Ainu Language
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Ainu Language
? Aynu=itak
Multilingual sign at Ainu Museum (Shiraoi).JPG
Multilingual sign in Japanese, Ainu, English, Korean and Chinese. The Ainu text, in katakana, is second down from the top on the right side of the sign. It reads ? iyairaiker.
Pronunciation['ainu i'tak]
Native toJapan
Ethnicity30,000 Ainu people in Japan (no date)[1]
Native speakers
10 (2007)[2]
  • Ainu
Katakana (current), Latin (current)
Language codes
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Ainu (? Aynu=itak) or more precisely Hokkaido Ainu, is a language spoken by members of the Ainu people on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. Due to the colonization policy employed by the Japanese government, the number of Ainu language speakers decreased through the 20th century and very few people can speak the language fluently. According to UNESCO, only 15 fluent speakers remained in 2011, all elderly.

Until the 20th century, Ainuic languages were spoken throughout the southern half of the island of Sakhalin and by small numbers of people in the Kuril Islands. Only the Hokkaido variant survives, in three main dialects,[4] the last speaker of Sakhalin Ainu having died in 1994. Hokkaido Ainu is moribund, though attempts are being made to revive it.


Pirka Kotan Museum, an Ainu language and cultural center in Sapporo (Jozankei area)

According to UNESCO, Ainu is an endangered language.[4] As of 2016, Ethnologue lists Ainu as class 8b: "nearly extinct".[5] It has been endangered since before the 1960s. As of 2012 there are approximately 30,000 Ainu people in Japan,[6] though that number is uncertain because not all ethnic Ainu report themselves as such.[7] As of 2011, there are only 15 speakers remaining, along with 304 people understanding the Ainu language to some extent.[7]


The Japanese government made a decision to recognize Ainu as indigenous in June 2008.[4] As of 2017, the Japanese government is constructing a facility dedicated to preserving Ainu culture, including the language.[8]


Ainu syllables are CV(C), that is, they have an obligatory syllable onset and an optional syllable coda. There are few consonant clusters.


There are five vowels in Ainu:

  Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

There were long vowels in Sakhalin Ainu.


Plosives /p t ts k/ may be voiced [b d dz ?] between vowels and after nasals. Both /ti/ and /tsi/ are realized as [ti], and /s/ becomes [?] before /i/ and at the end of syllables. There is some variation among dialects; in the Sakhalin dialect, syllable-final /p, t, k, r/ lenited and merged into /x/. After an /i/, this /x/ is pronounced [ç]. A glottal stop [?] is often inserted at the beginning of words, before an accented vowel, but is non-phonemic.

There is a pitch accent system. The accentuation of specific words varies somewhat from dialect to dialect. Generally, words including affixes have a high pitch on the stem, or on the first syllable if it is closed or has a diphthong, while other words have the high pitch on the second syllable, although there are exceptions to this generalization.

Typology and grammar

Typologically, Ainu is similar in word order (and some aspects of phonology) to Japanese.

Ainu has a canonical word order of subject, object, verb,[9] and it uses postpositions rather than prepositions. Nouns can cluster to modify one another; the head comes at the end. Verbs, which are inherently either transitive or intransitive, accept various derivational affixes. Ainu does not have grammatical gender. Plurals are indicated by a suffix.[9]

Classical Ainu, the language of the yukar, is polysynthetic, with incorporation of nouns and adverbs; this is greatly reduced in the modern colloquial language.

Applicatives may be used in Ainu to place nouns in the dative, instrumental, comitative, locative, allative, or ablative roles. Besides freestanding nouns, these roles may be assigned to incorporated nouns, and such use of applicatives is in fact mandatory for incorporating oblique nouns. Like incorporation, applicatives have grown less common in the modern language.

Ainu has a closed class of plural verbs, and some of these are suppletive.

