A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannons or artillery as a military honor. As naval customs evolved, 21 guns came to be fired for heads of state, or in exceptional circumstances for heads of government, with the number decreasing with the rank of the recipient of the honor. While the 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized, the number of rounds fired in any given salute will vary depending on the conditions. Circumstances affecting these variations include the particular occasion and, in the case of military and state funerals, the branch of service, and rank (or office) of the person to whom honors are being rendered.
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The tradition of saluting can be traced to the Late Middle Ages practice of placing oneself in an unarmed position and, therefore, in the power of those being honored. This may be noted in the dropping of the point of the sword, presenting arms, discharging cannon and small arms by firing them, lowering sails, manning the yards, removing the headdress or laying on oars.
The custom stems from naval tradition in the sixteenth century, when a warship entering a foreign port would fire each of its cannons while still out of range of targets. Since cannons then required a considerable time to reload, the ship was effectively disarmed, signifying the lack of hostile intent. In the earliest days, seven guns was the recognized British national salute because seven was the standard number of weapons on a vessel. In those days, gunpowder made from sodium nitrate was easier to keep on dry land than at sea. The early regulations stated that although a ship would fire only seven guns, the forts ashore would fire three shots to each one shot afloat, hence the number 21.
The system of firing an odd number of rounds is said to have been originated by Samuel Pepys, Secretary to the Navy in the Restoration, as a way of economizing on the use of powder, the rule until that time having been that all guns had to be fired. Odd numbers were chosen, as even numbers indicated a death. With the increase in quality of naval gunpowder by the use of potassium nitrate, honors rendered at sea were increased to the shore salute. 21 guns became the highest national honor.
There was much confusion because of the varying customs of maritime states, but finally the British government proposed to the United States a regulation that provided for "salutes to be returned gun for gun". The British at that time officially considered the international salute to sovereign states to be 21 guns, and the United States adopted the 21 guns and "gun for gun" return on 18 August 1875.
The 21-gun salute in Bangladesh is generally used for:
21-gun salutes are used for these people and holidays:
A 15-gun salute is given on certain occasions for the lieutenant governors of the provinces, such as the Speech from the Throne in a provincial legislature, or for special occasions such as state funerals of important persons.
Before they were abolished in 1968 by the Trudeau government, royal salutes were fired in Ottawa, the provincial capitals, and Montreal and Vancouver also on the Queen's Accession Day (6 February), the Queen's actual birthday (21 April), the Queen's Coronation Day (2 June), the Birthday of the Duke of Edinburgh (10 June), and the Birthday of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (4 August).
The 21-gun salute is used in the People's Republic of China in honor of the President during state visits to the country's capital, Beijing, with the guns manned by the State Honors Artillery Battery of the Beijing Garrison Command, attached to the Beijing Garrison Honor Guard Battalion. During the following holidays a 21-gun salute is also fired to commence military parades with the raising of the national flag:
This cannonade salute is used in relation to Czech presidential events and for the inauguration of the Prague Castle guard. It is fired to the sound of the National Anthem. The cannons used today were modified in 1993 from decommissioned 85mm vz.52 artillery cannons with electronic firing mechanisms by the Czech Military Technical Institute of arms and ammunition in Slavi?ín. The ammunition used is a version of blank shells, modified for an increased acoustic effect. Shots are traditionally fired from either two or four cannons so that, in the case of a failure of one of the weapons, the others will substitute it.
The salute was given to the ex-president Václav Havel by an artillery battery of four cannons (each firing 21 times) from the Pet?ín hill on 23 December 2011 during the commemorative service after his death.
Gun salutes are used for a variety of occasions, mostly in honor of the Danish Royal Family. There are permanent salutory guns in place at Kronborg Castle in Elsinore, the Sixtus battery at Holmen Naval Base in Copenhagen, as well as at the naval base at Kangilinnguit in Greenland.
