In linguistics, Aeolic Greek , also known as Aeolian , Lesbian or Lesbic dialect, is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.
The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects (Arcadocypriot, Attic, Ionic, and Doric varieties), as well as many innovations.
Aeolic Greek is widely known as the language of Sappho and of Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry, which is exemplified in the works of Sappho, mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics: Glyconic (the most basic form of Aeolic line), hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, and Alcaic stanza (the latter two are respectively named for Sappho and Alcaeus).
In Plato's Protagoras, Prodicus labelled the Aeolic dialect of Pittacus of Mytilene as "barbarian" (barbaros), because of its difference from the Attic literary style: "He didn't know to distinguish the words correctly, being from Lesbos, and having been raised with a barbarian dialect".
Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek *k? changed to Aeolic p everywhere. By contrast, PIE *k? changed to Attic/Ionic, Arcadocypriot, and Doric t before e and i.
- PIE *k?etwores -> Lesbian písures, Boeotian péttares ~ Attic téttares, Ionic tésseres, Doric tétores "four"
Similarly PIE/PGk *g? always became b and PIE *g > PGk *k always became ph (whereas in other dialects they became alternating b/d and ph/th before back/front vowels).
Labiovelars were treated the same way in the P-Celtic languages and the Sabellic languages.
A Proto-Greek consonant cluster with h (from Indo-European *s) and a sonorant (r, l, n, m, w, y) changed to a double sonorant in Aeolic (rr, ll, nn, mm, ww, yy) by assimilation. In Attic/Ionic and Doric, the h assimilated to the vowel before the consonant cluster, causing the vowel to lengthen by compensatory lengthening.
- PIE VsR or VRs -> Attic/Ionic-Doric VVR.
- VsR or VRs -> Aeolic VRR.
- PIE *h?ésmi -> Proto-Greek *ehmi -> Aeolic emmi ~ Attic/Ionic ?mi (= ) "I am"
Loss of h
Lesbian Aeolic lost in initial h- (psilosis "stripping") from Proto-Indo-European s- or y-. By contrast, Ionic sometimes retains it, and Attic always retains it.
- PIE *seh?u?elios -> Proto-Greek *h?welios -> Lesbian ?élios, Ionic ?élios ~ Attic h?lios "sun"
Retention of w
In Thessalian and Boeotian (sub-dialects of Aeolic) and Doric, the Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek semi-vowel w (digamma) was retained at the beginning of a word.
- PIE wek?-es- -> Boeotian, Doric wépos ~ Attic-Ionic épos "word", "epic" (compare Latin v?x "voice")
In Aeolic and Doric, Proto-Greek long ? remains. By contrast, in Attic, long ? changes to long ? in most cases; in Ionic, it changes everywhere.
- PIE *meh?ter- -> Aeolic, Doric m?t?r ~ Attic/Ionic m?t?r "mother"
In Boeotian, the vowel-system was, in many cases, changed in a way reminiscent of the modern Greek pronunciation.
- Attic/Ionic /ai/ ~ Boeotian ? /e:/ ~ Modern Greek /e/
- Attic/Ionic /e:/ ~ Boeotian /i:/ ~ Modern Greek /i/
- Attic/Ionic /oi/ ~ Boeotian ? /y:/ ~ Mediaeval Greek and Old Athenaean /y:/ ~ Modern Greek /i/
In Lesbian Aeolic, the accent of all words is recessive (barytonesis), as is typical only in the verbs of other dialects.
- Attic/Ionic potamós ~ Lesbian pótamos "river"
Contracted or vowel-stem verbs that are thematic in Attic/Ionic are often athematic (-mi) in Aeolic.
- Ionic philé?, Attic philô ~ Aeolic phíl?mi "I love"
Aeolic athematic infinitive active ends in -men or (Lesbian) -menai. ~ Attic/Ionic has -enai.
- Lesbian émmen, émmenai; Thessalian, Boeotian eîmen ~ Attic/Ionic eînai (spurious diphthong) "to be"
In the Lesbian dialect this ending also extends to the thematic conjugation, where Attic/Ionic has -ein. All three of these Aeolic endings occur in Homer.