Ainu has a system of verbal affixes (shown below) which mark agreement for person and case. The specific cases that are marked differ by person, with nominative-accusative marking for the first person singular, tripartite marking for the first person plural and indefinite (or 'fourth') person, and direct or 'neutral' marking for the second singular and plural, and third persons (i.e. the affixes do not differ by case).[10][11]

Saru Ainu Agreement Affixes[10]
Intransitive Subj. Transitive Subj. (Agent) Object
1SG ku- en-
1PL -as ci- un-
2SG e-
2PL eci-
3 Ø-
4 -an a- i-


The Ainu language is written in a modified version of the Japanese katakana syllabary. There is also a Latin-based alphabet in use. The Ainu Times publishes in both. In the Latin orthography, /ts/ is spelled c and /j/ is spelled y; the glottal stop, [?], which only occurs initially before accented vowels, is not written. Other phonemes use the same character as the IPA transcription given above. An equals sign (=) is used to mark morpheme boundaries, such as after a prefix. Its pitch accent is denoted by acute accent in Latin script (e.g., á). This is usually not denoted in katakana.

Rev. John Batchelor was an English missionary who lived among the Ainu, studied them and published many works on the Ainu language.[12][13] Batchelor wrote extensively, both works about the Ainu language and works in Ainu itself. He was the first to write in Ainu and use a writing system for it.[14]Batchelor's translations of various books of the Bible were published from 1887, and his New Testament translation was published in Yokohama in 1897 by a joint committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible Society, and the National Bible Society of Scotland. Other books written in Ainu include dictionaries, a grammar, and books on Ainu culture and language.

Special katakana for the Ainu language

A Unicode standard exists for a set of extended katakana (Katakana Phonetic Extensions) for transliterating the Ainu language and other languages written with katakana.[15] These characters are used to write final consonants and sounds that cannot be expressed using conventional katakana. The extended katakana are based on regular katakana and either are smaller in size or have a handakuten. As few fonts yet support these extensions, workarounds exist for many of the characters, such as using a smaller font with the regular katakana ? ku to produce ? to represent the separate small katakana glyph ? ku used as in (Aynu itak).

This is a list of special katakana used in transcribing the Ainu language. Most of the characters are of the extended set of katakana, though a few have been used historically in Japanese,[] and thus are part of the main set of katakana. A number of previously proposed characters have not been added to Unicode as they can be represented as a sequence of two existing codepoints.

Character Unicode Name Ainu usage Pronunciation
? 31F0 Katakana Letter Small Ku Final k /k/
? 31F1 Katakana Letter Small Shi Final s [?] /s/ or /?/
? 31F2 Katakana Letter Small Su Final s, used to emphasize its pronunciation as [s] rather than [?]. [s] and [?] are allophones in Ainu. /s/
? 31F3 Katakana Letter Small To Final t /t/
? 31F4 Katakana Letter Small Nu Final n /n/
? 31F5 Katakana Letter Small Ha Final h [x], succeeding the vowel a. (e.g. ah) Sakhalin dialect only. /h/ or /x/
? 31F6 Katakana Letter Small Hi Final h [ç], succeeding the vowel i. (e.g. ih) Sakhalin dialect only. /h/ or /ç/
? 31F7 Katakana Letter Small Fu Final h [x], succeeding the vowel u. (e.g. uh) Sakhalin dialect only. /h/ or /x/
? 31F8 Katakana Letter Small He Final h [x], succeeding the vowel e. (e.g. eh) Sakhalin dialect only. /h/ or /x/
? 31F9 Katakana Letter Small Ho Final h [x], succeeding the vowel o. (e.g. oh) Sakhalin dialect only. /h/ or /x/
? 31FA Katakana Letter Small Mu Final m /m/ Voiced bilabial nasal
? 31FB Katakana Letter Small Ra Final r [?], succeeding the vowel a. (e.g. ar) /?/ Voiced alveolar tap
? 31FC Katakana Letter Small Ri Final r [?], succeeding the vowel i. (e.g. ir) /?/ Voiced alveolar tap
? 31FD Katakana Letter Small Ru Final r [?], succeeding the vowel u. (e.g. ur) /?/ Voiced alveolar tap
? 31FE Katakana Letter Small Re Final r [?], succeeding the vowel e. (e.g. er) /?/ Voiced alveolar tap
? 31FF Katakana Letter Small Ro Final r [?], succeeding the vowel o. (e.g. or) /?/ Voiced alveolar tap
Characters represented using combining characters
31F7 + 309A Katakana Letter Small Pu Final p /p/
30BB + 309A Katakana Letter Se With Semi-Voiced Sound Mark ce [tse] /ts/ + /e/
30C4 + 309A Katakana Letter Tu With Semi-Voiced Sound Mark tu. and are interchangeable. /t/ + /u/
30C8 + 309A Katakana Letter To With Semi-Voiced Sound Mark /t/ + /u/

