Altaic Languages
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Altaic Languages

Asia, except its southern parts, and Eastern Europe
Linguistic classificationProposed as a major language family by some, but usually considered as a Sprachbund
ISO 639-2 / 5tut
Lenguas altaicas.png
(sometimes included) (sometimes included) (rarely included)

Altaic is a Sprachbund (i.e. a linguistic area) or proposed language family that would include the Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic language families and possibly also the Japonic and Koreanic languages.[1]:73 Speakers of these languages are currently scattered over most of Asia north of 35 °N and in some eastern parts of Europe, extending in longitude from Turkey to Japan.[2] The group is named after the Altai mountain range in the center of Asia. The hypothetical language family has long been rejected by most comparative linguists,[1] but still has some supporters.[3][4][5][6][7]

The Altaic family was first proposed in the 18th century. It was widely accepted until the 1960s and is still listed in many encyclopedias and handbooks.[1] Since the 1950s, many comparative linguists have rejected the proposal, after supposed cognates were found not to be valid, hypothesized sound shifts were not found and Turkic and Mongolic languages were found to be converging rather than diverging over the centuries. Opponents of the theory proposed that the similarities are due to mutual linguistic influences between the groups concerned.[8][9][10][11]

The original hypothesis unified only the Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic groups. Later proposals to include the Korean and Japanese languages into a "Macro-Altaic" family have always been controversial. (The original proposal was sometimes called "Micro-Altaic" by retronymy.) Most proponents of Altaic continue to support the inclusion of Korean.[12] A common ancestral Proto-Altaic language for the "Macro" family has been tentatively reconstructed by Sergei Starostin and others.[13]

Micro-Altaic includes about 66 living languages,[14] to which Macro-Altaic would add Korean, Jeju, Japanese and the Ryukyuan languages, for a total of 74 (depending on what is considered a language and what is considered a dialect). These numbers do not include earlier states of languages, such as Middle Mongol, Old Korean or Old Japanese.

Earliest attestations of the languages

The earliest known texts in a Turkic language are the Orkhon inscriptions, 720-735 AD.[15]:3 They were deciphered in 1893 by the Danish linguist Vilhelm Thomsen in a scholarly race with his rival, the German-Russian linguist Wilhelm Radloff. However, Radloff was the first to publish the inscriptions.

The first Tungusic language to be attested is Jurchen, the language of the ancestors of the Manchus. A writing system for it was devised in 1119 AD and an inscription using this system is known from 1185 (see List of Jurchen inscriptions).

The earliest Mongolic language of which we have written evidence is known as Middle Mongol. It is first attested by an inscription dated to 1224 or 1225 AD, the Stele of Yisüngge, and by the Secret History of the Mongols, written in 1228 (see Mongolic languages). The earliest Para-Mongolic text is the Memorial for Yelü Yanning, written in the Khitan large script and dated to 986 AD. However, the Inscription of Hüis Tolgoi, discovered in 1975 and analysed as being in an early form of Mongolic, has been dated to 604-620 AD. The Bugut inscription dates back to 584 AD.

Japanese is first attested in the form of names contained in a few short inscriptions in Classical Chinese from the 5th century AD, such as found on the Inariyama Sword. The first substantial text in Japanese, however, is the Kojiki, which dates from 712 AD. It is followed by the Nihon shoki, completed in 720, and then by the Man'y?sh?, which dates from c. 771-785, but includes material that is from about 400 years earlier.[15]:4

The most important text for the study of early Korean is the Hyangga, a collection of 25 poems, of which some go back to the Three Kingdoms period (57 BC-668 AD), but are preserved in an orthography that only goes back to the 9th century AD.[16]:60 Korean is copiously attested from the mid-15th century on in the phonetically precise Hangul system of writing.[16]:61

History of the Altaic family concept

The Altai Mountains in East-Central Asia give their name to the proposed language family.