Proto-Greek -ans and -ons -> -ais and -ois (first- and second declension accusative plural). ~ Attic/Ionic -?s and -?s (= -).
Dative plural -aisi and -oisi. ~ Attic/Ionic -ais and -ois.
The participle has ois and ais for Attic ?s (= ), ?s.
- ?élios "sun" Doric also (Attic h?lios; Cretan abelios; Laconian bela; Pamphylian babelios) (PIE *sawel-)
- ág?nos "struggle" (Attic ? ag?n; Elean dat. pl. ag?nois for ag?si)
- athr?́mata gifts sent by kin to Lesbian brides (Sappho fr.) (compare Homeric hedna, eedna)
- Aiolí?nes "Aeolians" (Attic ? Aioleîs) (aioliz? "speak Aeolic, compose in the Aeolian mode, trick out with false words" Sophocles Fr.912 ) (aiole? vary, adorn, diversify (aiolos quick-moving, glittering, shifty)
- ? aklades (unpruned vineyards) (Attic akladeutoi ampeloi)
- akontion (part of troops) (Attic spear) (Macedonian rhachis, spine or backbone, anything ridged like the backbone)
- - amen?s -tos (Attic ? hum?n) thin skin, membrane.
- am?nes (Attic anemones
- aoros (Attic ahypnos, without sleep) ?
- arpys (Attic ? Eros, Love) attested in Crinagoras, harpazein to snatch. Homeric harpaleos attractive,devouring
- ? asphe to them (Attic sphe, sphi)
- bakchoa (Attic bothros sacred dungeon, pit)
- balla threshold (Attic b?los) (Doric balos)
- belphin dolphin (Attic delphis) and Belphoi Delphi
- ? bama Doric also (Attic ? bema walking, step)
- ? bl?r incitement (Attic delear) ? . ? ?
- bradaniz? brandish, shake off. (Cf.Elean bratana Common rhatane)
- bradinos slender, soft (Attic rhadinos) Sapph.90,104.
- braidion (Attic ? rhaidion easy)
- ? brakein to understand (dysbrakanon imprehensible)
- brakos long robe, Sapph.70 Homeric rhakos wrakos
- briza root (Attic rhiza)
- brodon (Attic rhodon, rose) and vagina metaphorically in Erotic Glossary.
- ? brodopachus with pink, rosy forearms (Attic rhodopuches) (? brodopachun Sappho) and brododaktulos with rosy fingers
- ? brocheos or broukeon (Attic brachy short) (Sapph.fr. 2,7)
- ? drasein (Attic to sacrifice)
- dnophos darkness Ionic also (Attic zophos) (akin to knephas)
- ? eide (Attic , forest) (? Ionian also)
- ? Ennesiades Lesbian Nymphs
- epialt?s and epial?s nightmare (Attic ephialt?s) (wiki Ephialtes)
- ? zadelon with holes in it, open (Attic diadelon obvious) (Alcaeus 30 D 148P)
- ? imb?ris eel (Attic ? enchelys) ?
- ? iron holy (Attic hierón) (Doric hiarón) (Ionic hirón)
- ? Issa old name of Lesbos Island Cf. Antissa
- issasthai (Attic ? klerousthai to take sth by lot)
- ? kankul? (Attic k?kis wet,vapour, mordant dyeing)
- kammarpsis dry Measure (Attic hemimedimnon, one half of a medimnos)
- karabides (Attic graes) ?
- kaualeon Hsch (Attic aithos fire, burning heat) (Cf.kai? burn)
- klaides Doric also (Attic kleides bars, bolts, keys)
- M Mesostrophonia Lesbian festival
- messui (Attic ? in the middle)
- molsos (Attic , fat)
- xennos foreigner, guest-friend, strange (Attic xenos) (Ionic xeinos)
- ximba (Attic ? rhoia pomegranate-tree) (Boeotian sida)
- othmata (Attic ommata eyes)
- ón óna (Attic aná) upon,through,again (Arcadocypriot also)
- passyrion (Attic passydia totally,all together,with the whole army)
- pedameiv? (Attic metameivo exchange) ( pedecho metecho), pedoikos metoikos peda for meta
- pempe five (Attic pente, Pamphylian ? pede ) ( ? pempassein to count per five) (Attic pempe imp. of pemp? send)
- Perrhamos Priamus (Alcaeus 74D,111P (it means also king)
- pésdos pedestrian,infantry) (Attic pezós)
- pesson plain (Attic pedion)
- pessyres four (Lesbian ? pisyres) (Boeotian pettares) (Attic tessares) (Doric tetores)
- sa?mi save (Attic ? s?iz? ) (Homeric ? sao?)