Basic syllables

a ?
i ?
u ?
e ?
o ?
[k][note 1]
ka ?
ki ?
ku ?
ke ?
ko ?
-k ?
[s] ~ [?]
sa / ?[note 2]
[sa] ~ [?a]
si ?
su / ?[note 2]
[su?] ~ [?u?]
se / ?[note 2]
[se] ~ [?e]
so / ?[note 2]
[so] ~ [?o]
-s ? / ?[note 2]
[t][note 1]
ta ?
ci ?
tu / [note 2]
te ?
to ?
-t ? / ?[note 3]
[ts] ~ [t?][note 1]
[tsa] ~ [t?a]
ci ?
cu ? / [note 2]
[tsu?] ~ [t?u?]
ce / [note 2]
[tse] ~ [t?e]
[tso] ~ [t?o]
na ?
ni ?
nu ?
ne ?
no ?
-n ? / ?[note 4]
[-n, -m-, -?-][note 5]
h[note 6]
ha ?
hi ?
hu ?
he ?
ho ?
-h[note 6]
-ah ?
-ih ?
-uh ?
-eh ?
-oh ?
[p][note 1]
pa ?
pi ?
pu ?
pe ?
po ?
ma ?
mi ?
mu ?
me ?
mo ?
-m ?
ya ?
yu ?
yo ?
ra ?
ri ?
ru ?
re ?
ro ?
-ar ?
-ir ?
-ur ?
-er ?
-or ?
-r ?
wa ?
wi / ?[note 2]
we / ?[note 2]
wo / ?[note 2]
  1. ^ a b c d k, t, c, p are sometimes voiced [?], [d], [dz] ~ [d?], [b], respectively. It does not change the meaning of a word, but it sounds more rough/masculine. When they are voiced, they may be written as g, d, j, dz, b, ?, ?, , , ?, etc.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Either may be used according to actual pronunciations, or to writer's preferred styles.
  3. ^ ? is final t at the end of a word (e.g. pet = = ). In the middle of a polysyllabic word, it is a final consonant preceding the initial with a same value (e.g. orta /otta/ = ; is not preferred).[clarification needed]
  4. ^ At the end of a word, n can be written either ? or ?. In the middle of a polysyllabic word, it is ?. (e.g. tan-mosir = = +, but not .)
  5. ^ [m] before [p], [?] before [k], [n] elsewhere. Unlike Japanese, it does not become other sounds such as nasal vowels.
  6. ^ a b Initial h [h] and final h [x] are different phonemes. Final h exists in Sakhalin dialect only.


Final [?] is spelled y in Latin, small ? in katakana. Final [?] is spelled w in Latin, small ? in katakana. Large ? and ? are used if there is a morpheme boundary with ? and ? at the morpheme head. [ae] is spelled ae, or .

Example with initial k:

[ka?] [ku] [ke?] [ko?] [ka?] [ki?] [ke?] [ko?]
kay kuy key koy kaw kiw kew kow
[ka.?] [ku?.?] [ke.?] [ko.?] [ka.u?] [ki.u?] [ke.u?] [ko.u?]
ka=i ku=i ke=i ko=i ka=u ki=u ke=u ko=u

Since the above rule is used systematically, some katakana combinations have different sounds from conventional Japanese.

Ainu [u] [ku] [ko.u?] [su] [te?] [to?] [?u]
Japanese [wi] [k?i] [ko:] [si] [ti] [tu?] [?i]

Oral literature

The Ainu have a rich oral tradition of hero-sagas called yukar, which retain a number of grammatical and lexical archaisms. Yukar was memorized and told at get-togethers and ceremonies that often lasted hours or even days. The Ainu also have another form of narrative often used called "Uepeker", which was used in the same contexts.

