6 January Dictatorship
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6 January Dictatorship

The 6 January Dictatorship (Serbian: / ?estojanuarska diktatura, Croatian: ?estosije?anjska diktatura, Slovene: ?estojanuarska diktatura) was a royal dictatorship established in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia after 1929) by King Alexander I (r. 1921-34) with the ultimate goal to create the Yugoslav ideology and single Yugoslav nation. It lasted from 6 January 1929, when the king prorogued parliament and assumed control of the state, and ended with the 1931 Yugoslav Constitution.


In 1928, Croatian Peasant Party leader Stjepan Radi? was assassinated in the Parliament of Yugoslavia by a Montenegrin Serb leader and People's Radical Party politician Puni?a Ra?i?, during a tense argument.[1]

Trying to reconcile ethnic tensions, especially between Serbian and Croatian politicians, Alexander introduced a dictatorship with the aim of establishing the Yugoslav ideology and single Yugoslav nation.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

The king abolished the Vidovdan Constitution, prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship on 6 January 1929. The next day, general Petar ?ivkovi? became prime minister, heading the regime's Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy. On 11 January, the State Court for the Protection of the State was established in Belgrade.

The state was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and was divided into new administrative divisions, called banovine (singular banovina). This decision was made following a proposal by the British ambassador to better decentralize the country, modeled on Czechoslovakia.[7]

Continuing his efforts to unify his subjects, Alexander outlawed all political parties based on ethnic, religious, or regional distinctions, reorganized the state administratively, and standardized legal systems, school curricula, and national holidays.[8]

On 20 April, the Croatian fascist Usta?e and Macedonian secessionist IMRO called for the independence of Croatia and Macedonia. On 25 April, ?uro ?akovi?, a prominent unionist and the first secretary of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was killed by Yugoslav policemen at the Yugoslav-Austrian border, Slovenia, after four days of torture and interrogation in a Zagreb police station. On 22 December, Croatian leader Vladko Ma?ek was arrested.

After Alexander was assassinated, he was succeeded by the Yugoslav regency.


  1. ^ a b Newman 2017.
  2. ^ Troch 2017.
  3. ^ Grgi? 2018.
  4. ^ Nielsen 2009.
  5. ^ Dragnich 1991.
  6. ^ Yeomans 2012, pp. 6.
  7. ^ a b Pavlovi? 2012, pp. 512.
  8. ^ "Alexander I, King of Yugoslavia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2020.


Further reading

  • Stojkov, Todor. Opozicija u vreme ?estojanuarske diktature 1929-1935. Prosveta, 1969.
  • Ga?pari?, Jure. SLS pod kraljevo diktaturo: diktatura kralja Aleksandra in politika Slovenske ljudske stranke v letih 1929-1935. Modrijan, 2007.
  • Imamovi?, Mustafa. Pravni polo?aj verskih zajednica za vreme ?estojanuarske diktature. 1991
  • Janjatovi?, Bosiljka. "O progonima hrvatskih politi?ara u Zagrebu za vrijeme kara?or?evi?evske ?estojanuarske diktature." Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest 26.1 (1993): 161-176.
  • Janjatovi?, Bosiljka, and Petar Str?i?. "Nekoliko spisa organa vlasti o komunistima na otoku Krku za ?estojanuarske diktature." Vjesnik historijskih arhiva u Rijeci i Pazinu 16.1971) (1971): 91-126.
  • Jerotijevic, Zoran. " ? ? (Economic and Political Causes of the Introduction of the January Sixth Regime)." Ekonomika 60.2 (2014): 227-238.
  • Kau?i?, Domen. Odnos Slovencev do kralja Aleksandra I. Kara?or?evi?a: odziv na politi?ne poteze kraljevega dvora v ?asu ?estojanuarske diktature: diplomsko delo. Diss. D. Kau?i?, 2015.
  • Draki?, Gordana. "Arising of the Legal System in the Yugoslav State between the Two World Wars." Proceedings of Novi Sad Faculty of Law 42 (2008).

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