A proposed grouping of the Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages was published in 1730 by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg, a Swedish officer who traveled in the eastern Russian Empire while a prisoner of war after the Great Northern War.[17]:page 125 However, he may not have intended to imply a closer relationship among those languages.[18]

Uralo-Altaic hypothesis

In 1844, the Finnish philologist Matthias Castrén proposed a broader grouping, that later came to be called the Ural-Altaic family, which included Turkic, Mongolian, and Manchu-Tungus (=Tungusic) as an "Altaic" branch, and also the Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic languages as the "Uralic" branch (though Castrén himself used the terms "Tataric" and "Chudic").[17]:126-127 The name "Altaic" referred to the Altai Mountains in East-Central Asia, which are approximately the center of the geographic range of the three main families. The name "Uralic" referred to the Ural Mountains.

While the Ural-Altaic family hypothesis can still be found in some encyclopedias, atlases, and similar general references, after the 1960s it has been heavily criticized. Even linguists who accept the basic Altaic family, like Sergei Starostin, completely discard the inclusion of the "Uralic" branch.[13]:8-9

Korean and Japanese languages

In 1857, the Austrian scholar Anton Boller suggested adding Japanese to the Ural-Altaic family.[19]:34

In the 1920s, G.J. Ramstedt and E.D. Polivanov advocated the inclusion of Korean. Decades later, in his 1952 book, Ramstedt rejected the Ural-Altaic hypothesis but again included Korean in Altaic, an inclusion followed by most leading Altaicists (supporters of the theory) to date.[20] His book contained the first comprehensive attempt to identify regular correspondences among the sound systems within the Altaic language families.

In 1960, Nicholas Poppe published what was in effect a heavily revised version of Ramstedt's volume on phonology[21][22] that has since set the standard in Altaic studies. Poppe considered the issue of the relationship of Korean to Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic not settled.[17]:148 In his view, there were three possibilities: (1) Korean did not belong with the other three genealogically, but had been influenced by an Altaic substratum; (2) Korean was related to the other three at the same level they were related to each other; (3) Korean had split off from the other three before they underwent a series of characteristic changes.

Roy Andrew Miller's 1971 book Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages convinced most Altaicists that Japanese also belonged to Altaic.[23][15] Since then, the "Macro-Altaic" has been generally assumed to include Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Korean, and Japanese.

In 1990, Unger advocated a family consisting of Tungusic, Korean, and Japonic languages, but not Turkic or Mongolic.[24]

However, many linguists dispute the alleged affinities of Korean and Japanese to the other three groups. Some authors instead tried to connect Japanese to the Austronesian languages.[13]:8-9

In 2017 Martine Robbeets proposed that Japanese (and possibly Korean) originated as a hybrid language. She proposed that the ancestral home of the Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages was somewhere in northwestern Manchuria. A group of those proto-Altaic ("Transeurasian") speakers would have migrated south into the modern Liaoning province, where they would have been mostly assimilated by an agricultural community with an Austronesian-like language. The fusion of the two languages would have resulted in proto-Japanese and proto-Korean.[25][26]

The Ainu language

In 1962 John C. Street proposed an alternative classification, with Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic in one grouping and Korean-Japanese-Ainu in another, joined in what he designated as the "North Asiatic" family.[27] The inclusion of Ainu was adopted also by James Patrie in 1982.[28][29]

The Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic and Korean-Japanese-Ainu groupings were also posited in 2000-2002 by Joseph Greenberg. However, he treated them as independent members of a larger family, which he termed Eurasiatic.[30]

The inclusion of Ainu is not widely accepted by Altaicists.[1] In fact, no convincing genealogical relationship between Ainu and any other language family has been demonstrated, and it is generally regarded as a language isolate.[31]

Early criticism and rejection

Starting in the late 1950s, some linguists became increasingly critical of even the minimal Altaic family hypothesis, disputing the alleged evidence of genetic connection between Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic languages.

Among the earlier critics were Gerard Clauson (1956), Gerhard Doerfer (1963), and Alexander Shcherbak. They claimed that the words and features shared by Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages were for the most part borrowings and that the rest could be attributed to chance resemblances.[32][33][34] In 1988, Doerfer again rejected all the genetic claims over these major groups.[35]

Modern controversy

A major continuing supporter of the Altaic hypothesis has been S. Starostin, who published a comparative lexical analysis of the Altaic languages in (1991). He concluded that the analysis supported the Altaic grouping, although it was "older than most other language families in Eurasia, such as Indo-European or Finno-Ugric, and this is the reason why the modern Altaic languages preserve few common elements".[36]

