
"Dennis" Kwok Wing-hang (Civic) 56.20%
Albert Wong Kwai-huen (Independent) 43.80%
Accountancy Vacant
Post last held by Paul Chan Mo-po
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Kenneth Leung Kai-cheong 46.76%
Nelson Lam Chi-yuen (Independent) 39.70%
Wong Wang-tai 8.11%
Peter Chan Po-fun 5.44%
Medical Leung Ka-lau Incumbent re-elected Leung Ka-lau 67.31%
Tse Hung-hing 32.69%
Health Services Joseph Lee Kok-long Incumbent re-elected Joseph Lee Kok-long (Independent) 76.01%
Alice Tso Shing-yuk 23.99%
Engineering Raymond Ho Chung-tai
(Professional Forum)
Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Lo Wai-kwok (Independent) 41.46%
Albert Lai Kwong-tak (Prof Commons/Civic) 28.79%
Raymond Ho Chung-tai 23.97%
Luk Wang-kwong 5.78%
Architectural, Surveying and Planning Patrick Lau Sau-shing
(Professional Forum)
Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Tony Tse Wai-chuen (Independent) 35.20%
Patrick Lau Sau-shing (Independent) 33.91%
Stanley Ng Wing-fai (Democratic) 30.89%
Labour (3 seats) Li Fung-ying (FLU) Incumbent retired
FLU hold
Poon Siu-ping (FLU)
Ip Wai-ming (FTU) Incumbent ran for NTE GC
FTU hold
Kwok Wai-keung (FTU)
Pan Pey-chyou (FTU) Incumbent ran for HKI GC
FTU hold
Tang Ka-piu (FTU)
Social Welfare Cheung Kwok-che
Incumbent re-elected Cheung Kwok-che (SWGU/Labour) 89.08%
Chan Yee-fei 10.92%
Real Estate and Construction "Abraham Razack" Shek Lai-him
(Professional Forum)
Incumbent hold "Abraham Razack" Shek Lai-him (Independent)
Tourism Paul Tse Wai-chun
Incumbent ran for KLE GC
Nonpartisan gain
Yiu Si-wing 56.48%
Freddy Yip Hing-ning 43.52%
Commercial (First) Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent hold Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung (Economic Synergy)
Commercial (Second) Philip Wong Yu-hong
(Business and Professional Alliance)
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Martin Liao Cheung-kong
Industrial (First) Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent hold Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen (Economic Synergy)
Industrial (Second) Lam Tai-fai Incumbent hold Lam Tai-fai
Finance David Li Kwok-po Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Ng Leung-sing (Independent)
Financial Services Chim Pui-chung Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Christopher Cheung Wah-fung 44.83%
Vincent Marshall Lee Kwan-ho 43.53%
Frankie Yan Man-sing 5.39%
Tang Yu-lap 5.17%
Patrick Lam Tak-ming 1.08%
Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication Timothy Fok Tsun-ting Incumbent retired
New Forum gain
Ma Fung-kwok (New Forum) 65.37%
Chow Chun-fai 28.19%
"Jimmy" Siu See-kong 6.44%
Import and Export Wong Ting-kwong
Incumbent hold Wong Ting-kwong (DAB)
Textiles and Garment Sophie Leung Lau Yau-fun
(Economic Synergy)
Incumbent retired
Liberal gain
Chung Kwok-pan (Liberal) 56.07%
Henry Tan 43.93%
Wholesale and Retail Vincent Fang Kang
Incumbent hold Vincent Fang Kang (Liberal)
Information Technology Tam Wai-ho Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Charles Peter Mok (Independent) 57.82%
Tam Wai-ho (Independent) 42.18%
Catering Tommy Cheung Yu-yan
Incumbent hold Tommy Cheung Yu-yan (Liberal)
District Council (First) Ip Kwok-him
Incumbent hold Ip Kwok-him (DAB)

See also


  1. ^ "Hong Kong votes in key legislative elections". Al Jazeera. 9 September 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  2. ^ Maximiliano Herrera. "Electoral Calendar- world elections,US elections,presidential election,world parties". Mherrera.org. Retrieved 2012.
  3. ^ "Pan democrats election setbacks blamed infighting". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ "Civic Party defends election strategy despite two big losses". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "List of recommended geographical constituencies". Electoral Affairs Commission, Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ "Voter registration arrangements for District Council (second) functional constituency". Government of Hong Kong. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ "Beijing loyalists set LegCo poll fight". 2 August 2012.
  11. ^ "Backers of CY and Tang to get the lion's share". 10 September 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015.
  12. ^ 9? BB?, Apple Daily, 29 July 2012
  13. ^ "70". 30 August 2012.
  14. ^ (4 September 2012). "? : 8000". Sing Tao USA. Retrieved 2012.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ Shirley Zhao (8 September 2012), "Record-high turnout for anti-national education protests". Time Out
  16. ^ "? ? ? 12 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 ? 6 ?". RTHK. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  17. ^ "?". Commercial Radio Hong Kong. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  18. ^ , The Sun, 27 January 2012
  19. ^ 287 validly nominated candidates for Legislative Council Election
  20. ^ "Pan democrats election setbacks blamed infighting". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012.
  21. ^ "Civic Party defends election strategy despite two big losses". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012.
  22. ^ "DAB fares best taking 13 seats thanks vote splitting tactic". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2012.
  23. ^ https://thestandnews.com/politics/?-/
  24. ^ "TVB pearl newscast 10/9/2012".
  25. ^ "2012 LegCo Election- Facts about the Election". Elections.gov.hk. Retrieved 2012.

External links

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