Abdul Qadir Jilani
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Abdul Qadir Jilani
?Abd al-Q?dir al-G?l?n?
TitleShaykh al-Islam
Personal
Born17 March 1078 CE
(1 Ramadan, 470 AH)
Gilan Province, present-day Iran
Died21 February 1166 CE
(11 Rabi' al-Thani, 561 AH)
(aged 87)
Baghdad, Iraq
Resting placeBaghdad, Iraq
ReligionIslam
ChildrenAbdul Razzaq Gilani
EraIslamic Golden Age
RegionBaghdad
DenominationSunni
JurisprudenceHanbali[1][2]
CreedTraditionalist (Athari)
Main interest(s)Fiqh, Sufism, aqidah
TariqaQadiriyya (founder)
RelativesShah Mustafa (descendant)[3]

?Abd al-Q?dir G?l?n?, (Persian: ‎, formally Mu?y? l-D?n Ab? Mu?ammad b. Ab? S?lih ?Abd al-Q?dir al-G?l?n? al-?asan? wa'l-?usayn? (Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Kurdish: Evdilqadirê Geylanî‎, Sorani Kurdish: ? ‎),[4] known as for short was a Hanbali Sunni Muslim preacher, orator, ascetic, mystic, sayyid, faq?h, and theologian[4] who was known for being the eponymous founder of the Qadiriyya tariqa (Sufi order) of Sufism.[4]

Born 29 Sha'ban 470 AH (around 1077) in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan-e Gharb, Gilan, Iran[5][nb 1] and died Monday, February 14, 1166 (11 Rabi' al-Thani 561 AH), in Baghdad,[6] (1077-1166 CE), was a Persian[5] Hanbali Sunni[1][2] jurist and Sufi based in Baghdad. The Qadiriyya tariqa is named after him.[7] And say that he was born in Gilan Iraq, a historic village near the cities (Al-Mada'in) of 40 kilometers south of Baghdad, as evidenced by historical studies academic and adopted by the Gilan Family in Baghdad.[8]

Name

The name Muhiyudin describes him as a "reviver of religion".[9] Gilani (Arabic al-Jilani) refers to his place of birth, Gilan.[10][11] However, Gilani also carried the epithet Baghdadi.[12][13][14] referring to his residence and burial in Baghdad. He is also called al-Hasani wa'l-Husayni, which indicates a claim to lineal descent from both Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali.

Paternal heritage

Gilani's father was from Sayyid lineage.[15][16] He was respected as a saint by the people of his day, and was known as Jangi Dost "who loves God", thus "Jangidost" was his sobriquet.[17][18][19]

Education

Gilani spent his early life in Gilan, the town of his birth. In 1095, at the age of eighteen years, he went to Baghdad. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali law [20] under Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi and ibn Aqil.[21] He was given lessons on Hadith by Abu Muhammad Ja'far al-Sarraj.[21] His Sufi spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas.[22] (A detailed description of his various teachers and subjects are included below). After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq.[23]

Education in Baghdad

At the age of 18, Gilani went to Baghdad to study the Hanbali school of fiqh.[24]

Later life

In 1127, Gilani returned to Baghdad and began to preach to the public.[25] He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, al-Mazkhzoomi, and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Quran. He was said to have been a convincing preacher and converted numerous Jews and Christians. His strength came in the reconciling of the mystical nature of Sufism and strict nature of the Law.[25]

Death and burial

Gilani died in the evening of Tuesday, February 21, 1166 (11th Rabi' al-thani 561 AH) at the age of ninety one years according to the Islamic calendar.[6] His body was entombed in a shrine within his madrasa in Babul-Sheikh, Rusafa on the east bank of the Tigris in Baghdad, Iraq.[26][27][28] During the reign of the Safavid Shah Ismail I, Gilani's shrine was destroyed.[29] However, in 1535, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had a turba (dome) built over the shrine, which exists to this day.[30]

Birthday and death anniversary celebration

1 Ramadan is celebrated as the birthday of Abdul Qadir Gilani while the death anniversary is on 11 Rabi us Thani though some scholars and traditions say 29 Shaban and 17 Rabi us Sani as birth and death day respectively. His 'urs', or death anniversary, is called in the subcontinent as Giyarwee Shareef or Honoured Day of 11th.[31]

Tomb Of Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Baghdad, Iraq.

Books

  • Kitab Sirr al-Asrar wa Mazhar al-Anwar[32] (The Book of the Secret of Secrets and the Manifestation of Light)
  • Futuh al ghaib (Secrets of the unseen)