Recent history

Many of the speakers of Ainu lost the language with the advent of Japanese colonization. During a time when food production methods were changing across Japan, there was less reason to trade with the Ainu, who mainly fished and foraged the land. Japan was becoming more industrialized and globalization created a threat to Japanese land. The Japanese government, in an attempt to unify their country to keep out invasion, created policy for the assimilation of the Ainu diversity, culture, and subsistence.[16][17][18][verification needed] The assimilation included exploitation of land, commodification of culture, and placing Ainu children in schools where they only learned Japanese.[16][17][18]

More recently, the Japanese government has acknowledged the Ainu people as an indigenous population. As of 1997 they were given indigenous rights under the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) to their culture, heritage, and language.[16][17][19]

The Ainu Cultural Promotion Act in 1997 appointed the Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture (FRPAC).[19] This foundation is tasked with language education, where they promote Ainu language learning through training instructors, advanced language classes and creation and development of language materials.[19]


In general, Ainu people are hard to find because they tend to hide their identity as Ainu, especially in the young generation. Two thirds of Ainu youth do not know that they are Ainu.[20] In addition, because of Ainu students being strongly discouraged from speaking their language at school,[21] it has been challenging for the Ainu language to be revitalized.

Despite this, there is an active movement to revitalize the language, mainly in Hokkaido but also elsewhere such as Kanto.[22] Ainu oral literature has been documented both in hopes of safeguarding it for future generations, as well as using it as a teaching tool for language learners.[23] Beginning in 1987, the Ainu Association of Hokkaido with approximately 500 members[22] began hosting 14 Ainu language classes, Ainu language instructors training courses and Family Ainu Learning Initiative[20] and have released instructional materials on the language, including a textbook.[23] Also, Yamato linguists teach Ainu and train students to become Ainu instructor in university.[20] In spite of these efforts, as of 2011 the Ainu language is not yet taught as a subject in any secondary school in Japan.[22]

Due to the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act of 1997, Ainu dictionaries transformed and became tools for improving communication and preserving records of the Ainu language in order to revitalize the language and promote the culture.[24] As of 2011, there has been an increasing number of second-language learners, especially in Hokkaido, in large part due to the pioneering efforts of the late Ainu folklorist, activist and former Diet member Shigeru Kayano, himself a native speaker, who first opened an Ainu language school in 1987 funded by Ainu Kyokai.[25] The Ainu Association of Hokkaido is the main supporter of Ainu culture in Hokkaido.[22] Ainu language classes have been conducted in some areas in Japan and small numbers of young people are learning Ainu. Efforts have also been made to produce web-accessible materials for conversational Ainu because most documentation of the Ainu language focused on the recording of folktales.[26] The Ainu language has been in media as well; the first Ainu radio program was called FM Pipaushi,[27] which has run since 2001 along with 15-minute radio Ainu language lessons funded by FRPAC,[28] and newspaper The Ainu Times has been established since 1997.[25] In 2016, a radio course was broadcast by the STVradio Broadcasting to introduce Ainu language. The course put extensive efforts in promoting the language, creating 4 text books in each season throughout the year.[29]

In addition, the Ainu language has been seen in public domains such as the outlet shopping complex's name, Rera, which means 'wind', in the Minami Chitose area and the name Pewre, meaning 'young', at a shopping centre in the Chitose area. There is also a basketball team in Sapporo founded under the name Rera Kamuy Hokkaido, after rera kamuy 'god of the wind' (its current name is Levanga Hokkaido).[22] The well-known Japanese fashion magazine's name Non-no means 'flower' in Ainu.