In 1991 and again in 1996, Roy Miller defended the Altaic hypothesis and claimed that the criticisms of Clauson and Doerfer apply exclusively to the lexical correspondences, whereas the most pressing evidence for the theory is the similarities in verbal morphology.[37][16]

In 2003, Claus Schönig published a critical overview of the history of the Altaic hypothesis up to that time, siding with the earlier criticisms of Clauson, Doerfer, and Shcherbak.[38]

In 2003, Starostin, Anna Dybo and Oleg Mudrak published the Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, which expanded the 1991 lexical lists and added other phonological and grammatical arguments.[13]

Starostin's book was criticized by Stefan Georg in 2004 and 2005,[39][40] and by Alexander Vovin in 2005.[41]

Other defenses of the theory, in response to the criticisms of Georg and Vovin, were published by Starostin in 2005,[42] Bla?ek in 2006,[43] Robbeets in 2007,[44] and Dybo and G. Starostin in 2008[45]

In 2010, Lars Johanson echoed Miller's 1996 rebuttal to the critics, and called for a muting of the polemic.[46]

List of supporters and critics of the Altaic hypothesis

The list below comprises linguists who have worked specifically on the Altaic problem since the publication of the first volume of Ramstedt's Einführung in 1952. The dates given are those of works concerning Altaic. For supporters of the theory, the version of Altaic they favor is given at the end of the entry, if other than the prevailing one of Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic-Korean-Japanese.

Major supporters

Major critics

Advocates of alternative hypotheses

  • James Patrie (1982) and Joseph Greenberg (2000-2002). Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic and Korean-Japanese-Ainu, grouped in a common taxon (cf. John C. Street 1962), called Eurasiatic by Greenberg.
  • J. Marshall Unger (1990). Tungusic-Korean-Japanese ("Macro-Tungusic"), with Turkic and Mongolic as separate language families.
  • Lars Johanson (2010). Agnostic, proponent of a "Transeurasian" verbal morphology not necessarily genealogically linked.


For the Altaic grouping

Phonological and grammatical features

The original arguments for grouping the "micro-Altaic" languages within a Uralo-Altaic family were based on such shared features as vowel harmony and agglutination.

According to Roy Miller, the most pressing evidence for the theory is the similarities in verbal morphology.[16]

The Etymological Dictionary by Starostin and others (2003) proposes a set of sound change laws that would explain the evolution from Proto-Altaic to the descendant languages. For example, although most of today's Altaic languages have vowel harmony, Proto-Altaic as reconstructed by them lacked it; instead, various vowel assimilations between the first and second syllables of words occurred in Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Korean, and Japonic. They also included a number of grammatical correspondences between the languages.[13]

Shared lexicon

Starostin claimed in 1991 that the members of the proposed Altaic group shared about 15-20% of apparent cognates within a 110-word Swadesh-Yakhontov list; in particular, Turkic-Mongolic 20%, Turkic-Tungusic 18%, Turkic-Korean 17%, Mongolic-Tungusic 22%, Mongolic-Korean 16%, and Tungusic-Korean 21%.[36] The 2003 Etymological Dictionary includes a list of 2,800 proposed cognate sets, as well as a few important changes to the reconstruction of Proto-Altaic. The authors tried hard to distinguish loans between Turkic and Mongolic and between Mongolic and Tungusic from cognates; and suggest words that occur in Turkic and Tungusic but not in Mongolic. All other combinations between the five branches also occur in the book. It lists 144 items of shared basic vocabulary, including words for such items as 'eye', 'ear', 'neck', 'bone', 'blood', 'water', 'stone', 'sun', and 'two'.[13]

Robbeets and Bouckaert (2018) use Bayesian phylolinguistic methods to argue for the coherence of the "narrow" Altaic languages (Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic) together with Japonic and Koreanic, which they refer to as the Transeurasian languages.[5] Their results include the following phylogenetic tree:[47]








Martine Robbeets (2020) argues that early Transeurasian speakers were originally agriculturalists in northeastern China, only becoming pastoralists later on. Some lexical reconstructions of agricultural terms by Robbeets (2020) are listed below.[48]