- siglai ear-rings (Attic en?tia, Laconian ex?badia)
- skiphos Attic xiphos sword (skipt?, given as etym. of skiphos and xiphos, Sch.Il.1.220; cf. skipei: nussei, it pricks,pierces)
- spóla(Attic stol?) equipment, garment (spaleis, the sent one, for staleis)
- ? strótos (Attic stratós) army
- ? syrx (Attic ? flesh) (dative plural syrkesi Attic sarxin)
- ? tenekounti (Attic enoikounti dative singular of ? enoik?n inhabiting)
- ? tragais you break, grow rough and hoarse and smell like a goat
- ? tude tudai and tuide here) (Ionic t?de)
- usdos (Attic ozos twig, branch)
- phauophoros priestess (Attic hiereia) (light-keeper) (Aeolic phau? for Homeric pha? shine) (Homeric phaos light, Attic ph?s and ph?tophoros)
- ph?ria (Attic th?ria beasts)
- Psapph?, (Attic Sapph?)
- aas aest?ton tomorrow (Attic aurion) (Cf.Attic s dawn)
- amillakas wine Theban (Attic oinos)
- an?dorkas a fish ? ? , ?
- baidum?n (Attic arotrian to plough)
- ? bana ( balara) woman ( Attic gun? ) (?, ban?kes battikes women ( Attic gunaikes )
- ? bastrax or bastax (Attic trach?los neck) pl.bastraches
- ? bleerei (Attic he feels pity) Cf. eleairei
- gadou ( wadou) (Attic h?dú) (Corinna.17)
- ? Deus instead of Zeus. Attested also in Laconian and Rhodian.
- ? empyria divination (Attic manteia) (Hsch. public oath, Koine ordeal by fire)
- ? zekeltides gourds Amerias zakeltides (Phrygian zelkia vegetables)
- idephin sweet-voiced. Hsch.: · ?. [ ? ] (Attic h?duph?non) ( Aeolic wad-, ad- )
- istake scythe (Attic drepanon)
- iugodromein (Attic , ekbo?thein, and bo?dromein, run to help) ( Dionysus, ? voice,scream (Soph. Phil. 752))(Iungios Thessalian month)
- i? and hi?n (Attic eg?, I) (hi?nga i?ga for eg?ge)
- ? Karaios Boeotian epithet for Zeus meaning tall,head. Boeotian eponym Karaidas
- karoux (Attic k?ryx herald)
- kriddemen (Attic gelan to laugh) (Strattis fr. 47) Cf. (Cf.Attic kriz? creak,screech)
- ? korilla little girl (Koine korasion from Attic korasis girl) (Aetolian korudion)
- ? m?latas (Attic poimen shepherd) (homeric m?lon sheep) (Attic m?lon apple, Aeolic-Doric malon)
- ? mnarion (Attic ? kallyntron broom, brush)
- ? opisthotila (Attic s?pia cuttlefish) (Strattis. fr. 47,3) (squirts its liquor from behind)
- opittomai (homeric opizomai I care,respect) (Laconian opiddomai)
- ? ophrygnai (Attic ophryazei he winks raising the eyebrow,to be haughty)
- ? seia I persecuted (Attic edioxa) (Cf.Homeric seu? move quickly,chase)
- ? syoboi?toi Hog-Boeotians (Cratinus.310)
- ? tripeza (Attic trapeza,table)(from tetrapeza four-footed) (tripeza three-footed) (in Aeolic it would-be tripesda)
- ? ps?smata Boeotian word acc. Aristonymus
- ? abrem?s (Attic ? ablep?s ? unworthy seeing, despicable (Cypriotic also) (Hes. text ? ? ??