Another Ainu language revitalization program is Urespa, a university program to educate high-level persons on the language of the Ainu. The effort is a collaborative and cooperative program for individuals wishing to learn about Ainu languages.[30] This includes performances which focus on the Ainu and their language, instead of using the dominant Japanese language.[30]

Another form of Ainu language revitalization is an annual national competition, which is Ainu language-themed. People of many differing demographics are often encouraged to take part in the contest. Since 2017, the popularity of the contest has increased.[31]

On 15 February 2019, Japan approved a bill to recognize the Ainu language for the first time.[32][33]


  1. ^ Ainu language at Ethnologue (8th ed., 1974). Note: Data may come from an earlier edition.
  2. ^ D. Bradley, "Languages of Mainland South-East Asia," in O. Miyaoka, O. Sakiyama, and M. E. Krauss (eds), The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim, Oxford: Oxford University Press (2007), pp. 301-336.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hokkaido Ainu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b c Martin, K. (2011). Aynu itak. On the Road to Ainu Language Revitalization. Media and Communication Studies. 60: 57-93
  5. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Nineteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  6. ^ Gayman, J. (2012). Ainu Right to Education and Ainu Practice of "Education ": Current Situation and imminent Issues in Light of Indigenous Education Rights and Theory. Intercultural Education. Vol. 22.
  7. ^ a b Okazaki, T & Teeter, J. (2011). Ainu as a Heritage Language of Japan: History, Current State and Future of Ainu Language Policy and Education. Heritage Language Journal. 8 (2)
  8. ^ Lam, May-Ying (27 July 2017). "'Land of the Human Beings': The World of the Ainu, Little-Known Indigenous People of Japan". Washington Post. Retrieved .
  9. ^ a b "Ainu". World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Retrieved .
  10. ^ a b Dal Corso, Elia (2016). "Morphological alignment in Saru Ainu: A direct-inverse analysis" (PDF). SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics. 18: 3-28.
  11. ^ Malchukov, Andrej; Comrie, Bernard, eds. (2015). Valency Classes in the World's Languages. Volume 1: Introducing the Framework, and Case Studies from Africa and Eurasia. De Gruyter. p. 833. ISBN 978-3-11-039527-3.
  12. ^ Frédéric, Louis (2005). "Ainu". Japan Encyclopedia. Translated by Roth, Käthe (illustrated, reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
  13. ^ Ivar Lissner (1957). The Living Past (4 ed.). Putnam's. p. 204. Retrieved 2012. In 1877 a young and industrious theologian went to visit the Ainu. His name was John Batchelor, and he was a scientist and missionary. He got to know the Ainu well, studied their language and customs, won their affection, and remained their staunch friend until the end of his days. It is to Batchelor that we owe our deepest insight into the [Original from the University of California Digitized Jan 27, 2009 Length 444 pages]
  14. ^ Patric, John (1943). ...Why Japan Was Strong (4 ed.). Doubleday, Doran & Company. p. 72. Retrieved 2012. John Batchelor set about to learn the Ainu language, which the Japanese had not troubled ever to learn. He laboriously compiled an Ainu dictionary. He singlehandedly turned this hitherto but spoken tongue into a written language, and himself wrote books in it. [Original from the University of California Digitized Oct 16, 2007 Length 313 pages]
  15. ^ See this page at and this section of the Unicode specification.
  16. ^ a b c Cheung, S.C.H. (2003). "Ainu Culture in Transition". Futures. 35 (9): 951-959. doi:10.1016/s0016-3287(03)00051-x.
  17. ^ a b c Maruyama, Hiroshi (2014-07-03). "Japan's Policies Towards the Ainu Language and Culture with Special Reference to North Fennoscandian Sami Policies". Acta Borealia. 31 (2): 152-175. doi:10.1080/08003831.2014.967980. S2CID 145497777.
  18. ^ a b "HLJ". Retrieved .
  19. ^ a b c Savage, Theresa; Longo, Michael (2013). "Legal Frameworks for the Protection of Ainu Language and Culture in Japan: International and European Perspectives". Japanese Studies. 33 (1): 101-120. doi:10.1080/10371397.2013.782098. hdl:1959.3/313493. S2CID 145788025.
  20. ^ a b c Gayman, Jeffry (2011). "Ainu Right to Education and Ainu Practice of "Education": Current Situation and imminent Issues in Light of Indigenous Education Rights and Theory". Intercultural Education. 22 (1): 15-27. doi:10.1080/14675986.2011.549642. S2CID 144373133.
  21. ^ Hanks, H. D. (2017). "Policy Barriers to Ainu Language Revitalization in Japan: When Globalization Means English". Working Papers in Educational Linguistics. 32 (1): 91-110.
  22. ^ a b c d e Martin, Kylie (2011). "Aynu itak: On the Road to Ainu Language Revitalization". ?/Media and Communication Studies. 60: 57-93. hdl:2115/47031.
  23. ^ a b Miyaoka, Osahito; Sakiyama, Osamu; Krauss, Michael E. (2007). The Vanishing Languages of the Pacific Rim. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 377-382. ISBN 9780191532894.
  24. ^ Hansen, A. S. (2014). "Re-vitalizing an Indigenous Language: Dictionaries of Ainu Languages in Japan, 1625-2013". Lexicographica. 30 (1): 547-578. doi:10.1515/lexi-2014-0017. S2CID 156901164.
  25. ^ a b Teeter, Jennifer; Okazaki, Takayuki (2011). "Ainu as a Heritage Language of Japan: History, Current State and Future of Ainu Language Policy and Education". Heritage Language Journal. 8: 96-114.
  26. ^ Bugaeva, Anna (2010). "Internet applications for endangered languages: A talking dictionary of Ainu" (PDF). Waseda Institute for Advanced Study Research Bulletin. 3: 73-81.
  27. ^ "FM Pipaushi". TuneIn.
  28. ^ "FRPAC". Archived from the original on 2017-12-14. Retrieved .
  29. ^ Handbook of the changing world language map. Volume 1. Brunn, Stanley D.,, Kehrein, Roland. Cham, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-030-02438-3. OCLC 1125944248.CS1 maint: others (link)
  30. ^ a b Uzawa, Kanako (2019). "What Does Ainu Cultural Revitalisation Mean to Ainu and Wajin Youth in the 21st century? Case Study of Urespa as a Place to Learn Ainu Culture in the City of Sapporo, Japan". AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples. 15 (2): 168-179. doi:10.1177/1177180119846665. S2CID 197693428.
  31. ^ Kitahara, Jirota (2018). "Current Status of Ainu Cultural Revitalization". In Greymorning, Neyooxet (ed.). Being Indigenous: Perspectives on Activism, Culture, Language and Identity. Routledge. p. 198. ISBN 9780429454776.CS1 maint: location (link)
  32. ^ "Japan to Recognize Indigenous Ainu People for First Time". Japan Times Online. AFP-JiJi. 15 February 2019. Archived from the original on 16 February 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  33. ^ Denyer, Simon (16 February 2019). "Japan Prepares Law to Finally Recognize and Protect its Indigenous Ainu People". Washington Post.