Macro-level reconstruction Family-level reconstructions
PTEA *pata 'field for cultivation' PTk *(p)atï 'delimited field irrigated for cultivation' (PTk *-r2 collective suffix)
PTk *(p)ata 'delimited field irrigated for cultivation' (PTk *-(A)g place suffix?)
PK *pat? '(dry) field' (PK *-(?/?)k place suffix)
PJ *pata '(dry) field' (PJ *-ka place suffix, PJ *-i substantivizer)
PTEA *muda 'uncultivated field' PTg *muda 'plain, open field, highland'
PK *mut?-k 'dry land' (PK *-(?/?)k place suffix)
PJ *muta 'uncultivated land, marshland'
PTEA *pisi- 'sprinkle with the hands, sow' PMo *pesü-r-/*pissü-r- 'to sprinkle, scatter; jump around' (PMo *-r- intensive)
PTg *pisi- 'to sprinkle with the hands'
PTg *pisi-ke 'broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)' (PTg *-xa ~ *-kA resultative deverbal noun suffix)
PK *pis- 'to sprinkle, scatter, sow'
PTEA *pisi-i (sow-INS.NMLZ) 'seed, seedling' (PTEA *-i/Ø instrumental deverbal noun suffix) PMo *pesi/*pisi 'origin or base of a plant'
PK *pisi 'seed; lineage'
PTEA *kipi ~ *kipe 'barnyard millet' PTg *kipe 'components that need to be removed from the grain harvest, barnyard grass'
PK *kipi 'barnyard millet'
PJ *kinpi 'broomcorn millet'
PA *tari- 'to cultivate' PTk *tarï- 'to scatter, sow, cultivate (land)'
PMo *tari- 'to sow, plant; to plow'
PTg *tari-'to cultivate'
PA *toru 'young male pig' PTk *to:rum 'young camel/horse/cattle'
PMo *toru 'young/male pig' (PMo *-i animal suffix in e.g. *gaka-i 'pig', *noka-i 'dog', *moga-i 'snake')
PTg *toro-ki: 'male pig' (PTg *-ki: animal suffix)
- PTk *sag- 'to milk; 'to draw toward oneself; to pull out; to pull off
PMo *sa?a- 'to milk; to reduce; to draw toward oneself; to draw tight; to contract'
PJK *pata 'dry field' < PTEA *pata 'field for cultivation' PK *pat? '(dry) field' (PK *-(?/?)k place suffix)
PJ *pata '(dry) field'
(PJ *-ka place suffix, *-i substantivizer)
PJK *muta 'uncultivated land' < PTEA *muda 'uncultivated land' PK *mut?-k 'dry land' (PK *-(?/?)k place suffix)
PJ *muta 'uncultivated land, marshland'
PJK *no 'field' PK *non 'rice paddyfield'
PJ *no 'field'
PJK *mati 'delimited plot for cultivation' PK *mat(i)-k 'delimited plot for cultivation' (PK *-(?/?)k place suffix)
PJ *mati 'delimited plot for cultivation'
  • PTEA = Proto-Transeurasian
    • PA = Proto-Altaic
      • PTk = Proto-Turkic
      • PMo = Proto-Mongolic
      • PTg = Proto-Tungusic
    • PJK = Proto-Japano-Koreanic
      • PK = Proto-Koreanic
      • PJ = Proto-Japonic

Additional family-level reconstructions of agricultural vocabulary from Robbeets et al. (2020):[49]