Gun salutes occur on:
Gun salutes also occur during naval visits and when a foreign head of state arrives on a state visit. Also, when the Queen heads out on her annual summer cruise on the Royal Yacht Dannebrog, she is saluted when passing Kronborg.
The day after the birth of Princess Benedikte in 1944 which took place during Nazi Germany's Occupation of Denmark, members of the Danish resistance group Holger Danske performed a salute of 21 bombs in the Ørstedsparken public park in central Copenhagen as a reference to the traditional 21-gun salute performed at the occasion of royal births.
The 21-gun is accorded to the French president, forming part of his "military honors" (honneurs militaires). The salute is given during the inauguration ceremony (by two 75mm guns) and during naval visits. These honors are extended to foreign heads of state when in State visit.
The 21-gun salute is accorded to the President of India on several occasions. As soon as a new President is sworn in, a 21-gun salute is given. On Republic Day of India, every year, a 21-gun salute is given to the National Flag and the President, during the Flag Hoisting Ceremony. When a foreign head of State or head of government visits India, a formal reception is held at the Rashtrapati Bhavan, and the head of state is given a 21-gun salute, with a 19-gun salute given to a foreign head of government.
|Number of guns||Recipients|
Prior to Indian independence in 1947, the Viceroy of India received a unique viceregal salute of 31 guns. After 1947, the 31-gun salute was retained for honouring the Governor-General of India (1947-1950), and for the President of India from 1950 until 1971, as several former Indian salute-state princes enjoyed 21-gun salutes even after independence. The 31-gun salute was used upon the inaugurations and official arrivals of Presidents of India, and was finally replaced with the 21-gun salute in 1971, when the former salute-state princes' privilege of receiving gun salutes was revoked.
The more important of the hundreds of vassal rulers of princely states involved in indirect rule were classified by the number of guns used when paying honours to them, signifying their prestige in the eyes of the British. The highest of these so-called "salute states" (also in some other parts of the British Empire) enjoyed 21 guns.
During British colonial rule in India, the heads of the following states received 21-gun salutes:
The heads of the following states received 19-gun salutes:
The heads of the following states had 17-gun salutes:
In Indonesia, the 21-gun salute is done during the state-visit of foreign state leaders in Indonesia. The responsibility of this activity is done by the Artillery units from the Indonesian Army and sometimes from the Indonesian Marine Corps Artillery regiments.
The modified 17-gun salute is executed during the commemoration of the precise seconds of the proclamation of the independence every 17 August at 10:00 near the Merdeka Palace in Jakarta. It is also done in other cities in Indonesia during the independence day commemoration ceremonies. See the 17-gun salute in Indonesia here: Indonesian Independence Day 17-gun salute
In Italy the 21-gun salute is used everyday in Rome, using a WWII 105/22 gun, soldiers from Artillery Headquarters fire the guns at 12.00. This ceremony is performed from April 21st 1959 to celebrate the 2712th foundation anniversary of the city of Rome. All are personnel of the Italian Army.
The 21-gun salute is used in events such as the inauguration of the President, death of a top military official, death of a former president or courtesy calls of foreign leaders during their state visits. The practice is heavily influenced by the United States.
Gun salutes can occur on:
The three-volley gun salute can also occur in the death of the low ranking military officials and soldiers who died heroically in combat while the 21-guns are reserved upon news of the deaths of national leaders. The normal 21-gun salute is also given to visiting heads of state upon their arrival at Malacañang Palace, with the guns manned by the Presidential Security Group.
Other salutes include 19 guns for the Vice President of the Philippines, 17 for the Chief of Staff, AFP, service commanders and the Secretary of National Defense. 15 guns are fired for other Cabinet secretaries.
In Poland the 21-gun salute is used in military funerals and funerals of fallen leaders and heroes. Known as the Salwa Honorowa (Honorary Volley), it is also used in national holidays.
