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|366th Infantry Regiment|
|Branch||United States Army Reserve|
|Garrison/HQ||Fort Devens, Massachusetts|
|Motto(s)||"Labor Conquers All Things."|
|Engagements||World War I,|
World War II
|Battle honours||Meuse-Argonne Offensive,|
The 366th Infantry Regiment was an all African American (segregated) unit of the United States Army that served with distinction in both World War I and World War II. The unit was one of the exceptional Negro units with all black officers and personnel; the U.S. military did not desegregate until after World War II, and in most of the segregated units, all field grade and most of the company grade officers were white. During World War II, the unit saw combat in Italy as part of the 92nd Infantry Division (colored), 5th Army.
The 366th Infantry was constituted 16 August 1917 in the National Army as the 366th Infantry and assigned to the 92nd Division and organized at Camp Dodge, Iowa, in November 1917.
In World War I the regiment served overseas as a part of the 92nd Division, National Army and earned credit for battle participation as follows:
Colonel Howard Donovan Queen was the commanding officer (CO) at the time of embarkation in March 1944. Although the 366th Infantry had been at "combat readiness", after a prolonged period which was devoted only to guard duty, Queen felt that they needed at least three months for preparation to be "combat ready". Queen wrote a significant request for withdrawal from active command and included his guarded reservations in regard to his deeply held tenets. In spite of this it was decided in November 1944 to attach the 366th Infantry to the 92nd Division.
After continuing poor combat performance including many instances of unauthorized withdrawals upon meeting the enemy, low morale and malingering, the 92nd Infantry Division was considered of inferior quality both by German and American commands and fit for only defensive roles. Things deteriorated to the point that the division was withdrawn from the lines and rebuilt in early 1945 with the removal of the 366th Infantry Regiment (formed into two engineer general service regiments) and the addition of the 473rd Regiment and the highly decorated Nisei 442nd Regiment, made up of Japanese Americans, which was withdrawn from the fighting in France to bolster the division's combat effectiveness.
The 366th Infantry Regiment was awarded two campaign streamers for the Colors; the first for Meuse-Argonne Lorraine (September 1918 to November 1918), and the second for Rome-Arno (January 1944 to September 1944).