See also

Bibliography

  • Sayings of Shaikh Abd al-Qadir al-J?l?n? Malf?z?t, Holland, Muhtar (translator). S. Abdul Majeed & Co, Kuala Lumpur (1994) ISBN 1-882216-03-2.
  • Fifteen letters, khamsata ashara makt?ban / Shaikh Abd Al-Q?dir Al-J?l?n?. Translated from Persian to Arabic by Al? us?mu ?D-D?n Al-Muttaq?. Translated from Arabic into English by Muhtar Holland.
  • Kamsata a?ara makt?ban. First edition. ?Al al-D?n, ?Al? B., ?Abd al-Malik al- Muttaq? al-Hind? (about 1480-1567) and Muhtar Holland (1935-). Al-Baz publications, Hollywood, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-16-4.
  • Jal? Al-Khaw?tir: a collection of forty-five discourses of Shaikh Abd Al-Q?dir Al-J?l?n?, the removal of cares. Chapter 23, pg 308. Jal? al-Khaw?tir, Holland, Muhtar (1935-) (translator). Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-13-X.
  • The sultan of the saints: mystical life and teachings of Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani / Muhammad Riaz Qadiri Qadiri, Muhammad Riyaz. Gujranwala, Abbasi publications. (2000) ISBN 969-8510-16-8.
  • The sublime revelation: al-Fath ar-Rabb?n?, a collection of sixty-two discourses / Abd al-Q?dir al- J?l?n?, Second edition. al-Rabb?n?, al-Fath. Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1998). ISBN 1-882216-02-4.
  • Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion), Parts one and two in Arabic. Al-Qadir, Abd, Al-Gaylani. Dar Al-Hurya, Baghdad, Iraq, (1988).
  • Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion.) in Arabic. Introduced by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Dar Al-Khair, Damascus, Bairut, (2005).
  • Encyclopædia Iranica, Bibliotheca Persica PresS, ISBN 1-56859-050-4.
  • Geography of the Baz Ahhab second reading in the biography of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, and the birthplace of his birth according to the methodology of scientific research (MA in Islamic History from Baghdad University in 2001) of Iraqi researcher Jamal al-Din Faleh Kilani, review and submission of the historian Emad Abdulsalam Rauf?Publishe Dar Baz Publishing, United States of America, 2016, translated by Sayed Wahid Al-Qadri Aref.

Notes

  1. ^ There is uncertainty as to the year of his birth; some sources say 1077, others 1078? He was born in Nif, a city in Persia part of today's Gilan Province of Iran.'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani at the Encyclopædia Britannica

References

  1. ^ a b John Renard, The A to Z of Sufism. p 142. ISBN 081086343X
  2. ^ a b Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 288. ISBN 1438126964
  3. ^ Rajat Kanti Goswami (31 March 2007). "Journey Through Bangladesh: Hazrat Shah Mustafa's Legacy". 2 (7). Star Insight (Daily Star).
  4. ^ a b c Abdul Qadir Gilani at Encyclopædia Iranica
  5. ^ a b W. Braune, Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R Gibb, J.H.Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal, J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 69;".. all authorities are unanimous in stating that he was a Persian from Nayf (Nif) in Djilan, south of the Caspian Sea."
  6. ^ a b The works of Shaykh Umar Eli of Somalia of al-Tariqat al-Qadiriyyah.
  7. ^ "Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths". islam.uga.edu. Retrieved .
  8. ^ Book: Geography of the Baz Al-Ashhab, Achieving the Birthplace of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Kilani, Dr. Jamal Al-Din Faleh Al-Kilani,(MA in Islamic History from Baghdad University in 2001) Al-Jalis Library, Beirut, 2012, p. 14
  9. ^ Mihr-e-mun?r: biography of Hadrat Syed P?r Meher Al? Sh?h pg 21, Muhammad F?dil Kh?n, Faid Ahmad. Sajjadah Nashinan of Golra Sharif, Islamabad (1998).
  10. ^ Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics: volume 1. (A - Art). Part 1. (A - Algonquins) pg 10. Hastings, James and Selbie, John A. Adamant Media corporation. (2001), "and he was probably of Persian origin."
  11. ^ The Sufi orders in Islam, 2nd edition, pg 32. Triingham, J. Spencer and Voll, John O. Oxford University Press US, (1998), "The Hanafi Qadirriya is also included since 'Abd al-Qadir, of Persian origin was contemporary of the other two."
  12. ^ Devotional Islam and politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his movement, 1870-1920, pg 144, Sanyal, Usha Oxford University Press US, 19 August 1999. ISBN 0-19-564862-5 ISBN 978-0-19-564862-1.
  13. ^ Cultural and religious heritage of India: Islam pg 321. Sharma, Suresh K. (2004)
  14. ^ Indo-iranica pg 7. The Iran Society, Calcutta, India. (1985).
  15. ^ Historical and political who's who of Afghanistan. p 177. Adamec, Ludwig W. (1975)
  16. ^ Q?dr?, Mu?ammad Riy?z? (2000-01-01). The Sultan of the Saints: Mystical Life and Teaching of Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani. Abbasi Pablications. p. 19. ISBN 9789698510169.
  17. ^ "Sulook organisation website" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-28. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Mihr-e-mun?r: biography of Hadrat Syed P?r Meher Al? Sh?h pg 27, Kh?n, Muhammad F?dil and Ahmad, Faid. Sajjadah Nashinan of Golra Sharif, Islamabad. (1997)
  19. ^ Encyclopaedia of Sufism, volume 1, Kahn, Masood Ali and Ram, S.
  20. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9781438126968.
  21. ^ a b Gibb, H.A.R.; Kramers, J.H.; Levi-Provencal, E.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1960]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume I (A-B). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 69. ISBN 978-9004081147.
  22. ^ Malise Ruthven, Islam in the World, p 243. ISBN 0195305035
  23. ^ Esposito J. L. The Oxford dictionary of Islam. p160. ISBN 0199757267
  24. ^ Akbar, pg.11 Al Haqq, Abd. and Ghunyat al-talibeen (Wealth for Seekers) pg. 12 Urdu version
  25. ^ a b 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  26. ^ Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion), parts one and two in Arabic, Al-Qadir, Abd and Al-Gilani. Dar Al-Hurya, Baghdad, Iraq, (1988).
  27. ^ Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion) with introduction by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Al-Kilani, Majid, al-Tariqat, 'Ursan, and al-Qadiriyah, Nash'at
  28. ^ "The Qadirya Mausoleum" (PDF).
  29. ^ A.A. Duri, Baghdad, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 903.
  30. ^ W. Braune, Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 70.
  31. ^ "Ghousia".
  32. ^ "Sirr-ul-Asrar". www.nafseislam.com. Retrieved .

External links


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