In Pakistan a 21-gun salute is used on occasions such as on Pakistan Day (23 March), on which a 21-gun salute is given in provincial capitals and 31 in Islamabad, the federal capital. It is also given on Independence Day (14 August) and Defence Day (6 September). A 31-gun salute in Islamabad and a 21-gun salute in provincial capitals is also given on 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal the birth date of Prophet Muhammad. It is also given when a foreign president or prime minister visits Pakistan.
The 21-gun salute is performed by the Romanian Armed Forces in honor of the National Day, the National Anthem or Flag, in honor of the head of state or for foreign heads of state when on state visit to the country.
Russia uses a 21-gun salute on holidays such as on Defender of the Fatherland Day (23 February), Victory Day (9 May), and Russia Day (12 June), during parades (as the National Anthem is played) and during the nighttime ceremony of salute firing on holidays. Contrary to belief, foreign leaders are not entitled to a 21-gun salute during state visits to Russia.
In Sri Lanka, the Sri Lanka Artillery carries out a 21-gun salute on state occasions, accorded to the President or a visiting heads of state. The salute is delivered from Ordnance QF 25 pounders of the Ceremonial Gun Troop.
Traditionally, the Sri Lanka Navy accords a 25-gun salute to the nation on the National day, which is 4 February each year. The salute is fired from the ceremonial naval gun battery at Colombo Lighthouse. It began with HMCyS Vijaya of the Royal Ceylon Navy, the first warship of the navy according a 25-gun salute on 4 February 1951 with its single 4-inch gun.
21-gun salutes mark special royal occasions throughout Sweden, referred to as a Kunglig Salut (Royal Salute). The number of rounds fired in a salute depends on the place and occasion. The basic salute is 21 rounds. However, when a birth takes place within the Royal House of Sweden, and the child is the firstborn to either the reigning monarch or to the heir to the throne, an extra 21 rounds (for a total of 42) are added to the normal salute. In all other births 21 rounds are fired.
Gun salutes occur on:
Military saluting stations are Skeppsholmen and Kastellholmen in Stockholm, Fortress of Kungshall in Karlskrona, Battery of Fårösund on the island of Gotland, Boden Fortress in Boden, Battery of Kusthöjden in Härnösand, Vaxholm Castle in Vaxholm, Skansen Lejonet Fortress and Älvsborg Castle in Gothenburg.
19-gun salutes are used for heads of government, cabinet ministers and ambassadors.
The Swedish Armed Forces also use a gun salute consisting of two rapid gunshots. This salute, called Svensk Lösen (Swedish signal), was fired whenever a Swedish ship would enter a harbour in order to identify the ship as Swedish, or on the field of battle to identify the Swedish troops. Sometimes a double signal was fired, i.e. four gunshots fired two and two, hence the Swedish tradition of a fourfold cheer instead of a threefold. This signal is today fired on special occasions, usually within the military.
The 21-gun salute is used in Taiwan in honor of the President during National Day celebrations. After military band trumpeters sound the attention call, the audience is asked to stand up as the President enters. After she or he stands in the podium, the gun salute starts while the gun salute music is played. In some celebrations, it is done while the National Anthem is played, preceded by five ruffles and flourishes by a military band.
21-gun salutes mark special royal occasions throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, referred to as a "Royal Salute" (in the British Empire it was reserved, mainly among colonial princely states, for the most prestigious category of native rulers of so-called salute states), unless rendered to the president or flag of a republic; nonetheless salutes rendered to all heads of state regardless of title are casually referred to as "royal" salutes.
The number of rounds fired in a salute depends on the place and occasion. The basic salute is 21 rounds. In Hyde Park and Green Park an extra 20 rounds are added because they are Royal Parks. At the Tower of London 62 rounds are fired on royal anniversaries (the basic 21, plus a further 20 because the Tower is a Royal Palace and Fortress, plus another 21 'for the City of London') and 41 on other occasions. The Tower of London probably holds the record for the most rounds fired in a single salute - 124 are fired whenever the Duke of Edinburgh's birthday (62 rounds) coincides with the Saturday designated as the Queen's official birthday (also 62 rounds).
