Abel Prize | |
---|---|
Awarded for | Outstanding scientific work in the field of mathematics |
Country | Norway |
Presented by | Government of Norway |
First awarded | 2003 |
Website | www.abelprize.no |
The Abel Prize (Norwegian: Abelprisen) is a Norwegian prize awarded annually by the King of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians.^{[1]} It is named after Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1829) and directly modeled after the Nobel Prizes.^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]} It comes with a monetary award of 7.5 million Norwegian Kroner (NOK).
The Abel Prize's history dates back to 1899, when its establishment was proposed by the Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie when he learned that Alfred Nobel's plans for annual prizes would not include a prize in mathematics. In 1902, King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway indicated his willingness to finance a mathematics prize to complement the Nobel Prizes, but the establishment of the prize was prevented by the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905. It took almost a century before the prize was finally established by the Government of Norway in 2001, and it was specifically intended "to give the mathematicians their own equivalent of a Nobel Prize."^{[7]} The laureates are selected by the Abel Committee, the members of which are appointed by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.
The award ceremony takes place in the Aula of the University of Oslo, where the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded between 1947 and 1989.^{[9]} The Abel Prize board has also established an Abel symposium, administered by the Norwegian Mathematical Society.^{[10]}
The prize was first proposed in 1899, to be part of the celebration of the 100th anniversary of Niels Henrik Abel's birth in 1802.^{[11]} Shortly before his death in 1899, the Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie proposed establishing an Abel Prize when he learned that Alfred Nobel's plans for annual prizes would not include a prize in mathematics. King Oscar II was willing to finance a mathematics prize in 1902, and the mathematicians Ludwig Sylow and Carl Størmer drew up statutes and rules for the proposed prize. However, Lie's influence waned after his death, and the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905 ended the first attempt to create an Abel Prize.^{[11]}
After interest in the concept of the prize had risen in 2001, a working group was formed to develop a proposal, which was presented to the Prime Minister of Norway in May. In August 2001, the Norwegian government announced that the prize would be awarded beginning in 2002, the two-hundredth anniversary of Abel's birth. Atle Selberg received an honorary Abel Prize in 2002, but the first actual Abel Prize was awarded in 2003.^{[11]}^{[12]}
A book series presenting Abel Prize laureates and their research was commenced in 2010. The first three volumes cover the years 2003-2007, 2008-2012, and 2013-2017 respectively.^{[13]}^{[14]}^{[15]}
In 2019 Karen Uhlenbeck became the first woman to win the Abel Prize, with the award committee citing "the fundamental impact of her work on analysis, geometry and mathematical physics.^{[16]}
Anyone may submit a nomination for the Abel Prize, however, self-nominations are not permitted. The nominee must be alive; however, if the awardee dies after being declared as the winner, the prize will be awarded posthumously.
The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters declares the winner of the Abel Prize each March after recommendation by the Abel Committee, which consists of five leading mathematicians. Both Norwegians and non-Norwegians may serve on the Committee. They are elected by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and nominated by the International Mathematical Union and the European Mathematical Society.^{[11]}^{[17]} The committee is of 2019 chaired by Norwegian mathematician Hans Munthe-Kaas (University of Bergen),^{[18]} and was before that, headed by Professor John Rognes.^{[19]}
The Norwegian Government gave the prize an initial funding of NOK 200 million (about EUR21.7 million^{[20]}) in 2001. Previously, the funding came from the Abel foundation, but today the prize is financed directly through the national budget.
The funding is controlled by the Board, which consists of members elected by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.^{[17]} The current leader of the Board is John Grue.
Year | Laureate(s) | Image | Citizenship(s) | Institution(s) | Citation |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
2003 | Jean-Pierre Serre | France | Collège de France | "For playing a key role in shaping the modern form of many parts of mathematics, including topology, algebraic geometry and number theory."^{[21]} | |
2004 | Michael Atiyah | United Kingdom | University of Edinburgh | "For their discovery and proof of the index theorem, bringing together topology, geometry and analysis, and their outstanding role in building new bridges between mathematics and theoretical physics."^{[22]} | |
Isadore Singer | United States | Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of California, Berkeley | |||
2005 | Peter Lax | Hungary^{[23]} / United States | Courant Institute | "For his groundbreaking contributions to the theory and application of partial differential equations and to the computation of their solutions."^{[24]} | |
2006 | Lennart Carleson | Sweden^{[25]} | Royal Institute of Technology | "For his profound and seminal contributions to harmonic analysis and the theory of smooth dynamical systems."^{[26]} | |
2007 | S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan | India / United States^{[27]} | Courant Institute | "For his fundamental contributions to probability theory and in particular for creating a unified theory of large deviation."^{[28]} | |
2008 | John G. Thompson | United States | University of Florida | "For their profound achievements in algebra and in particular for shaping modern group theory."^{[29]} | |
Jacques Tits | Belgium / France^{[30]} | Collège de France | |||
2009 | Mikhail Gromov | Russia / France^{[31]} | Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques^{[32]} and Courant Institute^{[33]} | "For his revolutionary contributions to geometry."^{[34]} | |
2010 | John Tate | United States | University of Texas at Austin | "For his vast and lasting impact on the theory of numbers."^{[35]} | |
2011 | John Milnor | United States^{[36]} | Stony Brook University | "For pioneering discoveries in topology, geometry, and algebra."^{[37]} | |
2012 | Endre Szemerédi | Hungary / United States^{[38]} | Alfréd Rényi Institute and Rutgers University |
"For his fundamental contributions to discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science, and in recognition of the profound and lasting impact of these contributions on additive number theory and ergodic theory."^{[39]} | |
2013 | Pierre Deligne | Belgium | Institute for Advanced Study | "For seminal contributions to algebraic geometry and for their transformative impact on number theory, representation theory, and related fields."^{[40]} | |
2014 | Yakov Sinai | Russia / United States | Princeton University and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics^{[41]} | "For his fundamental contributions to dynamical systems, ergodic theory, and mathematical physics."^{[42]} | |
2015 | John F. Nash Jr. | United States | Princeton University | "For striking and seminal contributions to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations and its applications to geometric analysis."^{[43]} | |
Louis Nirenberg | Canada / United States | Courant Institute | |||
2016 | Andrew Wiles | United Kingdom | University of Oxford^{[44]}^{[45]} | "For his stunning proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by way of the modularity conjecture for semistable elliptic curves, opening a new era in number theory."^{[46]} | |
2017 | Yves Meyer | France | École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay | "For his pivotal role in the development of the mathematical theory of wavelets."^{[47]} | |
2018 | Robert Langlands | Canada / United States^{[48]} | Institute for Advanced Study | "For his visionary program connecting representation theory to number theory."^{[49]} | |
2019 | Karen Uhlenbeck | United States^{[50]} | University of Texas at Austin | "For her pioneering achievements in geometric partial differential equations, gauge theory and integrable systems, and for the fundamental impact of her work on analysis, geometry and mathematical physics."^{[51]}^{[52]} |