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|27 million (2012)|
3 million L2 speakers in Algeria (no date)
|Arabic script, Latin script|
Algerian Arabic (known as Darja or Dziria in Algeria) is a dialect derived from a variety of the Arabic language spoken in northern Algeria. It belongs to the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum and is partially mutually intelligible with Tunisian and Moroccan.
Like other varieties of Maghrebi Arabic, Algerian has a mostly Semitic vocabulary. It contains Berber and Latin (African Romance)substrates and numerous loanwords from French, Andalusian Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Spanish.
Algerian Arabic is the native language of 75% to 80% of Algerians, and is mastered by 85% to 100% of them. It is a spoken language used in daily communication and entertainment, while Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is generally reserved for official use and education.
Modern koine languages, urban and national, are based mainly on Hilalian dialects.
IPA phonemes as transliterated in this article:
|?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?/?||?||?||?||?||?||?/? 1||?/? 2||?/?||?||?||?||?||?||?/?|
The voice "Ch" (t) is used in some words in the Algerian dialect like "" /tina:/ (orange) or "" /ta:ra:k/ (A kind of Algerian sweets) but remains rare.
6 vowels: 3 long vowels:
3 short vowels:
plus the schwa, which replaces /e/ in some positions e.g. ? /?nte/
Arguably, one of the most notable features of Maghrebi Arabic dialects, including Algerian Arabic, is the collapse of short vowels in some positions: Standard Arabic kitab (book) is /ktæb/
The feature is also sometimes present in Levantine Arabic. Standard Arabic words containing three syllables are simplified:
Non-emphatic /r/ and emphatic /r?/ are two entirely separate phonemes, almost never contrasting in related forms of a word.
Original /q/ splits lexically into /q/ and /?/ in most dialects but /q/ is preserved all the time in all of the big cities such as Algiers, Oran, Constantine, etc. and all of the montagneious regions; for all words, both alternatives exist.
|woman / women||mra / nsa|
|man / men||rajel / rjal|
|day||nhar / yum|
|winter / rain||?ta / m?ar|
|toilet / bathroom||bit-el-ma / bit-er-ra?a / Twalat|
|English||Algerian Arabic||Notes of usage|
|But||bea?||is also used "wa lakin"|
|If||ila, ida, lakan, kun||Used for impossible conditions and comes just before the verb|
|If||lukan||For possible conditions, Also used is "ida" and "kan"|
|So that, that||ba?|
|As if||ki ul, tqu?i, tqul|
|Before||qbel ma||Used before verbs|
|Without||bla ma||Used before verbs|
|Whether||ka? ma||Used before verbs|
|over, on top of||fuq or fug|
|after||mur / mura / Ba?d / wra|
|before||qbel||Used only for time|
|next to, beside||quddam or guddam||is also used "?da"|
|among, between||bin, binat (plural)|
|same as, as much as||?la ?sab, qed, kima,||amount|
|oh, oh so much||ya, ah|
Some of them can be attached to the noun, just like in other Arabic dialects. The word for in, "fi", can be attached to a definite noun. For example, the word for house has a definite form "ed-dar" but with "fi" , it becomes "fed-dar".
Algerian Arabic uses two genders for words: masculine and feminine. Masculine nouns and adjectives generally end with a consonant while the feminine nouns generally end with an a.
Hilalian dialects, on which the modern koine is based, often use regular plural while the wider use of the broken plural is characteristic to pre-Hilalian dialects.
For feminine nouns, the regular plural is obtained by suffixing -at:
The broken plural can be found for some plurals in Hilalian dialects, but it is mainly used, for the same words, in pre-Hilalian dialects:
The article el is indeclinable and expresses definite state of a noun of any gender and number. It is also prefixed to each of that noun's modifying adjectives.
It follows the solar letters and lunar letters rules of Classical Arabic: if the word starts with one of these consonants, el is assimilated and replaced by the first consonant:
t, d, r, z, s, ?, ?, ?, ?, l, n.
Verbs are conjugated by adding affixes (prefixes, postfixes, both or none) that change according to the tense.
In all Algerian Arabic dialects, there is no gender differentiation of the second and third person in the plural forms, nor is there gender differentiation of the second person in the singular form in pre-Hilalian dialects. Hilalian dialects preserve the gender differentiation of the singular second person.