Gun salutes occur on:
Gun salutes also occur when Parliament is prorogued by the Queen, on royal births and when a visiting head of state meets the Queen in London, Windsor or Edinburgh. A Royal Salute of 21 Guns is fired at Edinburgh Castle in honour of The Queen or her Personal Representative, the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, when processing in state to the Opening of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland which occurs annually in May. The significance of the 21 Gun Salute is that the Lord High Commissioner is representing the Sovereign as Head of State.
Authorized military saluting stations are:
in Northern Ireland:
In London, salutes are fired from Hyde Park and the Tower of London; on State Visits, at the State Opening of Parliament and for Trooping the Colour, Green Park is used instead of Hyde Park. In Hyde Park, the salute is fired by the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. The first round is fired at noon (11am on The Queen's official birthday). At the Tower of London, the salute is fired by the Honourable Artillery Company at 1pm.
At 6am annually, in the market town of Lewes, a mortar is fired from the battlements to mark when Guy Fawkes was found and marks the start of Bonfire Night. The mortar is traditionally followed by the sound fire crackers and bangers being let off throughout the town.
On 16 November 1776, the West Indian port of St. Eustatius returned a 9-gun salute for the 13-gun salute given by the U.S. brigantine Andrew Doria. At the time, nine guns was the customary salute to an independent republic. This First Salute was specifically ordered by the Dutch governor of the island, and marks the first formal international recognition of the United States as an independent republic. The flag flown by the Andrew Doria was the Grand Union Flag, 13 alternating red and white stripes with the British Flag in the union. The Stars and Stripes received its first salute when John Paul Jones saluted France with 13 guns at Quiberon Bay in 1778 (the Stars and Stripes was not adopted as the national flag until 14 June 1777).
The practice of firing one gun for each state in the union was not officially authorized until 1810, when the United States Department of War declared the number of rounds fired in the "National Salute" to be equivalent to the number of states--which, at the time was 17. The tradition continued until 1841 when it was reduced from 26 to 21.
In 1842, the United States declared the 21-gun salute as its "Presidential Salute". While the "National Salute" had been formally established as the 21-gun salute, the current tradition holds the salute on Independence Day to be a 50 rounds--one round for each state in the union. This 'Salute to the Nation' is fired at noon on 4 July, on U.S. military installations. The U.S. Navy recognizes Presidents day and Memorial day with a 21-gun salute at 1200.
In April 1914, during the Mexican Revolution, the Tampico Affair occurred, and escalated as a result of a twenty-one gun salute (or more specifically, the lack of one). Nine unarmed U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico, for entering an off-limit area at a fuel loading station. Despite being released, the U.S. Naval commander demanded an apology and a twenty-one gun salute. The apology was provided, but not the salute, giving President Woodrow Wilson reason to order the U.S. occupation of the port of Veracruz.
On Memorial Day, batteries on military installations fire a 21-gun salute to the nation's fallen. As well, batteries at Naval stations and on ships, fire a salute of 21-minute guns and display the ensign at half-mast from 8 a.m. until completion of the salute.
Today, a 21-gun salute is rendered on the arrival and departure of the President of the United States; it is fired in concordance with four ruffles and flourishes, which are immediately followed by "Hail to the Chief"--the actual gun salute begins with the first ruffle and flourish, and 'run long' (i.e. the salute concludes after "Hail to the Chief" has ended). A 21-gun salute is also rendered to former U.S. Presidents, foreign Heads of State (or members of a reigning royal family), as well as to Presidents-elect. In such a ceremony, the national anthem of the visiting dignitary's country is played, following the salute.