  • Bugaeva, Anna (2010). "Internet applications for endangered languages: A talking dictionary of Ainu". Waseda Institute for Advanced Study Research Bulletin. 3: 73-81.
  • Hattori, Shir?, ed. (1964). Bunrui Ainugo h?gen jiten [An Ainu dialect dictionary with Ainu, Japanese, and English indexes]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
  • Miller, Roy Andrew (1967). The Japanese Language. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle.
  • Refsing, Kirsten (1986). The Ainu Language: The Morphology and Syntax of the Shizunai Dialect. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. ISBN 978-87-7288-020-4.
  • Refsing, Kirsten (1996). Early European Writings on the Ainu Language. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-0400-2.
  • Shibatani, Masayoshi (1990). The Languages of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36918-3.
  • Tamura, Suzuko (2000). The Ainu Language. Tokyo: Sanseido. ISBN 978-4-385-35976-2.
  • Vovin, Alexander (2008). "Man'y?sh? to Fudoki ni Mirareru Fushigina Kotoba to J?dai Nihon Retto ni Okeru Ainugo no Bunpu" [Strange Words in the Man'yosh? and the Fudoki and the Distribution of the Ainu Language in the Japanese Islands in Prehistory] (PDF). Kokusai Nihon Bunka Kenky? Sent?.

Further reading

External links

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