  • Proto-Turkic *ek- 'to sprinkle with the hand; sow' > *ek-eg 'plow'
  • Proto-Turkic *tarï- 'to cultivate (the ground)' > *tarï-g 'what is cultivated; crops, main crop, cultivated land'
  • Proto-Turkic *ko- 'to put' > *ko:n- 'to settle down (of animals), to take up residence (of people), to be planted (of plants)' > *konak 'foxtail millet (Setaria italica)'
  • Proto-Turkic *tög- 'to hit, beat; to pound, crush (food in a mortar); to husk, thresh (cereals)' > *tögi 'husked millet; husked rice'
  • Proto-Turkic *ügür '(broomcorn) millet'
  • Proto-Turkic *arpa 'barley (Hordeum vulgare)' < ? Proto-Iranian *arbus? 'barley'
  • Proto-Mongolic *amun 'cereals; broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)' (Nugteren 2011: 268[50])
  • Proto-Mongolic *konag 'foxtail millet' < PTk *konak 'foxtail millet (Setaria italica)'
  • Proto-Mongolic *budaga 'cooked cereals; porridge; meal'
  • Proto-Mongolic *tari- 'to sow, plant' (Nugteren 2011: 512-13)
  • Proto-Macro-Mongolic *püre 'seed; descendants'
  • Proto-Tungusic *pisi-ke 'broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)'
  • Proto-Tungusic *jiya- 'foxtail millet (Setaria italica)'
  • Proto-Tungusic *murgi 'barley (Hordeum vulgare)'
  • Proto-Tungusic *üse- ~ *üsi- 'to plant' üse ~ üsi 'seed, seedling', üsi-n 'field for cultivation'
  • Proto-Tungusic *tari- 'to sow, to plant'
  • Proto-Koreanic *pisi 'seed', *pihi 'barnyard millet' < Proto-Transeurasian (PTEA) *pisi-i (sow-NMLZ) 'seed' ~ *pisi-ke (sow-RES.NMLZ) 'what is sown, major crop'
  • Proto-Koreanic *pat?-k 'dry field' < Proto-Japano-Koreanic (PJK) *pata 'dry field' < PTEA *pata 'field for cultivation'
  • Proto-Koreanic *mut?-k 'dry land' < PJK *muta 'land' < PTEA *mudu 'uncultivated land'
  • Proto-Koreanic *mat-?k 'garden plot' < PJK *mat 'plot of land for cultivation'
  • Proto-Koreanic *non 'rice paddy field' < PJK *non 'field'
  • Proto-Koreanic *pap 'any boiled preparation of cereal; boiled rice'
  • Proto-Koreanic *p?sal 'hulled (of any grain); hulled corn of grain; hulled rice' < Proto-Japonic *wasa-ra 'early ripening (of any grain)'
  • Proto-Koreanic *ipi > *pi > *pye '(unhusked) rice' < Proto-Japonic *ip-i (eat-NMLZ) 'cooked millet, steamed rice'
  • Proto-Japonic *nuka 'rice bran' < PJ *nuka- (remove.NMLZ)
  • Proto-Japonic *m?mi 'hulled rice' < PJ *m?m-i (move.back.and.forth.with.force-NMLZ)
  • Proto-Japonic *ipi 'cooked millet, steamed rice' < *ip-i (eat-NMLZ) < PK *me(k)i 'rice offered to a higher rank' < *mek-i (eat-NMLZ) 'what you eat, food' < Proto-Austronesian *ka-en eat-OBJ.NMLZ
  • Proto-Japonic *wasa- ~ *w?s?- 'to be early ripening (of crops); an early ripening variety (of any crop); early-ripening rice plant'
  • Proto-Japonic *usu '(rice and grain) mortar' < Para-Austronesian *lusu? '(rice) mortar'; cf. Proto-Austronesian *lusu? '(rice) mortar'
  • Proto-Japonic *k?mai 'dehusked rice' < Para-Austronesian *hemay < Proto-Macro-Austronesian *Semay 'cooked rice'; cf. Proto-Austronesian *Semay 'cooked rice'

Archaeological and genetic support

A study published in February 2020 in the Evolutionary Human Sciences support the coherence of the Transeurasian (Altaic) familly through archaeolinguistic evidences, it posits that the sophisticated textile technology and millet farming expansion from Northeast China in East Asia can be linked with the Transeurasian languages expansion.[6] The researchers were also able to reconstruct a textile vocabulary for the proto-Transeurasian language.[6]

Against the grouping

Weakness of lexical and typological data

According to G. Clauson (1956), G. Doerfer (1963), and A. Shcherbak (1963), many of the typological features of the supposed Altaic languages, particularly agglutinative strongly suffixing morphology and subject-object-verb (SOV) word order,[51] often occur together in languages.[32][33][34]

Those critics also argued that the words and features shared by Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages were for the most part borrowings and that the rest could be attributed to chance resemblances. They noted that there was little vocabulary shared by Turkic and Tungusic languages, though more shared with Mongolic languages. They reasoned that, if all three families had a common ancestor, we should expect losses to happen at random, and not only at the geographical margins of the family; and that the observed pattern is consistent with borrowing.[32][33][34]

