Akkala Sami Language
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Akkala Sami Language
Akkala Sámi
?u´kksuâlis
Native toRussia
RegionSouthwest Kola Peninsula
Extinct29 December 2003[1]
with the death of Maria Sergina
Cyrillic
Language codes
sia
Glottologakka1237[2]

Akkala Sámi is a Sámi language that was spoken in the Sámi villages of A´kkel (Russian , Finnish Akkala), ?u´kksuâl (Russian ) and Sââ´rvesjäu´rr (Russian , Finnish Hirvasjärvi), in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Formerly erroneously regarded as a dialect of Kildin Sámi, it has recently become recognized as an independent Sámi language that is most closely related to its western neighbor Skolt Sámi.

Akkala Sámi is the most endangered Eastern Sámi language. On December 29, 2003, Maria Sergina – the last fluent native speaker of Akkala Sámi – died.[3][4] However, as of 2011 there were at least two people, both aged 70, with some knowledge of Akkala Sámi.[5] Remaining ethnic Akkala Sámi live in the village Yona.

Although there exist a description of Akkala Sámi phonology and morphology, a few published texts, and archived audio recordings,[5] the Akkala Sami language remains among the most poorly documented Sami languages.[]. One of the few items in the language are chapters 23-28 of the Gospel of Matthew published in 1897. It was translated by A. Genetz, and printed at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society.

Sámi dialects and settlements in Russia:
  Akkala (Russian Babinsky)

A-1 A´kkel (Russian Babinsky, Finnish Akkala)
A-2 ?u´kksuâl (Russian Ekostrovsky)
A-3 Yona
A-4 Sââ´rvesjäu´rr (Russian Girvasozero, Finnish Hirvasjärvi)

Phonology

Morphology

The following overview is based on Pekka (Pyotr) M. Zaykov's volume.[6] Zaykov's Uralic phonetic transcription is retained here. The middle dot ? denotes palatalization of the preceding consonant, analyzed by Zaykov as semisoft pronunciation.

Noun

Akkala Sámi has eight cases, singular and plural: nominative, genitive-accusative, partitive, dative-illative, locative, essive, comitative and abessive. Case and number are expressed by a combination of endings and consonant gradation:

  • Nominative: no marker in the singular, weak grade in the plural.
  • Genitive-accusative: weak grade in the singular, weak grade + -i in the plural.
  • Partitive: this case exists only in the singular, and has the ending -tti?.
  • Dative-illative: strong grade + -a, -a? or -? in the singular, weak grade + -i in the plural.
  • Locative: weak grade + -st, -?t? in the singular, weak grade + -n? in the plural.
  • Essive: this case exists only in the singular: strong grade + -n?.
  • Comitative: weak grade + -n? in the singular, strong grade + -guim, -vuim or -vi?i?m in the plural.
  • Abessive: weak grade + -ta in the singular.

Pronoun

The table below gives the declension of the personal pronouns monn 'I' and mij 'we'. The pronouns tonn 'you (sg.)' and sonn '(s)he' are declined like monn, the pronouns tij 'you (pl.)' and sij 'they' are declined like mij.

  Singular Plural
Nominative monn mij
Genitive-Accusative m? mii?ji
Essive mun? ---
Dative-illative mun?n?a? mii?ji
Locative mu?t? mi?t?
Comitative muin? mii?jivuim
Abessive muta mii?ta

The interrogative pronouns m? 'what?' and t, k? 'who?' are declined as follows:

  m? 'what?' t, k? 'who?'
Nominative m? t, k?
Genitive-Accusative mi?n t?an, ?an
Dative-illative mi?z koz
Locative mi?st ko?t?
Comitative mi?i?n? ?ain?
Abessive mi?nta ?anta

The proximal demonstrative t?a?t 'this' and the medial demonstrative ti?t 'that' are declined as follows:

  Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative t?a?t t?a?k ti?t ti?k
Genitive-Accusative t?a?n? t?a?i ti?n ti?i?
Essive t?a?in? --- ti?i?n? ---
Dative-illative t?a?z t?ai(t) ti?k, ti?z ti?i?(t)
Locative t?at? t?a?in tit? ti?i?(n)
Comitative t?a?in? t?a?ivuim ti?i?n? ti?i?vuim
Abessive t?a?ta t?a?ita ti?ta ti?i?ta

Verb

Akkala Sámi verbs have three persons and two numbers, singular and plural. There are three moods: indicative, imperative and conditional; the potential mood has disappeared. Below, the paradigm of the verbs va?ne 'to walk' and korr? 'to knit' is given in the present and imperfect tense:

  Present Imperfect Present Imperfect
1sg. vn?am va?ncim k?ram korri?m
2sg. va?n?ak vn?cik k?rak korri?k
3sg. va?nc v?ni korr k?ri?
1pl. va?nep? v?nim korr?p? k?ri?m
2pl. va?nep?p?e v?nit? korr?p?p?e k?ri?t?
3pl. vnat? vanci? k?rat? korri

The verb ?iije 'to be' conjugates as follows:

  Present Imperfect
1sg. ?am ?ii?jim
2sg. ?ak ?iijik
3sg. ?ie ?ai
1pl. ?ep? jim
2pl. ?ep?p?e jit?
3pl. ?et? ?ii?ji?

Compound tenses such as perfect and pluperfect are formed with the verb ?ii?je in the present or imperfect as auxiliary, and the participle of the main verb. Examples are ?am thtmi?n? 'I have known' from thtt? 'to know', and ?ai tui?j?ma '(s)he had made' from tui?je 'to make'.

The conditional mood has the marker -?, which is added to the weak grade of the stem: kuar?im 'I would sew', vizz?ik 'you (sg.) would become tired'.

As in other Sámi languages, Akkala Sámi makes use of a negative verb that conjugates according to person and number, while the main verb remains unchanged. The conjugation of the negative verb is shown here together with the verb ae 'to begin':

 
1sg. jim a?g
2sg. jik a?g
3sg. ij a?g
1pl. jep? a?g
2pl. jep?p?e a?g
3pl. jet? a?g

The third person singular and plural of the verb ?ii?je 'to be' have special contracted forms a and ja.

References

  1. ^ Akkala Sámi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Akkala Saami". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-11. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Rantala, Leif, Aleftina Sergina 2009. Áhkkila sápmelaat. Oanehis muitalus sámejoavkku birra, man ma?imu? sámegielala? olmmo? jámii 29.12.2003. Roavvenjárga.
  5. ^ a b Scheller, Elisabeth; 2011; "The Sami Language Situation in Russia"; in Ethnic and Linguistic Context of Identity: Finno-Ugric Minorities; Uralica Helsingiensia series, vol. 5; Helsinki; pp. 79-96.
  6. ^ , ?. ?. ? (- ). : «?», 1987.

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