- agora (Attic limen port, harbour) (Hes. text
- ? alphinia white poplar (PIE *albho- 'white') (Attic leuk?, PIE *leuk- 'bright,light') (Macedonian aliza)
- Aploun Apollo (Attic ? Apoll?n) (Doric, Pamphylian ? Apelon)
- aspaleia safeness (Attic asphaleia)
- astralos (Attic - psar Starling)
- ? bebukousthai to be swollen (Homeric ? buktaon blowing)
- bousia (Attic gongylidi turnip)
- dámossos public (Attic d?mósios) opp. iddioûstikos privative (Attic idi?tikós)
- ? daratos Thessalian bread (Macedonian dramis) (Athamanian dramix) (PIE *der- cut,split)
- despoina woman (Attic gun?, Doric guna) (fem. of despotes)
- ? enormos (agora, assembly, market and ch?ra) (Attic enorme? get in a harbour, hormos bay,anchorage
- ereas children (Hsch.Attic tekna) (Homeric ernos young sprout,scion) (Neo-Phrygian eiroi children)
- theanoustai (Attic xysters)
- ithei? (Attic hamaxitos chariot-road) (Homeric ? ? 580) (Attic ithys,eytheia straight line)
- impsas past participle of impto (Attic zeuxas zeugnymi join together)( Impsios ? Poseidon Zygius on horses)
- ? kalaphos (Attic , Ascalaphus a bird (Magnesian)
- kapan? chariot (Attic ap?n?) also, a helmet(kapanikos plenteous
- kis who, anyone (Attic tis) (Laconian tir) (Arcadocypriot sis)
- ? karpaia Thessalo-Macedonian mimic military dance (see also Carpaea) Homeric karpalimos swift (for foot) eager,ravenous.
- kyrrhos or kyrros sir,master (Attic kyrios)
- Maketoun 'Macedonian man' (Attic ? Maked?n) (Thessalian --oun suffix for Attic ?n in both nominative and genitive of participles,pronouns and nouns.
- mattu? a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin (Athenaeus)(Macedonian mattu?s a kind of bird)
- ? nealeis new-comers, newly caught ones (Cf.nealeis,ne?ludes)
- nebeu? pray (Macedonian neu?) (Attic euchomai, neu? wink)
- onala, onalouma (Attic anal?ma expense cost) ( on- in the place of Attic prefix ana-, ongrapsantas SEG 27:202
- Pétthalos and ? (Boeotian Phéttalos) (Attic Thettalós) (Ionic, Koine Thessalós) 'Thesalian man' ( Petthalia Thessalia) (Petthaloi Thessalians) (Koine thessalisti the thessalian way) ( Attic ? entethettalizomai become a Thessalian, i.e. wear the large Thessalian cloak ( Thettalika ptera feathers' ), Eupolis.201. )
- tageu? to be tagos archon in Thessaly ?
- ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Aeolic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
- ^ Protagoras by Plato - Greek text
- ^ James A. Towle, Commentary on Plato: Protagoras 341c
- ^ V = vowel, R = sonorant, s is itself. VV = long vowel, RR = doubled or long sonorant.
- ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 30 and note, 31: Attic long e, long a
- ^ Smyth, par. 162 note: (Lesbian) Aeolic recessive accent
- ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 656: contract verbs in Aeolic
- ^ Smyth, par. 214 note 9: first declension in dialects
- ^ Smyth, par. 230 note: second declension in dialects
- ^ Smyth, par. 305 note
- ^ Athenaeus Deipnosophists -9.369
- ^ Boiotia --Anthedon
- ^ Boiotia -- Orchomenos -- early 1st century BC
- ^ Krannon -- c. 250 - 215 BC SEG 23:437, 7
- ^ Selected Papers in Greek and Near Eastern History  by David Malcolm Lewis, Peter John Rhodes
- ^ Skotoussa -- 197-185 BC SEG 43:311
- ^ Thessalia -- Larisa -- 220-210 BC - SEG 27:202
- ^ Deipnosophists 14.663-4(pp.1059-1062)
- ^ Magnesia -- Demetrias -- late 2nd century BC 
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- Bowie, Angus M. 1981. The poetic dialect of Sappho and Alcaeus. New York: Arno.
- Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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