According to C. Schönig (2003), after accounting for areal effects, the shared lexicon that could have a common genetic origin was reduced to a small number of monosyllabic lexical roots, including the personal pronouns and a few other deictic and auxiliary items, whose sharing could be explained in other ways; not the kind of sharing expected in cases of genetic relationship.[38]

The Sprachbund hypothesis

Instead of a common genetic origin, Clauson, Doerfer, and Shcherbak proposed (in 1956-1966) that Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic languages form a Sprachbund: a set of languages with similarities due to convergence through intensive borrowing and long contact, rather than common origin.[32][33][34]

Asya Pereltsvaig further observed in 2011 that, in general, genetically related languages and families tend to diverge over time: the earlier forms are more similar than modern forms. However, she claims that an analysis of the earliest written records of Mongolic and Turkic languages shows the opposite, suggesting that they do not share a common traceable ancestor, but rather have become more similar through language contact and areal effects.[11][52]

Hypothesis about the original homeland

The prehistory of the peoples speaking the "Altaic" languages is largely unknown. Whereas for certain other language families, such as the speakers of Indo-European, Uralic, and Austronesian, it is possible to frame substantial hypotheses, in the case of the proposed Altaic family much remains to be done.[53]

Some scholars have conjectured a possible Uralic and Altaic homeland in the Central Asian steppes.[54][55]

According to Juha Janhunen, the ancestral languages of Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Korean, and Japanese were spoken in a relatively small area comprising present-day North Korea, Southern Manchuria, and Southeastern Mongolia.[56] However Janhunen is sceptical about an affiliation of Japanese to Altaic,[57] while András Róna-Tas remarked that a relationship between Altaic and Japanese, if it ever existed, must be more remote than the relationship of any two of the Indo-European languages.[58]:77 Ramsey stated that "the genetic relationship between Korean and Japanese, if it in fact exists, is probably more complex and distant than we can imagine on the basis of our present state of knowledge".[59]

Supporters of the Altaic hypothesis formerly set the date of the Proto-Altaic language at around 4000 BC, but today at around 5000 BC[13] or 6000 BC.[60] This would make Altaic a language family about as old as Indo-European (around 3000 to 7000 BC according to several hypotheses) but considerably younger than Afroasiatic (c. 10,000 BC[61]:33 or 11,000 to 16,000 BC[62]:35-36 according to different sources).

