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During the Civil War, the Battle of Rio Hill was a skirmish in which Union cavalry raided a Confederate camp in Albemarle County, Virginia.
Until the Civil War, the majority of Albemarle County's population consisted of enslaved African Americans.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 726 square miles (1,880 km2), of which 721 square miles (1,870 km2) is land and 5 square miles (13 km2) (0.7%) is water.
The Rivanna River's south fork forms in Albemarle County and was historically important for transportation. The south fork flows in-between Darden Towe Park and Pen Park. Boat ramp access is available at Darden Towe Park. The James River acts as a natural border between Albemarle and Buckingham Counties.
There were 38,157 households, out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.6% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 25.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the county, the population was spread out, with 21.5% under the age of 18, 12.3% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females there were 92.69 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.59 males.
22% of Albemarle residents have a graduate or professional degree, compared with 10% nationwide.
The median income for a household in the county was $63,001, and the median income for a family was $98,934. Males had a median income of $55,530 versus $52,211 for females. The per capita income for the county was $36,718. About 3.8% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over.
35% of people working in Albemarle live in the county, while 65% commute in. 19% of those commuting in live in Charlottesville, while the remainder live in the surrounding counties. 26,800 people commute out of Albemarle for work. 48% of those commute to Charlottesville, making up 51% of Charlottesville's in-commuters. In 2018, Albemarle had a 2.7% unemployment rate, compared with a national rate of 3.9%.
Earlysville Volunteer Fire Company Engine 45 at the Independence Day Parade.
Crozet Volunteer Fire Department Engine 52 truck during the same parade.
Albemarle County has two branches of law enforcement, the Albemarle County Police Department, which handles criminal matters and is directed by the appointed police chief, Colonel Steve Sellers. The second branch is the Albemarle County Sheriff's Office, which handles civil service in the county and they are directed by the elected Sheriff Chip Harding.
EMS services are provided by three volunteer rescue squads and Albemarle County Fire Rescue. The Charlottesville-Albemarle Rescue Squad, located in the City of Charlottesville, providing 24hr EMS services to the City of Charlottesville and on nights and weekends in particular areas of the county, the Western Albemarle Rescue Squad, located in Crozet, and the Scottsville Volunteer Rescue Squad, located in the town of Scottsville. Albemarle County Fire Rescue operates 6 Advance Life Support ambulances, Medic 4 (Earlysville), Medic 8 (Seminole), Medic 11 (Monticello), Medic 12 (Hollymead), Medic 15 (Ivy), and Medic 16 (Pantops).
Albemarle County Fire/Rescue system is a combination system that consists of seven volunteer fire stations and three career fire stations (Hollymead, Ivy and Monticello). Three of the volunteer stations (stations 3, 5, and 7) are covered 24 hours a day by volunteers. The other volunteer stations (2, 4, 6, and 8) are supplemented by career staff Monday - Friday, 6AM - 6PM. Volunteers operate these stations weeknights from 6PM - 6AM as well as weekends and holidays. The three career stations are staffed 24 hours by both career and volunteer firefighters Volunteer and career firefighters are trained and work together to provide Fire and EMS services to the population of Albemarle County.
Albemarle County Fire Rescue has begun building a station (Station 16) in the eastern portion of the county near Pantops slated to open in Fall of 2018.
Crozet Volunteer Fire Department (Station 5)
Earlysville Volunteer Fire Company (Station 4)
East Rivanna Volunteer Fire Company (Station 2)
Hollymead Fire Rescue (Station 12)
Ivy Fire Rescue (Station 15)
Monticello Fire Rescue (Station 11)
North Garden Volunteer Fire Company (Station 3)
Scottsville Volunteer Fire Department (Station 7)
Seminole Trail Volunteer Fire Department (Station 8)
The Albemarle County Public School System operates public education in the county. It provides education to nearly 14,000 students including preschool through high school. The Albemarle County Public School System's mission is to "establish a community of learners and learning, through relationships, relevance and rigor, one student at a time."  ACPS provides 25 school facilities which include Murray High School, a charter school, that is located in the City of Charlottesville.
, Albemarle High School, Western Albemarle High School, and Monticello High School. The School Board and the Superintendent, Dr. Matthew Haas, work closely together in operating the Albemarle County Public School System.
The School Board has 7 members, elected by Magisterial District:
Kate Acuff (Chair, Jack Jouett district)
Pamela Moynihan (Rio district)
Jason Buyaki (Rivanna district)
Graham Paige (Samuel Miller district)
Stephen Koleszar (Vice Chair, Scottsville district)
David Oberg (White Hall district)
Jonno Alcaro (At Large)
Many private schools in Albemarle serve the county and students from surrounding areas. These include:
The city of Charlottesville is enclaved within Albemarle County. Under Virginia law in effect since 1871, all municipalities in the state incorporated as cities are legally and politically independent of any county.
There is only one incorporated town in Albemarle County:
^Henry Stephens Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson
^"Albemarle County". Commonwealth of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2006-12-08. Retrieved . Albemarle County is widely recognized as rich in history and beauty. Among its historic attractions are Monticello, home to President Thomas Jefferson...