|1st||- t||- na||n -||n(e) - u|
|2nd (m)||- t||- tu||t -||t - u|
|2nd (f)||- ti||- tu||t - i||t - u|
|3rd (m)||-||- u||i/y(e) -||i/y(e) - u|
|3rd (f)||- t||- u||t(e) -||i/y(e) - u|
|1st (m)||ktebt||ktebna||nekteb||nekketbu||Raye? nekteb||Ray?in nekketbu||Rani nekteb||Rana nekketbu|
|2st (f)||ktebt||ktebna||nekteb||nekketbu||Ray?a nekteb||Ray?in nekketbu||Rani nekteb||Rana nekketbu|
|2nd (m)||ketbt||ktebtu||tekteb||tekketbu||Raye? tekteb||Ray?in tekketbu||Rak tekteb||Rakum tekketbu|
|2rd (f)||ktebti||ktebtu||tekketbi||tekketbu||Ray?a tekketbi||Ray?in tekketbu||Raki tekketbi||Rakum tekketbu|
|3rd (m)||kteb||ketbu||yekteb||yekketbu||Raye? yekteb||Ray?in yekketbu||Rah yekteb||Rahum yekketbu|
|3rd (f)||ketbet||ketbu||tekteb||yekketbu||Ray?a tekteb||Ray?in yekketbu||Raha tekteb||Rahum yekketbu|
Like all North African Arabic varieties (including Egyptian Arabic) along with some Levantine Arabic varieties, verbal expressions are negated by enclosing the verb with all its affixes, along with any adjacent pronoun-suffixed preposition, within the circumfix ma ...-? (/?/):
|1st (m)||ma ktebt-?||ma ktebna-?||ma nekteb-?||ma nekketbu-?||ma Raye?-? nekteb||ma Ray?in-? nekketbu||ma Rani-? nekteb||ma Rana-? nekketbu|
|2st (f)||ma ktebt-?||ma ktebna-?||ma nekteb-?||ma nekketbu-?||ma Ray?a-? nekteb||ma Ray?in-? nekketbu||ma Rani-? nekteb||ma Rana-? nekketbu|
|2nd (m)||ma ketbt-?||ma ktebtu-?||ma tekteb-?||ma tekketbu-?||ma Raye?-? tekteb||ma Ray?in-? tekketbu||ma Rak-? tekteb||ma Rakum-? tekketbu|
|2rd (f)||ma ktebti-?||ma ktebtu-?||ma tekketbi-?||ma tekketbu-?||ma Ray?a-? tekketbi||ma Ray?in-? tekketbu||ma Raki-? tekketbi||ma Rakum-? tekketbu|
|3rd (m)||ma kteb-?||ma ketbu-?||ma yekteb-?||ma yekketbu-?||ma Raye?-? yekteb||ma Ray?in-? yekketbu||ma Rah-? yekteb||ma Rahum-? yekketbu|
|3rd (f)||ma ketbet-?||ma ketbu-?||ma tekteb-?||ma yekketbu-?||ma Ray?a-? tekteb||ma Ray?in-? yekketbu||ma Raha-? tekteb||ma Rahum-? yekketbu|
Other negative words (walu, etc.) are used in combination with ma to express more complex types of negation. ? is not used when other negative words are used
or when two verbs are consecutively in the negative
Things could be in three places hnaya (right here), hna (here) or el-hih (there).
Most Algerian Arabic dialects have eight personal pronouns since they no longer have gender differentiation of the second and third person in the plural forms. However, pre-Hilalian dialects retain seven personal pronouns since gender differentiation of the second person in the singular form is absent as well.
Example : « ?atta ana. » -- "Me too."
|You are (m)||rak|
|You are (f)||raki|
|He is||rah or rahu|
|She is||rahi or raha|
|You or Y'all are||raku or rakum (m)and (f)|
|They are||rahum (m)and (f)|
Example : « Rani hna. » -- "I'm here." and « Wa? rak. » "How are you." to both males and females.
Dar means house.
|1st||i (Dari)||na (Darna)|
|2nd||(e)k (Dar(e)k)||kum (Darkum)|
|3rd (m)||u (Daru)||(h)um (Dar(h)um)|
|3rd (f)||ha (Darha)||(hum) (Dar(h)um)|
Example : « dar-na. » -- "Our house" (House-our) Possessives are frequently combined with ta? "of, property" : dar ta?-na -- "Our house.", dar ta?-kum ...etc.
ta?-i = my or mine
ta?-ek = your or yours (m, f)
ta?-u = his
ta?-ha = hers
ta?-na = our or ours
ta?-kum = your or yours (m, f)
ta?-hum = their or theirs (m, f)
"Our house" can be Darna or Dar ta?-na, which is more like saying 'house of ours'. Ta? can be used in other ways just like in English in Spanish. You can say Dar ta? khuya, which means 'house of my brother' or 'my brother's house'.
|What ?||wa? ?|
|When ?||waqta? ?|
|Why?||3lah ? / 3la? ?|
|Which ?||a?-men ? / ama ?|
|Where ?||win ?|
|Who ?||?kun ?|
|How ?||kifa? ?|
|How many ?||al ? / qedda? ?|
|Whose ?||ta?-men ?|
|3rd (m)||u (after a consonant) / h (after a vowel)
/ hu (before an indirect object pronoun)
Unlike Classical Arabic, Algerian Arabic has no dual and uses the plural instead. The demonstrative (hadi) is also used for "it is".
|This||had (m), hadi (f)||hada , hadaya (m), hadiyya (f)|
|That||dak (m), dik (f)||hadak (m), hadik (f)|
The text below was translated from Kabylie, in Auguste Moulieras's Les fourberies de si Djeh'a.
|Wa?ed en-nhar, j?a med-lu baba-h frank, ba? ye?ri buzelluf. ?ra-h, kla ga? le?m-u. bqa ?ir le?dem, jab-u l baba-h. ki ?af-u qal-lu: "wa? hada?" qal-lu: "buzelluf".
-A ?mata, win rahi wedn-u?
-win rahum ?ini-h?
-win rah lsan-u?
- U el-jelda ta? ras-u, win rahi
|One day, Jha's father gave him one cent so he buys a sheep head. He bought it and ate all of its meat. Only an empty carcass was left. He brought it to his father. Then, when he saw it, he said: "what is that?" Jehha said: "a sheep head".
-You vile, where are its ears?
-Where are its eyes?
-Where is its tongue?
-And the skin of its head, where is it?
Algerian Arabic contains numerous French loanwords.
|Algerian Arabic||French loanword||English meaning||Algerian Arabic||French loanword||English meaning|
|Buja (v)||Bouger (v)||Move (v)||Tay||Thé||Tea|
|Pyasa||Pièce||Coin||?arja (v)||Charger (v)||Load (v)|
|Girra||Guerre||war||Riska (v)||Risquer (v)||Risk (v)|