See also



  1. ^ a b c d Georg, Stefan; Michalove, Peter A.; Ramer, Alexis Manaster; Sidwell, Paul J. (1999). "Telling general linguists about Altaic". Journal of Linguistics. 35 (1): 65-98. doi:10.1017/S0022226798007312.
  2. ^ "Interactive Maps The Altaic Family from The Tower of Babel". Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ Gözaydin N. (2006). Dergi ve kitap dünyasïndan, Türk Dili, 653: 467-71.
  4. ^ Dybo, Anna (March 2020). "New Trends in European Studies on the Altaic Problem". Journal of Language Relationship. 14 (1-2): 71-106. doi:10.31826/jlr-2017-141-208.
  5. ^ a b Robbeets, M.; Bouckaert, R.: Bayesian phylolinguistics reveals the internal structure of the Transeurasian family. Journal of Language Evolution 3 (2), pp. 145-162 (2018) doi:10.1093/jole/lzy007
  6. ^ a b c Nelson, Sarah; Zhushchikhovskaya, Irina S.; Li, Tao; Hudson, Mark; Robbeets, Martine (February 2020). "Tracing population movements in ancient East Asia through the linguistics and archaeology of textile production". Evolutionary Human Sciences. 2. doi:10.1017/ehs.2020.4.
  7. ^ Li, Tao; Zhushchikhovskaya, Irina S.; Hudson, Mark J.; Robbets, Martine (June 2020). "Millet agriculture dispersed from Northeast China to the Russian Far East: Integrating archaeology, genetics, and linguistics". Archaeological Research in Asia. 22: 100177. doi:10.1016/j.ara.2020.100177.
  8. ^ Lyle Campbell and Mauricio J. Mixco (2007): A Glossary of Historical Linguistics; University of Utah Press. Page 7: "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related."
  9. ^ Johanna Nichols (1992) Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time. Chicago University Press. Page 4: "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic are unrelated."
  10. ^ R. M. W. Dixon (1997): The Rise and Fall of Languages. Cambridge University Press. Page 32: "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here."
  11. ^ a b Asya Pereltsvaig (2012) Languages of the World, An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. Pages 211-216: "[...T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" [...] "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent"
  12. ^ Roger Blench and Mallam Dendo (2008): "Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology?" In Alicia Sanchez-Mazas et al., eds. Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence, chapter 4. Taylor & Francis.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Sergei Starostin, Anna V. Dybo, and Oleg A. Mudrak (2003): Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, 3 volumes. ISBN 90-04-13153-1.
  14. ^ "Browse by Language Family". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013.
  15. ^ a b c Roy Andrew Miller (1971): Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-52719-0.
  16. ^ a b c d Roy Andrew Miller (1996): Languages and History: Japanese, Korean and Altaic. Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture. ISBN 974-8299-69-4. Pages 98-99
  17. ^ a b c Nicholas Poppe (1965): Introduction to Altaic Linguistics. Volume 14 of Ural-altaische Bibliothek. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.
  18. ^ Alexis Manaster Ramer and Paul Sidwell (1997): "The truth about Strahlenberg's classification of the languages of Northeastern Eurasia." Journal de la Société finno-ougrienne, volume 87, pages 139-160.
  19. ^ Roy Andrew Miller (1986): Nihongo: In Defence of Japanese. ISBN 0-485-11251-5.
  20. ^ Gustaf John Ramstedt (1952): Einführung in die altaische Sprachwissenschaft ("Introduction to Altaic Linguistics"). Volume I, Lautlehre ("Phonology").
  21. ^ Nicholas Poppe (1960): Vergleichende Grammatik der altaischen Sprachen. Teil I. Vergleichende Lautlehre, ('Comparative Grammar of the Altaic Languages, Part 1: Comparative Phonology'). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. (Only part to appear of a projected larger work.)
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Further reading

  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 1997. "Does Altaic exist?" In Irén Hegedus, Peter A. Michalove, and Alexis Manaster Ramer (editors), Indo-European, Nostratic and Beyond: A Festschrift for Vitaly V. Shevoroshkin, Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man, 1997, 88-93. (Reprinted in Joseph H. Greenberg, Genetic Linguistics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, 325-330.)
  • Hahn, Reinhard F. 1994. LINGUIST List 5.908, 18 August 1994.
  • Janhune, Juha. 1995. "Prolegomena to a Comparative Analysis of Mongolic and Tungusic". Proceedings of the 38th Permanent International Altaistic Conference (PIAC), 209-218. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Johanson, Lars. 1999. "Cognates and copies in Altaic verb derivation." Language and Literature - Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages: Studies in Honour of Roy Andrew Miller on His 75th Birthday, edited by Karl H. Menges and Nelly Naumann, 1-13. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. (Also: HTML version.)
  • Johanson, Lars. 1999. "Attractiveness and relatedness: Notes on Turkic language contacts." Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: Special Session on Caucasian, Dravidian, and Turkic Linguistics, edited by Jeff Good and Alan C.L. Yu, 87-94. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
  • Johanson, Lars. 2002. Structural Factors in Turkic Language Contacts, translated by Vanessa Karam. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press.
  • Kortlandt, Frederik. 1993. "The origin of the Japanese and Korean accent systems." Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 26, 57-65.
  • Martin, Samuel E. (1966). "Lexical Evidence Relating Korean to Japanese". Language. 42 (2): 185-251. doi:10.2307/411687. JSTOR 411687.
  • Nichols, Johanna (1992). Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226580593.001.0001. ISBN 9780226580579.
  • Robbeets, Martine. 2004. "Belief or argument? The classification of the Japanese language." Eurasia Newsletter 8. Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University.
  • Ruhlen, Merritt. 1987. A Guide to the World's Languages. Stanford University Press.
  • Sinor, Denis. 1990. Essays in Comparative Altaic Linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies. ISBN 0-933070-26-8.
  • Vovin, Alexander. 2009. Japanese, Korean, and other 'non-Altaic' languages. Central Asiatic Journal 53 (1): 105-147.

External links

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