In accordance with the ceremonial standard operating procedure (SOP) of the 3rd U.S. Infantry (The Old Guard) the various gun salutes are assigned as follows: each round in a given salute is fired one at a time. The number of cannon used in a battery depends upon the intervals between each round fired. This includes, for example, a three-gun battery firing two of its guns with five-second intervals between rounds and one gun remaining at the ready in case of a misfire; such a battery would be used at an Armed Forces Full Honors Funeral, or for State Arrival Ceremony of a foreign dignitary at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery. A four-gun battery has its first three guns firing rounds at three-second intervals, with the fourth gun (again) at the ready in case of misfire.
The SOP also provides each gun salute a two-man gun crew (one loader, one gunner) for each cannon, as well as a five-man "staff" of soldiers to give the fire commands. The staff includes an Officer in Charge, a watchman (who marks the intervals and signals each gun to fire), an assistant watchman (as a backup), a counter (who keeps track of the number of rounds fired and signals the last round to the Officer in Charge), and a Non-Commissioned Officer in Charge (who marches the battery into place as well as signals the backup cannon to fire in case another gun misfires).
Naval vessels now have saluting guns installed which are used solely for such purpose.
Nineteen-gun salutes are reserved for the Vice President of the United States, foreign deputy heads of state, cabinet members, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate, Chief Justice of the United States, state Governors, foreign heads of government (such as Prime Ministers), chiefs of staff and general officers in the U.S. military of five-star rank. For each flag rank junior to a five-star officer, two guns are subtracted (e.g., for a four-star admiral, a 17-gun salute is prescribed; a three-star general would rate a 15-gun salute; a two-star, 13 guns, and a one-star, 11 guns).
A gun salute is not to be confused with the three-volley salute often rendered at military funerals.
The gun salutes fired in the United States are as follows:
|Number of guns||Recipients|
|19||Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate, Chief Justice of the United States, Cabinet officers. Governors of a U.S. state, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, a Prime Minister or Premier, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, the Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, a Fleet Admiral, General of the Army or General of the Air Force and Ambassadors, High Commissioners, and others whose credentials are at least equivalent to those of an ambassador.|
|17||Governor General or Governor of a Territory, Commonwealth, or Possession of the United States or an area under U.S. administration, Committee of Congress, Assistant Secretaries of Defense, General Counsel of the Department of Defense, Under Secretaries of the Army, Navy, or Air Force. Admiral, General.|
|15||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Vice Admiral, Lieutenant General.|
|13||Minister Resident; Rear Admiral, Major General|
|11||Chargé d'Affaires, Consul general, Consul, or Vice Consul when in charge of a consulate-general. Brigadier general; Rear Admiral (lower half)|
|7||Consuls accredited to the U.S. Vice-consuls when in charge of consulate.|
|5||Vice-consuls and consular agents.|
A U.S. presidential death also involves 21-gun salutes and other military traditions. On the day after the death of the president, a former president or president-elect--unless this day falls on a Sunday or holiday, in which case the honor will be rendered the following day--the commanders of Army installations with the necessary personnel and material traditionally order that one gun be fired every half-hour, beginning at reveille and ending at retreat.
On the day of burial, a 21-minute gun salute traditionally is fired starting at noon at all military installations with the necessary personnel and material. Guns will be fired at one-minute intervals. Also on the day of burial, those installations will fire a 50-gun salute--one round for each state--at five-second intervals immediately following lowering of the flag.
The song "Move Now" by Nonpoint also includes a reference.
In the film Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, when the Grandfather sings "Posh" whilst dangling from a hot air balloon, there is a line "they 21 gun salute me".
Another mention is in the Clutch song "The Mob Goes Wild".
The 2000 U.S. Open Golf Championship, held at the famed Pebble Beach Golf Links, saw a unique twist on the 21-gun salute. The tournament's defending champion, Payne Stewart, had died in a plane crash the previous October. Before the tournament began, a ceremony was held in Stewart's memory in which 21 golfers lined up on the 18th fairway and hit drives into the Pacific Ocean.